Ballinger AB & Clark ML (1994) L-Phenylalanine releases chole-cystokinin (CCK) and is associated with reduced food intake in humans: evidence for a physiological role of CCK in control of eating. Metabolism 43, 735–738.
Barkeling B, Rossner S & Bjorvell H (1990) Effects of a high-protein meal (meat) and a high-carbohydrate meal (vegetarian) on satiety measured by automated computerised monitoring of subsequent food intake, motivation to eat and food preferences. International Journal of Obesity 14, 743–751.
Beardshall K, Deprez P, Playford RJ, Alexander M & Calam J (1992) Effect of chymotrypsin on human cholecystokinin release – use of clostripan in the validation of a new radio-immunoassay. Regulatory Peptides 40, 1–12.
Billeaud C, Guillet J & Sandler B (1990) Gastric emptying in infants with or without gastro-oesophageal reflux according to the type of milk. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 44, 577–583.
Boirie Y, Dangin M, Gachon P, Vasson M, Maubois J & Beaufrere B (1997) Slow and fast dietary proteins differently modulate postprandial protein accretion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 94, 14930–14935.
Booth DA, Chase A & Campbell AT (1970) Relative effectiveness of protein in the late stages of appetite suppression in man. Physiology and Behavior 5, 1299–1302.
Campfield LA & Smith FJ (1990) Transient declines in blood glucose signal meal initiation. International Journal of Obesity 14, 15–33.
De Castro JM (1987) Macronutrient relationships with meal patterns and mood in the spontaneous feeding behaviour of humans. Physiology and Behavior 39, 561–569.
Elliott RM, Morgan LM, Tredger JA, Deacon S, Wright J & Marks V (1993) GLP-1 (7–36) amide and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide secretion in response to nutrient ingestion in man: acute post-prandial and 24 h secretion patterns. Journal of Endocrinology 138, 159–166.
Flint A, Raben A, Blundell JE & Astrup A (2000) Reproducibility, power and validity of visual analogue scales in assessment of appetite. International Journal of Obesity 24, 38–48.
Gannon MC, Nuttal FQ, Neil BJ & Westphal SA (1988) The insulin and glucose responses to meals of glucose plus various proteins in type II diabetic subjects. Metabolism 37, 1081–1088.
Gibbs J & Smith GP (1977) Cholecystokinin and satiety in rats and rhesus monkeys. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 30, 758–761.
Go VLW, Hofman AF & Summerskill WHJ (1970) Pancreozymin bioassay in man based on pancreatic enzyme secretion: potency of specific amino acids and other digestive products. Journal of Clinical Investigation 49, 1558–1564.
Green SM & Blundell JE (1996) Subjective and objective indices of the satiating effect of foods. Can people predict how filling a food will be? European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50, 798–806.
Gutzwiller JP, Goke B, Drewe J, Hildebrand P, Ketterer S, Handschin D, Winterhalder R, Conen D & Beglinger C (1999) Glucagon-like peptide-1: a potent regulator of food intake in humans. Gut 44, 81–86.
Hampton SM & Whithey L (1993) Monitoring B cell responses in obese and normal weight subjects; a pilot study. Diabete and Metabolisme 19, 582–585.
Heading RC, Nimmo J, Prescott LF & Tothill P (1973) The dependence of paracetamol absorption on the rate of gastric emptying. British Journal of Pharmacology 47, 415–421.
Hill AJ & Blundell JE (1988) Role of amino acids in appetite control in man. In Amino Acid Availability and Brain Function in Health and Disease. Proceedings of the Advanced Research Workshop NATO ASI Series H, pp. 239–248 [Huether G, editor]. Berlin, New York: Springer-Verlag.
Hill AJ & Blundell JE (1990) Comparison of the action of macronutrients on the expression of appetite in lean and obese human subjects. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 597, 529–531.
Hill AJ, Rogers PJ & Blundell JE (1995) Techniques for the experimental measurement of human eating behaviour and food intake: a practical guide. International Journal of Obesity 19, 361–375.
Hopman WPM, Jansen JBMJ & Lamers CBHW (1985) Comparative study of the effects of equal amounts of fat, protein and starch on plasma cholecystokinin in man. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 20, 843–847.
Hrboticky N, Leiter LA & Anderson GH (1985) Effects of L-tryptophan on short-term food-intake in lean men. Nutrition Research 5, 595–607.
Hubbard R, Kosch CL, Sanchez A, Sabate J, Berk L & Shavlik G (1989) Effect of dietary protein on serum insulin and glucagon levels in hyper-and normocholesterolemic men. Atherosclerosis 76, 55–61.
Johnstone AM, Stubbs RJ & Harbron CG (1996) Effect of over-feeding macronutrients on day-to-day food intake in man. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50, 418–430.
Lang V, Bellisle F, Alamowitch C, Craplet C, Bornet FRJ, Slama G & Guy-Grand B (1999) Varying the protein source in mixed meal modifies glucose, insulin and glucagon kinetics in healthy men, has weak effects on subjective satiety and fails to affect food intake. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53, 959–965.
Lang V, Bellisle F, Oppert J-M, Craplet C, Bornet FRJ, Slama G & Guy-Grand B (1998) Satiating effect of proteins in healthy subjects: a comparison of egg albumin, casein, gelatin, soy protein, pea protein, and wheat gluten. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 67, 1197–1204.
Latner JD & Schwartz M (1999) The effects of a high-carbohydrate, high-protein or balanced lunch upon later food intake and hunger ratings. Appetite 33, 119–128.
Lieverse RJ, Jansen JBMJ, Masclee AAM & Lamers CBHW (1994) Satiety effects of cholecystokinin in humans. Gastro-enterology 106, 1451–1454.
Long SJ, Jeffcoat AR & Millward DJ (2000) Effect of habitual dietary-protein intake on appetite and satiety. Appetite 35, 79–88.
Mellinkoff SM, Frankland M, Boyle D & Greipel M (1956) Relationship between serum amino acid concentration and fluctuations in appetite. Journal of Applied Physiology 8, 535–538.
Miller MJS, Witherly SA & Clark DA (1990) Casein: a milk protein with diverse biologic consequences. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 195, 143–159.
Morgan LM, Hampton SM, Tredger JA, Cramb R & Marks V (1988) Modifications of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) secretion in man by a high-fat diet. British Journal of Nutrition 59, 373–380.
Morgan LM, Morris BA & Marks V (1978) Radioimmunoassay of gastric inhibitory polypeptide. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry 15, 172–177.
Muurahainen NE, Kissileff HR & Pi-Sunyer FX (1988) L-Phenylalanine and L-tryptophan reduce food intake when given with a food preload. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 47, 774.
Penman E, Wass JAH, Medback S, Morgan LM, Lewis J, Besser GM & Rees LH (1981) Response of circulating somatostatin to nutritional stimuli in normal subjects. Gastroenterology 81, 692–699.
Porrini M, Santangelo A, Crovetti R, Riso P, Testolin G & Blundell JE (1997) Weight, protein, fat and timing of preloads affect food intake. Physiology and Behavior 62, 563–570.
Rogers PJ (1993) The experimental investigation of human eating behaviour. In Human Psychopharmacology, vol. 4, pp. 123–142 [Hindmarch I and Stonier PD, editors]. London: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rogers PJ, Burley VJ, Alikhanizadeh LA & Blundell JE (1995) Postingestive inhibition of food intake by aspartame: importance of interval between aspartame administration and subsequent eating. Physiology and Behavior 57, 489–493.
Schirra J, Katschinski M, Weldmann C, Schafer T, Wank U, Arnold R & Goke B (1996) Gastric emptying and release of incretin hormones after glucose ingestion in humans. Journal of Clinical Investigation 97, 92–103.
Stubbs RJ, Hughes DA, Johnstone AM, Rowley E, Reid C, Elia M, Stratton R, Delargy H, King N & Blundell JE (2000) The use of visual analogue scales to assess motivation to eat in human subjects: a review of their reliability and validity with an evaluation of new hand-held computerized systems for temporal tracking of appetite ratings. British Journal of Nutrition 84, 405–415.
Stubbs RJ, Van Wyk MCW, Johnstone AM & Harbron CG (1996) Breakfast high in protein, fat or carbohydrate: effect on within-day appetite and energy balance. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50, 409–417.
Uhe AM, Collier GR & O'Dea K (1992) A comparison of the effects of beef, chicken and fish protein on satiety and amino acid profiles in lean male subjects. Journal of Nutrition 122, 467–472.
Vandewater K & Vickers Z (1996) Higher protein foods produce greater sensory specific satiety. Physiology and Behavior 59, 579–583.
van Strien T, Frijters JER, Bergers GPA & Defares PB (1986) The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) for assessment of restrained, emotional, and external eating behaviour. International Journal of Eating Disorders 5, 295–315.
Verdich C, Flint A, Gutzwiller JP, Näslund E, Beglinger C, Hellström PM, Long SJ, Morgan LM, Holst JJ & Astrup A (2001) A meta-analysis of the effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 (7–36) amide on ad libitum energy intake in humans. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 86, 4382–4389.
Woods SC & Porte D Jr (1983) The role of insulin as a satiety factor in the central nervous system. Advances in Metabolic Disorders 10, 457–467.
Wurtman RJ, Hefti F & Melamed E (1981) Precursor control of neurotransmitter synthesis. Pharmacological Reviews 32, 315–335.