1Finkelstein, EA, Trogdon, JG, Cohen, JW, et al. (2009) Annual medical spending attributable to obesity: payer-and service-specific estimates. Health Aff (Millwood) 28, w822–w831.
2James, PT (2004) Obesity: the worldwide epidemic. Clin Dermatol 22, 276–280.
3Ogden, CL, Yanovski, SZ, Carroll, MD, et al. (2007) The epidemiology of obesity. Gastroenterology 132, 2087–2102.
4Pou, KM, Massaro, JM, Hoffmann, U, et al. (2009) Patterns of abdominal fat distribution: the Framingham Heart Study. Diabetes Care 32, 481–485.
5Bergman, RN, Kim, SP, Catalano, KJ, et al. (2006) Why visceral fat is bad: mechanisms of the metabolic syndrome. Obesity (Silver Spring) 14, Suppl. 1, 16S–19S.
6Symonds, ME, Sebert, S & Budge, H (2011) The obesity epidemic: from the environment to epigenetics – not simply a response to dietary manipulation in a thermoneutral environment. Front Genet 2, 24.
7Hoenig, M (2006) The cat as a model for human nutrition and disease. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 9, 584–588.
8Kooistra, HS, Galac, S, Buijtels, JJ, et al. (2009) Endocrine diseases in animals. Horm Res 71, Suppl. 1, 144–147.
9Robertson, ID (1999) The influence of diet and other factors on owner-perceived obesity in privately owned cats from metropolitan Perth, Western Australia. Prev Vet Med 40, 75–85.
10Russell, K, Sabin, R, Holt, S, et al. (2000) Influence of feeding regimen on body condition in the cat. J Small Anim Pract 41, 12–17.
11Scarlett, JM, Donoghue, S, Saidla, J, et al. (1994) Overweight cats: prevalence and risk factors. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 18, Suppl. 1, S22–S28.
12Kienzle, E & Bergler, R (2006) Human–animal relationship of owners of normal and overweight cats. J Nutr 136, 1947S–1950S.
13Hoenig, M, Thomaseth, K, Waldron, M, et al. (2007) Fatty acid turnover, substrate oxidation, and heat production in lean and obese cats during the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Domest Anim Endocrinol 32, 329–338.
14German, AJ (2006) The growing problem of obesity in dogs and cats. J Nutr 136, 1940S–1946S.
15Hoenig, M, McGoldrick, JB, deBeer, M, et al. (2006) Activity and tissue-specific expression of lipases and tumor-necrosis factor alpha in lean and obese cats. Domest Anim Endocrinol 30, 333–344.
16Tvarijonaviciute, A, Ceron, JJ, Holden, SL, et al. (2012) Effects of weight loss in obese cats on biochemical analytes related to inflammation and glucose homeostasis. Domest Anim Endocrinol 42, 129–141.
17Jaso-Friedmann, L, Leary, JH III, Praveen, K, et al. (2008) The effects of obesity and fatty acids on the feline immune system. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 122, 146–152.
18National Research Council (2006) Energy. In Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats, pp. 28–48. Washington DC: The National Academies Press.
19Laflamme, D (1997) Development and validation of a body condition score system for cats: a clinical tool. Feline Pract 25, 13–17.
20Ferrier, L, Robert, P, Dumon, H, et al. (2002) Evaluation of body composition in dogs by isotopic dilution using a low-cost technique, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. J Nutr 132, 1725S–1727S.
21Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) (1995) Method 962.09. Determination of crude fibre in feeds. In Methods of Analysis [Cunnif, P, editor]. Washington DC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists.
22Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) (1995) Method 985.29. Total dietary fibre in foods: enzymatic gravimetric method. In Methods of Analysis [Cunnif, P, editor]. Washington DC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists.
23Backus, RC, Havel, PJ, Gingerich, RL, et al. (2000) Relationship between serum leptin immunoreactivity and body fat mass as estimated by use of a novel gas-phase Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy deuterium dilution method in cats. Am J Vet Res 61, 796–801.
24Van der Heyden, S, Vercauteren, G, Daminet, S, et al. (2011) Expression of P-glycoprotein in the intestinal epithelium of dogs with lymphoplasmacytic enteritis. J Comp Pathol 145, 199–206.
25Rozen, S & Skaletsky, H (2000) Primer3 on the WWW for general users and for biologist programmers. Methods Mol Biol 132, 365–386.
26Peters, IR, Helps, CR, Hall, EJ, et al. (2004) Real-time RT-PCR: considerations for efficient and sensitive assay design. J Immunol Methods 286, 203–217.
27Nguyen, VN, Taglinger, K, Helps, CR, et al. (2006) Measurement of cytokine mRNA expression in intestinal biopsies of cats with inflammatory enteropathy using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 113, 404–414.
28Vandesompele, J, De, PK, Pattyn, F, et al. (2002) Accurate normalization of real-time quantitative RT-PCR data by geometric averaging of multiple internal control genes. Genome Biol 3, RESEARCH0034.
29Klaus, S (2004) Adipose tissue as a regulator of energy balance. Curr Drug Targets 5, 241–250.
30Hoffstedt, J, Arner, E, Wahrenberg, H, et al. (2010) Regional impact of adipose tissue morphology on the metabolic profile in morbid obesity. Diabetologia 53, 2496–2503.
31Skurk, T, Alberti-Huber, C, Herder, C, et al. (2007) Relationship between adipocyte size and adipokine expression and secretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92, 1023–1033.
32Kabir, M, Stefanovski, D, Hsu, IR, et al. (2011) Large size cells in the visceral adipose depot predict insulin resistance in the canine model. Obesity (Silver Spring) 19, 2121–2129.
33O'Connell, J, Lynch, L, Cawood, TJ, et al. (2010) The relationship of omental and subcutaneous adipocyte size to metabolic disease in severe obesity. PLoS One 5, e9997.
34Appleton, DJ, Rand, JS & Sunvold, GD (2000) Plasma leptin concentrations in cats: reference range, effect of weight gain and relationship with adiposity as measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. J Feline Med Surg 2, 191–199.
35Ishioka, K, Omachi, A, Sasaki, N, et al. (2009) Feline adiponectin: molecular structures and plasma concentrations in obese cats. J Vet Med Sci 71, 189–194.
36Van de Velde, H, Janssens, GPJ, Cox, E, et al. (2010) Chronic obesity in cats does not lead to a systemic low grade inflammation. In The Waltham International Nutritional Sciences Symposium: Pet Nutrition – Art or Science? p. 36.
37Tilg, H & Moschen, AR (2008) Role of adiponectin and PBEF/visfatin as regulators of inflammation: involvement in obesity-associated diseases. Clin Sci (Lond) 114, 275–288.
38Tan, HY, Rand, JS, Morton, JM, et al. (2011) Adiponectin profiles are affected by chronic and acute changes in carbohydrate intake in healthy cats. Gen Comp Endocrinol 172, 468–474.
39Verkest, KR, Rand, JS, Fleeman, LM, et al. (2011) Distinct adiponectin profiles might contribute to differences in susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in dogs and humans. Domest Anim Endocrinol 41, 67–73.
40Verkest, KR & Bjornvad, CR (2012) Understanding adiponectin in dogs and cats: a work in progress. Vet J 193, 4–5.
41Tvarijonaviciute, A, Martinez-Subiela, S & Ceron, JJ (2010) Validation of 2 commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for adiponectin determination in canine serum samples. Can J Vet Res 74, 279–285.
42Sell, H & Eckel, J (2010) Adipose tissue inflammation: novel insight into the role of macrophages and lymphocytes. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 13, 366–370.
43Spits, H & de Waal, MR (1992) Functional characterization of human IL-10. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 99, 8–15.
44Palou, M, Priego, T, Sanchez, J, et al. (2009) Gene expression patterns in visceral and subcutaneous adipose depots in rats are linked to their morphologic features. Cell Physiol Biochem 24, 547–556.
45Fried, SK, Russell, CD, Grauso, NL, et al. (1993) Lipoprotein lipase regulation by insulin and glucocorticoid in subcutaneous and omental adipose tissues of obese women and men. J Clin Invest 92, 2191–2198.
46Tchernof, A, Belanger, C, Morisset, AS, et al. (2006) Regional differences in adipose tissue metabolism in women: minor effect of obesity and body fat distribution. Diabetes 55, 1353–1360.