1 National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) (2002) Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) final report. Circulation 106, 3143–3421.
2 Grundy, SM, Cleeman, JI, Merz, CNB, et al. (2004) Implications of recent clinical trials for the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. Circulation 110, 227–239.
3 Durrington, P (2003) Dyslipidaemia. Lancet 362, 717–731.
4 Murray, CJ & Lopez, AD (1997) Global mortality, disability, and the contribution of risk factors: Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet 349, 1436–1442.
5 World Health Organization (2002) The World Health Report 2002 – Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life. Geneva: WHO.
6 Jacobson, TA (2000) ‘The lower the better’ in hypercholesterolemia therapy: a reliable clinical guideline? Ann Intern Med 133, 549–554.
7 Talbert, RL (2002) New therapeutic options in the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Am J Manag Care 8, S301–S307.
8 Stancu, C & Sima, A (2001) Statins: mechanism of action and effects. J Cell Mol Med 5, 378–387.
9 Oliver, MF, Defeyter, PJ, Lubsen, J, et al. (1994) Effect of simvastatin on coronary atheroma – the Multicenter Anti-Atheroma Study (Maas). Lancet 344, 633–638.
10 Pedersen, TR, Kjekshus, J, Berg, K, et al. (1994) Randomized trial of cholesterol-lowering in 4444 patients with coronary-heart-disease – the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S). Lancet 344, 1383–1389.
11 Schaafsma, G, Meuling, WJ, van Dokkum, W, et al. (1998) Effects of a milk product, fermented by Lactobacillus acidophilus and with fructo-oligosaccharides added, on blood lipids in male volunteers. Eur J Clin Nutr 52, 436–440.
12 Bertolami, MC, Faludi, AA & Batlouni, M (1999) Evaluation of the effects of a new fermented milk product (Gaio) on primary hypercholesterolemia. Eur J Clin Nutr 53, 97–101.
13 Agerbaek, M, Gerdes, LU & Richelsen, B (1995) Hypocholesterolemic effect of a new fermented milk product in healthy middle-aged men. Eur J Clin Nutr 49, 346–352.
14 Agerholm-Larsen, L, Raben, A & Haulrik, N (2000) Effect of 8 week intake of probiotic milk products on risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Eur J Clin Nutr 54, 288–297.
15 Andersson, H, Bosaeus, I, Ellegard, L, et al. (1995) Effects of low-fat milk and fermented low-fat milk on cholesterol absorption and excretion in ileostomy subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 49, 274–281.
16 de Roos, NM, Schouten, G & Katan, MB (1999) Yoghurt enriched with Lactobacillus acidophilus does not lower blood lipids in healthy men and women with normal to borderline high serum cholesterol levels. Eur J Clin Nutr 53, 277–280.
17 Greany, KA, Bonorden, MJ, Hamilton-Reeves, JM, et al. (2008) Probiotic capsules do not lower plasma lipids in young women and men. Eur J Clin Nutr 62, 232–237.
18 Lewis, SJ & Burmeister, S (2005) A double-blind placebo-controlled study of the effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus on plasma lipids. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 776–780.
19 Lin, SY, Ayres, JW, Winkler, L Jr, et al. (1989) Lactobacillus effects on cholesterol: in vitro and in vivo results. J Dairy Sci 72, 2885–2899.
20 Branton, WB, Jones, ML, Tomaro-Duchesneau, C, et al. (2011) In vitro characterization and safety of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus reuteri cardioviva NCIMB 30242. Int J Probiotics Prebiotics 6, 1–12.
21 Taranto, MP, Sesma, F, Holgado, APD, et al. (1997) Bile salts hydrolase plays a key role on cholesterol removal by Lactobacillus reuteri. Biotechnol Lett 19, 845–847.
22 De Smet, I, Van Hoorde, L, De Saeyer, M, et al. (1994) In vitro study of bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity of BSH isogenic Lactobacillus plantarum 80 strains and estimation of cholesterol lowering through enhanced BSH activity. Microb Ecol Health Dis 7, 315–329.
23 De Smet, I, Van Hoorde, L, Vande, WM, et al. (1995) Significance of bile salt hydrolytic activities of lactobacilli. J Appl Bacteriol 79, 292–301.
24 Davidson, MH (2008) Interrupting bile-acid handling and lipid and glucose control: effects of colesevelam on glucose levels. J Clin Lipid 2, S29–S33.
25 Johnson, BJ, Lee, JY, Pickert, A, et al. (2010) Bile acids stimulate ATP hydrolysis in the purified cholesterol transporter ABCG5/G8. Biochemistry 49, 3403–3411.
26 Thomas, C, Pellicciari, R, Pruzanski, M, et al. (2008) Targeting bile-acid signalling for metabolic diseases. Nat Rev Drug Discov 7, 678–693.
27 Watanabe, M, Houten, SM, Mataki, C, et al. (2006) Bile acids induce energy expenditure by promoting intracellular thyroid hormone activation. Nature 439, 484–489.
28 Holzapfel, WH, Haberer, P, Snel, J, et al. (1998) Overview of gut flora and probiotics. Int J Food Microbiol 41, 85–101.
29 Huang, Y & Adams, MC (2004) In vitro assessment of the upper gastrointestinal tolerance of potential probiotic dairy propionibacteria. Int J Food Microbiol 91, 253–260.
30 Chang, TMS (2005) Therapeutic applications of polymeric artificial cells. Nature Rev Drug Discov 4, 221–235.
31 Gugerli, R, Cantana, E, Heinzen, C, et al. (2002) Quantitative study of the production and properties of alginate/poly-l-lysine microcapsules. J Microencapsul 19, 571–590.
32 Jones, ML, Chen, HM, Wei, OY, et al. (2004) Microencapsulated genetically engineered Lactobacillus plantarum 80 (pCBH1) for bile acid deconjugation and its implication in lowering cholesterol. J Biomed Biotechnol 1, 61–69.
33 Martoni, C, Bhathena, J, Jones, ML, et al. (2007) Investigation of microencapsulated BSH active Lactobacillus in the simulated human GI tract. J Biomed Biotechnol 2007, 13684.
34 Martoni, C, Bhathena, J, Urbanska, AM, et al. (2008) Microencapsulated bile salt hydrolase producing Lactobacillus reuteri for oral targeted delivery in the gastrointestinal tract. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 81, 225–233.
35 Bhathena, J, Martoni, C, Kulamarva, A, et al. (2009) Orally delivered microencapsulated live probiotic formulation lowers serum lipids in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. J Med Food 12, 310–319.
36 Batta, AK, Salen, G, Batta, P, et al. (2002) Simultaneous quantitation of fatty acids, sterols and bile acids in human stool by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 775, 153–161.
37 Andrews, TC, Ballantyne, CM, Hsia, JA, et al. (2001) Achieving and maintaining national cholesterol education program low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals with five statins. Am J Med 111, 185–191.
38 Demonty, I, Ras, RT, van der Knaap, HC, et al. (2009) Continuous dose-response relationship of the LDL-cholesterol-lowering effect of phytosterol intake. J Nutr 139, 271–284.
39 Patel, J, Sheehan, V & Gurk-Turner, C (2003) Ezetimibe (Zetia): a new type of lipid-lowering agent. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) 16, 354–358.
40 Hou, R & Goldberg, AC (2009) Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: statins, ezetimibe, bile acid sequestrants, and combinations: comparative efficacy and safety. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 38, 79–97.
41 Gagne, C, Gaudet, D & Bruckert, E (2002) Efficacy and safety of ezetimibe coadministered with atorvastatin or simvastatin in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Circulation 105, 2469–2475.
42 Ostlund, RE Jr (2004) Phytosterols and cholesterol metabolism. Curr Opin Lipidol 15, 37–41.
43 De Smet, I, De Boever, P & Verstraete, W (1998) Cholesterol lowering in pigs through enhanced bacterial bile salt hydrolase activity. Br J Nutr 79, 185–194.
44 Ooi, LG, Ahmad, R, Yuen, KH, et al. (2010) Lactobacillus acidophilus CHO-220 and inulin reduced plasma total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol via alteration of lipid transporters. J Dairy Sci 93, 5048–5058.
45 Jeun, J, Kim, S, Cho, SY, et al. (2010) Hypocholesterolemic effects of Lactobacillus plantarum KCTC3928 by increased bile acid excretion in C57BL/6 mice. Nutrition 26, 321–330.
46 Kumar, R, Grover, S & Batish, VK (2011) Hypocholesterolaemic effect of dietary inclusion of two putative probiotic bile salt hydrolase-producing Lactobacillus plantarum strains in Sprague–Dawley rats. Br J Nutr 105, 561–573.
47 Lepercq, P, Relano, P, Cayuela, C, et al. (2004) Bifidobacterium animalis strain DN-173 010 hydrolyses bile salts in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. Scand J Gastroenterol 39, 1266–1271.
48 Marteau, P, Cuillerier, E, Meance, S, et al. (2002) Bifidobacterium animalis strain DN-173 010 shortens the colonic transit time in healthy women: a double-blind, randomized, controlled study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 16, 587–593.
49 Begley, M, Hill, C & Gahan, CGM (2006) Bile salt hydrolase activity in probiotics. Appl Environ Microbiol 72, 1729–1738.
50 Schiff, ER, Small, NC & Dietschy, JM (1972) Characterization of the kinetics of the passive and active transport mechanisms for bile acid absorption in the small intestine and colon of the rat. J Clin Invest 51, 1351–1362.
51 Ridker, PM, Glynn, RJ & Hennekens, CH (1998) C-reactive protein adds to the predictive value of total and HDL cholesterol in determining risk of first myocardial infarction. Circulation 97, 2007–2011.
52 Ridker, PM, Hennekens, CH, Buring, JE, et al. (2000) C-reactive protein and other markers of inflammation in the prediction of cardiovascular disease in women. N Engl J Med 342, 836–843.
53 Ridker, PM, Rifai, N, Clearfield, M, et al. (2001) Measurement of C-reactive protein for the targeting of statin therapy in the primary prevention of acute coronary events. N Engl J Med 344, 1959–1965.
54 Ridker, PM, Stampfer, MJ & Rifai, N (2001) Novel risk factors for systemic atherosclerosis – a comparison of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, homocysteine, lipoprotein(a), and standard cholesterol screening as predictors of peripheral arterial disease. JAMA 285, 2481–2485.
55 Roberts, WL (2004) CDC/AHA Workshop on Markers of Inflammation and Cardiovascular Disease – Application to Clinical and Public Health Practice – Laboratory tests available to assess inflammation performance and standardization – A background paper. Circulation 110, E572–E576.