1Cummings, JH & Englyst, HN (1987) Fermentation in the human large intestine and the available substrates. Am J Clin Nutr 45, 1243S–1255S.
2Guarner, F & Malagelada, JR (2003) Gut flora in health and disease. Lancet 361, 512–519.
3Hooper, LV, Wong, MH, Thelin, A, et al. (2001) Molecular analysis of commensal host–microbial relationships in the intestine. Science 291, 881–884.
4Peterson, DA, McNultry, NP, Guruge, JL, et al. (2007) IgA response to symbiotic bacteria as a mediator of gut homeostasis. Cell Host Microbe 2, 328–339.
5Qadri, F, Svennerholm, AM, Faruque, AS, et al. (2005) Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in developing countries: epidemiology, microbiology, clinical features, treatment, and prevention. Clin Microbiol Rev 18, 465–483.
6Duijts, L, Jaddoe, VWV, Hofman, A, et al. (2010) Prolonged and exclusive breastfeeding reduces the risk of infectious diseases in infancy. Pediatrics 126, e18–e25.
7Lallès, JP, Bosi, P, Smidt, H, et al. (2007) Weaning – a challenge to gut physiologists. Livest Sci 108, 82–93.
8World Health Organization (2004) Clinical Management of Acute Diarrhoea. New York, NY: WHO.
9Kim, JC, Mullan, BP, Hampson, DJ, et al. (2008) Addition of oat hulls to an extruded rice-based diet for weaner pigs ameliorates the incidence of diarrhoea and reduces indices of protein fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract. Br J Nutr 99, 1217–1225.
10Mateos, GG, Martin, F, Latorre, MA, et al. (2006) Inclusion of oat hulls in diets for young pigs based on cooked maize or cooked rice. Anim Sci 82, 57–63.
11Molist, F, Ywazaki, M, Gómez de Segura, A, et al. (2010) Administration of loperamide and addition of wheat bran to the diets of weaner pigs decrease the incidence of diarrhoea and enhance their gut maturation. Br J Nutr 103, 879–885.
12Canadian Council on Animal Care (1993) Guide to Care and Use of Experimental Animals [Olfert, ED, Cross, BM and McWilliam, AA, editors]. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Council on Animal Care.
13National Research Council (1998) Nutrient Requirements for Swine. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
14Bhandari, SK, Xu, B, Nyachoti, CM, et al. (2008) Evaluation of alternatives to antibiotics using an Escherichia coli K88+ model of piglet diarrhea: effects on gut microbial ecology. J Anim Sci 86, 836–847.
15Marquardt, RR, Jin, LZ, Kim, JW, et al. (1999) Passive protective effect of egg-yolk antibodies against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88+ infection in neonatal and early-weaned piglets. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 23, 283–288.
16Association of Official Analytical Chemists (1995) Official Methods of Analysis. Arlington, VA: AOAC.
17Krause, DO, Easter, RA, White, BA, et al. (1995) Effect of weaning diet on the ecology of adherent lactobacilli in the gastrointestinal tract of the pig. J Anim Sci 73, 2347–2354.
18Erwin, ES, Marco, GJ & Emery, M (1961) Volatile fatty acids analysis of blood and rumen fluid by gas chromatography. J Dairy Sci 44, 1768–1771.
19Novozamsky, I, Van Eck, R, Showenburg, JCH, et al. (1974) Total nitrogen determination in plant material by means of the indole-phenol blue method. Neth J Agri Sci 22, 3–5.
20Abdo, Z, Schuette, UM, Bent, SJ, et al. (2006) Statistical methods for characterizing diversity of microbial communities by analysis of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms of 16S rRNA genes. Environ Microbiol 8, 929–938.
21Lane, DJ (1991) 16S/23S rRNA sequencing. In Nucleic Acid Techniques in Bacterial Systematics, pp. 115–175 [Stackebrandt, E and Goodfellow, M, editors]. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons.
22Shyu, C, Soule, T, Bent, SJ, et al. (2007) MiCA: a web-based tool for the analysis of microbial communities based on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms of 16S and 18S rRNA genes. Microb Ecol 53, 562–570.
23Kent, AD, Smith, DJ, Benson, BJ, et al. (2003) A web-based phylogenetic assignment tool for analysis of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles of microbial communities. Appl Environ Microbiol 69, 6768–6776.
24Cole, JR, Chai, B, Farris, RJ, et al. (2005) The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP-II): sequences and tools for high-throughput rRNA analysis. Nucleic Acid Res 33, D294–D296.
25Colwell, RK (2005) EstimateS: Statistical Estimation of Species Richness and Shared Species from Samples, version 7.5. User's Guide. http://purl.oclc.org/estimates.
26SAS Inc. (1999) SAS® User's Guide: Statistics. Cary, NC: SAS, Inc.
27Anderson, MJ, Whitehead, JS & Kim, YS (1980) Interaction of Escherichia coli K88 antigen with porcine intestinal brush border membranes. Infect Immun 29, 897–901.
28Molist, F, Gómez de Segura, A, Pérez, JF, et al. (2010) Effect of wheat bran on the health and performance of weaned pigs challenged with Escherichia coli K88+. Liv Sci 133, 214–217.
29Kiers, JL, Nout, MJR, Rombouts, FM, et al. (2002) Inhibition of adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 by soya bean tempe. Lett Appl Microbiol 35, 311–315.
30Molist, F, Hermes, RG, Gómez de Segura, A, et al. (2011) Effect and interaction between wheat bran and zinc oxide on productive performance and intestinal health in post-weaning piglets. Br J Nutr 105, 1592–1600.
31Krause, DO, Bhandari, SK, House, JD, et al. (2010) Response of nursery pigs to a symbiotic preparation of starch and an anti-Escherichia coli K88 probiotic. Appl Environ Microbiol 76, 8192–8200.
32Wellock, IJ, Houdijk, JGM & Kyriazakis, I (2007) Effect of dietary non-starch polysaccharide solubility and inclusion level on gut health and the risk of post-weaning enteric disorders in newly weaned piglets. Liv Sci 108, 186–189.
33Bikker, P, Dirkzwager, A, Fledderus, J, et al. (2006) The effect of dietary protein and fermentable carbohydrates levels on growth performance and intestinal characteristics in newly weaned piglets. J Anim Sci 84, 3337–3345.
34Molist, F, Gómez de Segura, A, Gasa, J, et al. (2009) Effects of the insoluble and soluble dietary fibre on the physicochemical properties of digesta and the microbial activity in early weaned piglets. Anim Feed Sci Technol 149, 346–353.
35Mikkelsen, LL, Naughton, PJ, Hedemann, MS, et al. (2004) Effects of physical properties of feed on microbial ecology and survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the pig gastrointestinal tract. Appl Environ Microbiol 70, 3485–3492.
36Anguita, M, Canibe, N, Pérez, JF, et al. (2006) Influence of the amount of dietary fibre on the available energy from hindgut fermentation in growing pigs: use of cannulated pigs and in vitro fermentation. J Anim Sci 84, 2766–2778.
37Pizarro, D, Posada, G, Sandi, L, et al. (1991) Rice-based oral electrolyte solutions for the management of infantile diarrhea. N Engl J Med 324, 517–521.
38Wrick, KL, Robertson, JB, Van Soest, PJ, et al. (1983) The influence of dietary fibre source on human intestinal transit and stool output. J Nutr 113, 1464–1479.
39Suau, A, Bonnet, R, Sutren, M, et al. (1999) Direct analysis of genes encoding 16S rRNA from complex communities reveals many novel molecular species within the human gut. Appl Environ Microbiol 65, 4799–4807.
40Ludwig, W, Bauer, SH, Bauer, M, et al. (1997) Detection and in situ identification of representatives of a widely distributed new bacterial phylum. FEMS Microbiol Lett 153, 181–190.
41Rakoff-Nahoum, S, Paglino, J, Eslami-Varzaneh, F, et al. (2004) Recognition of commensal microflora by toll-like receptors is required for intestinal homeostasis. Cell 118, 229–241.
42Frank, DN, St Amand, AL, Feldman, RA, et al. (2007) Molecular-phylogenetic characterization of microbial community imbalances in human inflammatory bowel diseases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104, 13780–13785.
43Leser, TD, Amenuvor, JZ, Jensen, TK, et al. (2002) Culture-independent analysis of gut bacteria: the pig gastrointestinal tract microbiota revisited. Appl Environ Microbiol 68, 673–690.
44Walker, AW, Duncan, SH, Harmsen, HJM, et al. (2008) The species composition of the human intestinal microbiota differs between particle-associated and liquid phase communities. Environ Microbiol 10, 3275–3283.
45Middelbos, IS, Vester Boler, BM, Qu, A, et al. (2010) Phylogenetic characterization of fecal microbial communities of dogs fed diets with or without fibre using 454 pyrosequencing. PLoS One 3, e9768.
46Mulder, IE, Schmidt, B, Stokes, CR, et al. (2009) Environmentally-acquired bacteria influence microbial diversity and natural innate immune response at gut surfaces. BMC Biol 7, 1–20.
47Mariat, D, Firmesse, O, Levenez, F, et al. (2009) The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio of the human microbiota changes with age. BMC Microbiol 9, 123.
48Stecher, B, Chaffron, S, Kappeli, R, et al. (2010) Like will to like: abundances of closely related species can predict susceptibility to intestinal colonization by pathogenic and commensal bacteria. PLoS Pathogens 6, e1000711.
49Tajima, K, Ohmori, H, Aminov, RI, et al. (2010) Fermented liquid feed enhances bacetrial diversity in piglet intestine. Anaerobe 16, 6–11.
50Högberg, A, Lindberg, JE, Leser, T, et al. (2004) Influence of cereal non starch polysaccharides on ileo-caecal and rectal microbial populations in growing pigs. Acta Vet Scand 45, 87–98.
51Castillo, M, Skene, G, Roca, M, et al. (2007) Application of 16S rRNA gene-targetted fluorescence in situ hybridization and restriction fragment length polymorphism to study porcine microbiota along the gastrointestinal tract in response to different sources of dietary fibre. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 59, 138–146.