Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 100
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Araujo, Quintino Reis De Gattward, James Nascimento Almoosawi, Suzana Parada Costa Silva, Maria das Graças Conceição Dantas, Paulo Alfredo De Santana and Araujo Júnior, Quintino Reis De 2016. Cocoa and Human Health: From Head to Foot—A Review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, Vol. 56, Issue. 1, p. 1.


    Camps-Bossacoma, Mariona Abril-Gil, Mar Saldaña-Ruiz, Sandra Franch, Àngels Pérez-Cano, Francisco and Castell, Margarida 2016. Cocoa Diet Prevents Antibody Synthesis and Modifies Lymph Node Composition and Functionality in a Rat Oral Sensitization Model. Nutrients, Vol. 8, Issue. 5, p. 242.


    Caprioli, Giovanni Fiorini, Dennis Maggi, Filippo Nicoletti, Marcello Ricciutelli, Massimo Toniolo, Chiara Prosper, Biapa Vittori, Sauro and Sagratini, Gianni 2016. Nutritional composition, bioactive compounds and volatile profile of cocoa beans from different regions of Cameroon. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, Vol. 67, Issue. 4, p. 422.


    Damm, Irina Enger, Eileen Chrubasik-Hausmann, Sigrun Schieber, Andreas and Zimmermann, Benno F. 2016. Fast and comprehensive analysis of secondary metabolites in cocoa products using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography directly after pressurized liquid extraction. Journal of Separation Science,


    Goya, Luis Martín, María Sarriá, Beatriz Ramos, Sonia Mateos, Raquel and Bravo, Laura 2016. Effect of Cocoa and Its Flavonoids on Biomarkers of Inflammation: Studies of Cell Culture, Animals and Humans. Nutrients, Vol. 8, Issue. 4, p. 212.


    Hu, Yaxi Pan, Zhi Jie Liao, Wen Li, Jiaqi Gruget, Pierre Kitts, David D. and Lu, Xiaonan 2016. Determination of antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of chocolate by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformed-infrared spectroscopy. Food Chemistry, Vol. 202, p. 254.


    Ju, Dan and Maskarinec, Gertraud 2016. Fruits, Vegetables, and Herbs.


    Kieck, Julia S. Zug, Katharina L.M. Huamaní Yupanqui, H.A. Gómez Aliaga, R. and Cierjacks, Arne 2016. Plant diversity effects on crop yield, pathogen incidence, and secondary metabolism on cacao farms in Peruvian Amazonia. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Vol. 222, p. 223.


    Martín, María Goya, Luis and Ramos, Sonia 2016. Preventive Effects of Cocoa and Cocoa Antioxidants in Colon Cancer. Diseases, Vol. 4, Issue. 1, p. 6.


    Mellor, D.D. 2016. Encyclopedia of Food and Health.


    Mellor, Duane D. and Naumovski, Nenad 2016. Effect of cocoa in diabetes: the potential of the pancreas and liver as key target organs, more than an antioxidant effect?. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, Vol. 51, Issue. 4, p. 829.


    Wang, Lei Nägele, Thomas Doerfler, Hannes Fragner, Lena Chaturvedi, Palak Nukarinen, Ella Bellaire, Anke Huber, Werner Weiszmann, Jakob Engelmeier, Doris Ramsak, Ziva Gruden, Kristina and Weckwerth, Wolfram 2016. System level analysis of cacao seed ripening reveals a sequential interplay of primary and secondary metabolism leading to polyphenol accumulation and preparation of stress resistance. The Plant Journal,


    2016. Chocolate Science and Technology.


    Aminuddin, Farhana Ali, Faisal Ismail, Amin Pei, Chong Pei and Hamid, Muhajir 2015. Cocoa Polyphenol-Rich Extract Enhances the Expression Levels of PPAR-γ in the Skeletal Muscle and Adipose Tissue of Obese-Diabetic Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet. International Journal of Pharmacology, Vol. 11, Issue. 4, p. 309.


    Badrie, Neela Bekele, Frances Sikora, Elzbieta and Sikora, Marek 2015. Cocoa Agronomy, Quality, Nutritional, and Health Aspects. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, Vol. 55, Issue. 5, p. 620.


    Bordiga, Matteo Locatelli, Monica Travaglia, Fabiano Coïsson, Jean Daniel Mazza, Giuseppe and Arlorio, Marco 2015. Evaluation of the effect of processing on cocoa polyphenols: antiradical activity, anthocyanins and procyanidins profiling from raw beans to chocolate. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, Vol. 50, Issue. 3, p. 840.


    Castillo-Ortega, M.M. Montaño-Figueroa, A.G. Rodríguez-Félix, D.E. Prado-Villegas, G. Pino-Ocaño, K.P. Valencia-Córdova, M.J. Quiroz-Castillo, J.M. and Herrera-Franco, P.J. 2015. Preparation by coaxial electrospinning and characterization of membranes releasing (−) epicatechin as scaffold for tissue engineering. Materials Science and Engineering: C, Vol. 46, p. 184.


    Martínez-Fernández, Leyre Pons, Zara Margalef, Maria Arola-Arnal, Anna and Muguerza, Begoña 2015. Regulation of vascular endothelial genes by dietary flavonoids: structure-expression relationship studies and the role of the transcription factor KLF-2. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, Vol. 26, Issue. 3, p. 277.


    Massee, Laura A. Ried, Karin Pase, Matthew Travica, Nikolaj Yoganathan, Jaesshanth Scholey, Andrew Macpherson, Helen Kennedy, Greg Sali, Avni and Pipingas, Andrew 2015. The acute and sub-chronic effects of cocoa flavanols on mood, cognitive and cardiovascular health in young healthy adults: a randomized, controlled trial. Frontiers in Pharmacology, Vol. 6,


    Mellor, Duane D. Sathyapalan, Thozhukat Kilpatrick, Eric S. and Atkin, Stephen L. 2015. Diabetes and Chocolate: Friend or Foe?. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 63, Issue. 45, p. 9910.


    ×

Cocoa and health: a decade of research

  • Karen A. Cooper (a1), Jennifer L. Donovan (a2), Andrew L. Waterhouse (a3) and Gary Williamson (a1)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114507795296
  • Published online: 01 January 2008
Abstract

It has been over 10 years since the first mention in a medical journal about cocoa and chocolate as potential sources of antioxidants for health. During this time, cocoa has been found to improve antioxidant status, reduce inflammation and correlate with reduced heart disease risk; with these results, and its popularity, it has received wide coverage in the press. However, after 10 years of research, what is known about the potential health benefits of cocoa and what are the important next steps in understanding this decadent source of antioxidants?

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr Gary Williamson, fax +41 21 785 8544, email gary.williamson@rdls.nestle.com
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1MN Vissers , PL Zock & MB Katan (2004) Bioavailability and antioxidant effects of olive oil phenols in humans: a review. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 955965.

3C Cabrera , R Artacho & R Gimenez (2006) Beneficial effects of green tea – a review. J Am Coll Nutr 25, 7999.

4MB Engler & MM Engler (2006) The emerging role of flavonoid-rich cocoa and chocolate in cardiovascular health and disease. Nutr Rev 64, 109118.

6J Wollgast & E Anklam (2000) Review on polyphenols in Theobroma cacao: changes in composition during the manufacture of chocolate and methodology for identification and quantification. Food Res Int 33, 423447.

7N Cook & S Samman (1996) Flavonoids – chemistry, metabolism, cardioprotective effects, and dietary sources. J Nutr Biochem 7, 6676.

8QY Zhu , Y Huang & ZY Chen (2000) Interaction between flavonoids and alpha-tocopherol in human low density lipoprotein. J Nutr Biochem 11, 1421.

10JA Vinson , J Proch , P Bose , S Muchler , P Taffera , D Shuta , N Samman & GA Agbor (2006) Chocolate is a powerful ex vivo and in vivo antioxidant, an antiatherosclerotic agent in an animal model, and a significant contributor to antioxidants in the European and American diets. J Agric Food Chem 54, 80718076.

11AL Waterhouse , JR Shirley & JL Donovan (1996) Antioxidants in chocolate. Lancet 348, 834.

12IC Arts , PC Hollman & D Kromhout (1999) Chocolate as a source of tea flavonoids. Lancet 354, 488.

13M Richelle , I Tavazzi , M Enslen & EA Offord (1999) Plasma kinetics in man of epicatechin from black chocolate. Eur J Clin Nutr 53, 2226.

16K Kondo , A Matsumoto , H Kurata , H Tanahashi , H Koda , T Amachi & H Itakura (1994) Inhibition of oxidation of low-density lipoprotein with red wine. Lancet 344, 1152.

19CR Pace-Asciak , O Rounova , SE Hahn , EP Diamandis & DM Goldberg (1996) Wines and grape juices as modulators of platelet aggregation in healthy human subjects. Clin Chim Acta 246, 163182.

21B Buijsse , EJ Feskens , FJ Kok & D Kromhout (2006) Cocoa intake, blood pressure, and cardiovascular mortality: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Arch Intern Med 166, 411417.

23ST Francis , K Head , PG Morris & IA Macdonald (2006) The effect of flavanol-rich cocoa on the fMRI response to a cognitive task in healthy young people. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 47, Suppl. 2, S215S220.

24D Ramljak , LJ Romanczyk , LJ Metheny-Barlow , N Thompson , V Knezevic , M Galperin , A Ramesh & RB Dickson (2005) Pentameric procyanidin from Theobroma cacao selectively inhibits growth of human breast cancer cells. Mol Cancer Ther 4, 537546.

28JP Spencer , H Schroeter , B Shenoy , SK Srai , ES Debnam & C Rice-Evans (2001) Epicatechin is the primary bioavailable form of the procyanidin dimers B2 and B5 after transfer across the small intestine. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 285, 588593.

29JP Spencer , H Schroeter , AR Rechner & C Rice-Evans (2001) Bioavailability of flavan-3-ols and procyanidins: gastrointestinal tract influences and their relevance to bioactive forms in vivo. Antioxid Redox Signal 3, 10231039.

30H Schroeter , C Heiss , Balzer , (2006) ( − )-Epicatechin mediates beneficial effects of flavanol-rich cocoa on vascular function in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103, 10241029.

31R Gotti , S Furlanetto , S Pinzauti & V Cavrini (2006) Analysis of catechins in Theobroma cacao beans by cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography. J Chromatogr A 1112, 345352.

32JL Donovan , V Crespy , M Oliveira , KA Cooper , BB Gibson & G Williamson (2006) (+)-Catechin is more bioavailable than ( − )-catechin: relevance to the bioavailability of catechin from cocoa. Free Radic Res 40, 10291034.

34RR Holt , DD Schramm , CL Keen , SA Lazarus & HH Schmitz (2002) Chocolate consumption and platelet function. JAMA 287, 22122213.

35TH Schindler , B Hornig , PT Buser , M Olschewski , N Magosaki , M Pfisterer , EU Nitzsche , U Solzbach & H Just (2003) Prognostic value of abnormal vasoreactivity of epicardial coronary arteries to sympathetic stimulation in patients with normal coronary angiograms. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 23, 495501.

36JA Vita (2005) Endothelial function and clinical outcome. Heart 91, 12781279.

37C Vlachopoulos , K Aznaouridis , N Alexopoulos , E Economou , I Andreadou & C Stefanadis (2005) Effect of dark chocolate on arterial function in healthy individuals. Am J Hypertens 18, 785791.

38F Hermann , L Spieker , F Ruschitzka , (2006) Dark chocolate improves endothelial and platelet function. Heart 92, 119120.

39C Heiss , D Finis , P Kleinbongard , A Hoffmann , T Rassaf , M Kelm & H Sies (2007) Sustained increase in flow-mediated dilation after daily intake of high-flavanol cocoa drink over 1 week. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 49, 7480.

40N Osakabe , S Baba , A Yasuda , T Iwamoto , M Kamiyama , T Takizawa , H Itakura & K Kondo (2001) Daily cocoa intake reduces the susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein to oxidation as demonstrated in healthy human volunteers. Free Radic Res 34, 9399.

41KA Cooper , E Campos Giménez , D Jiménez Alvarez , K Nagy , JL Donovan & G Williamson (2007) Rapid reversed phase-ultra performance liquid chromatography analysis of the major cocoa polyphenols and inter-relationships of their concentrations in chocolate. J Agric Food Chem 55, 28412847.

45T Schewe , C Sadik , LO Klotz , T Yoshimoto , H Kuhn & H Sies (2001) Polyphenols of cocoa: inhibition of mammalian 15-lipoxygenase. Biol Chem 382, 16871696.

47PM Kris-Etherton , J Derr , DC Mitchell , VA Mustad , ME Russell , ET McDonnell , D Salabsky & TA Pearson (1993) The role of fatty acid saturation on plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins: I. Effects of whole food diets high in cocoa butter, olive oil, soybean oil, dairy butter, and milk chocolate on the plasma lipids of young men. Metabolism 42, 121129.

49DD Schramm , M Karim , HR Schrader , RR Holt , NJ Kirkpatrick , JA Polagruto , JL Ensunsa , HH Schmitz & CL Keen (2003) Food effects on the absorption and pharmacokinetics of cocoa flavanols. Life Sci 73, 857869.

51M Serafini , R Bugianesi , G Maiani , S Valtuena , S De Santis & A Crozier (2003) Plasma antioxidants from chocolate – dark chocolate may offer its consumers health benefits the milk variety cannot match. Nature 424, 1013.

52H Schroeter , RR Holt , TJ Orozco , HH Schmitz & CL Keen (2003) Nutrition: milk and absorption of dietary flavanols. Nature 426, 787788.

53M Serafini & A Crozier (2003) Nutrition – milk and absorption of dietary flavanols – reply. Nature 426, 788.

54I Wiswedel , D Hirsch , S Kropf , M Gruening , E Pfister , T Schewe & H Sies (2004) Flavanol-rich cocoa drink lowers plasma F-2-isoprostane concentrations in humans. Free Radic Biol Med 37, 411421.

55E Roura , C Andés-Lacueva , O Jauregui , E Badia , R Estruch , M Izquierdo-Pulido & RM Lamuela-Raventos (2005) Rapid liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay to quantify plasma ( − )-epicatechin metabolites after ingestion of a standard portion of cocoa beverage in humans. J Agric Food Chem 53, 61906194.

57MB Engler , MM Engler , CY Chen , (2004) Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and increases plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults. J Am Coll Nutr 23, 197204.

58J Mursu , S Voutilainen , T Nurmi , TH Rissanen , JK Virtanen , J Kaikkonen , K Nyyssonen & JT Salonen (2004) Dark chocolate consumption increases HDL cholesterol concentration and chocolate fatty acids may inhibit lipid peroxidation in healthy humans. Free Radic Biol Med 37, 13511359.

59C Heiss , P Kleinbongard , A Dejam , S Perre , H Schroeter , H Sies & M Kelm (2005) Acute consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa and the reversal of endothelial dysfunction in smokers. J Am Coll Cardiol 46, 12761283.

60MB Katan (2007) Does industry sponsorship undermine the integrity of nutrition research? PLoS Med 4, e6.

62DA Pearson , TG Paglieroni , D Rein , (2002) The effects of flavanol-rich cocoa and aspirin on ex vivo platelet function. Thromb Res 106, 191197.

64D Taubert , R Berkels , R Roesen & W Klaus (2003) Chocolate and blood pressure in elderly individuals with isolated systolic hypertension. JAMA 290, 10291030.

66ND Fisher , M Hughes , M Gerhard-Herman & NK Hollenberg (2003) Flavanol-rich cocoa induces nitric-oxide-dependent vasodilation in healthy humans. J Hypertens 21, 22812286.

67C Heiss , A Dejam , P Kleinbongard , T Schewe , H Sies & M Kelm (2003) Vascular effects of cocoa rich in flavan-3-ols. JAMA 290, 10301031.

68QY Zhu , DD Schramm , HB Gross , RR Holt , SH Kim , T Yamaguchi , CL Kwik-Uribe & CL Keen (2005) Influence of cocoa flavanols and procyanidins on free radical-induced human erythrocyte hemolysis. Clin Dev Immunol 12, 2734.

69CG Fraga , L Actis-Goretta , JI Ottaviani , F Carrasquedo , SB Lotito , S Lazarus , HH Schmitz & CL Keen (2005) Regular consumption of a flavanol-rich chocolate can improve oxidant stress in young soccer players. Clin Dev Immunol 12, 1117.

70D Grassi , S Necozione , C Lippi , G Croce , L Valeri , P Pasqualetti , G Desideri , JB Blumberg & C Ferri (2005) Cocoa reduces blood pressure and insulin resistance and improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in hypertensives. Hypertension 46, 398405.

71NDL Fisher & NK Hollenberg (2006) Aging and vascular responses to flavanol-rich cocoa. J Hypertens 24, 15751580.

72SB Kurlandsky & KS Stote (2006) Cardioprotective effects of chocolate and almond consumption in healthy women. Nutr Res 26, 509516.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: