Heiss, C, Dejam, A, Kleinbongard, P, et al. (2003) Vascular effects of cocoa rich in flavan-3-ols. JAMA
Heiss, C, Keen, CL & Kelm, M (2010) Flavanols and cardiovascular disease prevention. Eur Heart J
Schroeter, H, Heiss, C, Balzer, J, et al. (2006) (-)-Epicatechin mediates beneficial effects of flavanol-rich cocoa on vascular function in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA
Hooper, L, Kay, C, Abdelhamid, A, et al. (2012) Effects of chocolate, cocoa, and flavan-3-ols on cardiovascular health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Am J Clin Nutr
Ried, K, Sullivan, TR, Fakler, P, et al. (2012) Effect of cocoa on blood pressure. Cochrane Database Syst Rev
Desideri, G, Kwik-Uribe, C, Grassi, D, et al. (2012) Benefits in cognitive function, blood pressure, and insulin resistance through cocoa flavanol consumption in elderly subjects with mild cognitive impairment: the Cocoa, Cognition, and Aging (CoCoA) study. Hypertension
Efsa Panel on Dietetic Products N & Allergies (2012) Guidance on the scientific requirements for health claims related to antioxidants, oxidative damage and cardiovascular health. EFSA J
D’Agostino, RB Sr., Vasan, RS, Pencina, MJ, et al. (2008) General cardiovascular risk profile for use in primary care: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation
Adamson, GE, Lazarus, SA, Mitchell, AE, et al. (1999) HPLC method for the quantification of procyanidins in cocoa and chocolate samples and correlation to total antioxidant capacity. J Agric Food Chem
Heiss, C, Jahn, S, Taylor, M, et al. (2010) Improvement of endothelial function with dietary flavanols is associated with mobilization of circulating angiogenic cells in patients with coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol.
Horn, P, Amabile, N, Angeli, FS, et al. (2014) Dietary flavanol intervention lowers the levels of endothelial microparticles in coronary artery disease patients. Br J Nutr, 1–8.
Dupont, WD & Plummer, WD (2007) PS power and sample size program available for free on the Internet. Controlled Clin Trials
Van Bortel, LM, Laurent, S, Boutouyrie, P, et al. (2012) Expert consensus document on the measurement of aortic stiffness in daily practice using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. J Hypertens
Mulligan, AA, Luben, RN, Bhaniani, A, et al. (2014) A new tool for converting food frequency questionnaire data into nutrient and food group values: FETA research methods and availability. BMJ Open
Vogiatzoglou, A, Mulligan, AA, Luben, RN, et al. (2013) Assessment of the dietary intake of total flavan-3-ols, monomeric flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins and theaflavins in the European Union. Br J Nutr, 1–11.
Ottaviani, JI, Momma, TY, Kuhnle, GK, et al. (2012) Structurally related (-)-epicatechin metabolites in humans: Assessment using de novo chemically synthesized authentic standards. Free Radic Biol Med
Perk, J, De Backer, G, Gohlke, H, et al. (2012) European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice (version 2012). The Fifth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice (constituted by representatives of nine societies and by invited experts). Developed with the special contribution of the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation (EACPR). Eur Heart J
Yang, Q, Cogswell, ME, Flanders, WD, et al. (2012) Trends in cardiovascular health metrics and associations with all-cause and CVD mortality among US adults. JAMA
Ras, RT, Streppel, MT, Draijer, R, et al. (2013) Flow-mediated dilation and cardiovascular risk prediction: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Int J Cardiol
Reriani, MK, Dunlay, SM, Gupta, B, et al. (2011) Effects of statins on coronary and peripheral endothelial function in humans: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil
Anderson, TJ, Elstein, E, Haber, H, et al. (2000) Comparative study of ACE-inhibition, angiotensin II antagonism, and calcium channel blockade on flow-mediated vasodilation in patients with coronary disease (BANFF study). J Am Coll Cardiol
Ye, Y, Zhao, X, Zhai, G, et al. (2012) Effect of high-dose statin versus low-dose statin plus ezetimibe on endothelial function: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther
Schuler, G, Adams, V & Goto, Y (2013) Role of exercise in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: results, mechanisms, and new perspectives. Eur Heart J
Lewington, S, Clarke, R, Qizilbash, N, et al. (2002) Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies. Lancet
Law, M (2012) A change in paradigm: lowering blood pressure in everyone over a certain age. Ann Med
44,, Suppl. 1, S30–S35.
Fretheim, A, Odgaard-Jensen, J, Brors, O, et al. (2012) Comparative effectiveness of antihypertensive medication for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: systematic review and multiple treatments meta-analysis. BMC Med
Egan, BM, Laken, MA, Donovan, JL, et al. (2010) Does dark chocolate have a role in the prevention and management of hypertension?: commentary on the evidence. Hypertension
Turnbull F & Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists Collaboration (2003) Effects of different blood-pressure-lowering regimens on major cardiovascular events: results of prospectively-designed overviews of randomised trials. Lancet
Nilsson, PM (2014) Hemodynamic Aging as the Consequence of Structural Changes Associated with Early Vascular Aging (EVA). Aging Dis
Heiss, C, Sansone, R, Karimi, H, et al. (2015) Impact of cocoa flavanol intake on age-dependent vascular stiffness in healthy men: a randomized, controlled, double-masked trial. Age (Dordr)
Prospective Studies Collaboration, Lewington, S, Whitlock, G, et al. (2007) Blood cholesterol and vascular mortality by age, sex, and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of individual data from 61 prospective studies with 55 000 vascular deaths. Lancet
Tokede, OA, Gaziano, JM & Djousse, L (2011) Effects of cocoa products/dark chocolate on serum lipids: a meta-analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr