Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 19
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Ajuwon, K. M. 2016. Toward a better understanding of mechanisms of probiotics and prebiotics action in poultry species. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research, Vol. 25, Issue. 2, p. 277.

    Dong, Li Zhong, Xiang He, Jintian Zhang, Lili Bai, Kaiwen Xu, Wen Wang, Tian and Huang, Xuexin 2016. Supplementation of tributyrin improves the growth and intestinal digestive and barrier functions in intrauterine growth-restricted piglets. Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 35, Issue. 2, p. 399.

    Kaczmarek, S. A. Barri, A. Hejdysz, M. and Rutkowski, A. 2016. Effect of different doses of coated butyric acid on growth performance and energy utilization in broilers. Poultry Science, Vol. 95, Issue. 4, p. 851.

    Zhou, Jiabin Gao, Shixing Chen, Jinglong Zhao, Ruqian and Yang, Xiaojing 2016. Maternal sodium butyrate supplement elevates the lipolysis in adipose tissue and leads to lipid accumulation in offspring liver of weaning-age rats. Lipids in Health and Disease, Vol. 15, Issue. 1,

    Cavini, S. Iraira, S. Siurana, A. Foskolos, A. Ferret, A. and Calsamiglia, S. 2015. Effect of sodium butyrate administered in the concentrate on rumen development and productive performance of lambs in intensive production system during the suckling and the fattening periods. Small Ruminant Research, Vol. 123, Issue. 2-3, p. 212.

    Jiang, Y. Zhang, W. H. Gao, F. and Zhou, G. H. 2015. Micro-encapsulated sodium butyrate attenuates oxidative stress induced by corticosterone exposure and modulates apoptosis in intestinal mucosa of broiler chickens. Animal Production Science, Vol. 55, Issue. 5, p. 587.

    Liu, Yulan 2015. Fatty acids, inflammation and intestinal health in pigs. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Vol. 6, Issue. 1,

    Csikó, G. Nagy, G. Mátis, G. Neogrády, Z. Kulcsár, A. Jerzsele, Á. Szekér, K. and Gálfi, P. 2014. Effects of dietary sodium butyrate on hepatic biotransformation and pharmacokinetics of erythromycin in chickens. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Vol. 37, Issue. 4, p. 406.

    Edmonds, M. S. Johal, S. and Moreland, S. 2014. Effect of supplemental humic and butyric acid on performance and mortality in broilers raised under various environmental conditions. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research, Vol. 23, Issue. 2, p. 260.

    Górka, P. Pietrzak, P. Kotunia, A. Zabielski, R. and Kowalski, Z.M. 2014. Effect of method of delivery of sodium butyrate on maturation of the small intestine in newborn calves. Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 97, Issue. 2, p. 1026.

    Lallès, J.P. and Guillou, D. 2014. Intestinal health.

    Liu, Wenshu Yang, Yanou Zhang, Jianli Gatlin, Delbert M. Ringø, Einar and Zhou, Zhigang 2014. Effects of dietary microencapsulated sodium butyrate on growth, intestinal mucosal morphology, immune response and adhesive bacteria in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) pre-fed with or without oxidised oil. British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 112, Issue. 01, p. 15.

    Wang, Jun Yang, Mei Xu, Shengyu Lin, Yan Che, Lianqiang Fang, Zhengfeng and Wu, De 2014. Comparative effects of sodium butyrate and flavors on feed intake of lactating sows and growth performance of piglets. Animal Science Journal, Vol. 85, Issue. 6, p. 683.

    Jaladanki, Rao N. and Wang, Jian-Ying 2011. Regulation of Gastrointestinal Mucosal Growth. Colloquium Series on Integrated Systems Physiology: From Molecule to Function, Vol. 3, Issue. 2, p. 1.

    Kato, S.-I. Sato, K. Chida, H. Roh, S.-G. Ohwada, S. Sato, S. Guilloteau, P. and Katoh, K. 2011. Effects of Na-butyrate supplementation in milk formula on plasma concentrations of GH and insulin, and on rumen papilla development in calves. Journal of Endocrinology, Vol. 211, Issue. 3, p. 241.

    Lallès, Jean-Paul Lacan, Dominique and David, Jean-Claude 2011. A melon pulp concentrate rich in superoxide dismutase reduces stress proteins along the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. Nutrition, Vol. 27, Issue. 3, p. 358.

    Zhang, W.H. Jiang, Y. Zhu, Q.F. Gao, F. Dai, S.F. Chen, J. and Zhou, G.H. 2011. Sodium butyrate maintains growth performance by regulating the immune response in broiler chickens. British Poultry Science, Vol. 52, Issue. 3, p. 292.

    Guilloteau, P. Martin, L. Eeckhaut, V. Ducatelle, R. Zabielski, R. and Van Immerseel, F. 2010. From the gut to the peripheral tissues: the multiple effects of butyrate. Nutrition Research Reviews, Vol. 23, Issue. 02, p. 366.

    Levast, Benoît de Monte, Michèle Chevaleyre, Claire Melo, Sandrine Berri, Mustapha Mangin, Françoise Zanello, Galliano Lantier, Isabelle Salmon, Henri and Meurens, François 2010. Ultra-early weaning in piglets results in low serum IgA concentration and IL17 mRNA expression. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, Vol. 137, Issue. 3-4, p. 261.


Comparative effect of orally administered sodium butyrate before or after weaning on growth and several indices of gastrointestinal biology of piglets

  • Maud Le Gall (a1), Mélanie Gallois (a2), Bernard Sève (a1), Isabelle Louveau (a1), Jens J. Holst (a3), Isabelle P. Oswald (a2), Jean-Paul Lallès (a1) and Paul Guilloteau (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 June 2009

Sodium butyrate (SB) provided orally favours body growth and maturation of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in milk-fed pigs. In weaned pigs, conflicting results have been obtained. Therefore, we hypothesised that the effects of SB (3 g/kg DM intake) depend on the period (before v. after weaning) of its oral administration. From the age of 5 d, thirty-two pigs, blocked in quadruplicates within litters, were assigned to one of four treatments: no SB (control), SB before (for 24 d), or after (for 11–12 d) weaning and SB before and after weaning (for 35–36 d). Growth performance, feed intake and various end-point indices of GIT anatomy and physiology were investigated at slaughter. The pigs supplemented with SB before weaning grew faster after weaning than the controls (P < 0·05). The feed intake was higher in pigs supplemented with SB before or after weaning (P < 0·05). SB provided before weaning improved post-weaning faecal digestibility (P < 0·05) while SB after weaning decreased ileal and faecal digestibilities (P < 0·05). Gastric digesta retention was higher when SB was provided before weaning (P < 0·05). Post-weaning administration of SB decreased the activity of three pancreatic enzymes and five intestinal enzymes (P < 0·05). IL-18 gene expression tended to be lower in the mid-jejunum in SB-supplemented pigs. The small-intestinal mucosa was thinner and jejunal villous height lower in all SB groups (P < 0·05). In conclusion, the pre-weaning SB supplementation was the most efficient to stimulate body growth and feed intake after weaning, by reducing gastric emptying and intestinal mucosa weight and by increasing feed digestibility.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Comparative effect of orally administered sodium butyrate before or after weaning on growth and several indices of gastrointestinal biology of piglets
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Comparative effect of orally administered sodium butyrate before or after weaning on growth and several indices of gastrointestinal biology of piglets
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Comparative effect of orally administered sodium butyrate before or after weaning on growth and several indices of gastrointestinal biology of piglets
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr Maud Le Gall, fax +33 223485080, email
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1JH Cummings & GT Macfarlane (1991) The control and consequences of bacterial fermentation in the human colon. J Appl Bacteriol 70, 443459.

2CQ Sun , CJ O'Connor & AM Roberton (2002) The antimicrobial properties of milkfat after partial hydrolysis by calf pregastric lipase. Chem Biol Interact 140, 185198.

3WE Roediger (1980) The colonic epithelium in ulcerative colitis: an energy-deficiency disease? Lancet 316, 712715.

4SI Cook & JH Sellin (1998) Review Article: short chain fatty acids in health and disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 12, 499507.

5JM Mariadason , D Kilias , A Catto-Smith , (1999) Effect of butyrate on paracellular permeability in rat distal colonic mucosa ex vivo. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 14, 873879.

6M Kinoshita , Y Suzuki & Y Saito (2002) Butyrate reduces colonic paracellular permeability by enhancing PPARγ activation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 293, 827831.

8W Scheppach & F Weiler (2004) The butyrate story: old wine in new bottles? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 7, 563567.

9TE Weber & BJ Kerr (2006) Butyrate differentially regulates cytokines and proliferation in porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 113, 139147.

10JP Segain , D Raingeard de la Blètiere , A Bourreille , (2000) Butyrate inhibits inflammatory responses through NFκB inhibition: implications for Crohn's disease. Gut 47, 397403.

11A Venkatraman , BS Ramakrishna , RV Shaji , (2003) Amelioration of dextran sulfate colitis by butyrate: role of heat shock protein 70 and NF-κB. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 285, G177G184.

14OC Velazquez , HM Lederer & JL Rombeau (1996) Butyrate and the colonocyte. Implications for neoplasia. Dig Dis Sci 41, 727739.

18A Piva , M Morlacchini , G Casadei , (2002) Sodium butyrate improves growth performance of weaned piglets during the first period after weaning. It J Anim Sci 1, 3541.

19EG Manzanilla , M Nofrarias , M Anguita , (2006) Effects of butyrate, avilamycin, and a plant extract combination on the intestinal equilibrium of early-weaned pigs. J Anim Sci 84, 27432751.

20G Biagi , A Piva , M Moschini , (2007) Performance, intestinal microflora, and wall morphology of weanling pigs fed sodium butyrate. J Anim Sci 85, 11841191.

22P Guilloteau , R Zabielski , JC David , (2009) Sodium-butyrate as a growth promoter in milk replacer formula for young calves. J Dairy Sci 92, 10381049.

24J Noblet & M Etienne (1989) Estimation of sow milk nutrient output. J Anim Sci 67, 33523359.

26A Wilfart , L Montagne , PH Simmins , (2007) Sites of nutrient digestion in growing pigs: effect of dietary fiber. J Anim Sci 85, 976983.

28C Poncet & Y Rayssiguier (1980) Effect of lactose supplement on digestion of lucerne hay by sheep 1. J Anim Sci 51, 180185.

29LR Njaa (1961) Determination of protein digestibility with titanium dioxide as indicator substance. Acta Agric Scand 11, 227241.

30RA Goodlad , S Levi , CY Lee , (1991) Morphometry and cell proliferation in endoscopic biopsies: evaluation of a technique. Gastroenterology 101, 12351241.

32C Domeneghini , A Di Giancamillo , G Bosi , (2006) Can nutraceuticals affect the structure of intestinal mucosa? Qualitative and quantitative microanatomy in l-glutamine diet-supplemented weaning piglets. Vet Res Commun 30, 331342.

35M Gestin , I Le Huërou-Luron , J Péniau , (1997) Method of measurement of pancreatic elastase II activity in human duodenal juice and, bovine and porcine pancreatic tissue. Dig Dis Sci 42, 13021311.

37J Marion , YM Petersen , V Romé , (2005) Early weaning stimulates intestinal brush border enzyme activities in piglets, mainly at the posttranscriptional level. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 41, 401410.

38GM Meissonnier , P Pinton , J Laffitte , (2008) Immunotoxicity of aflatoxin B1: impairment of the cell-mediated response to vaccine antigen and modulation of cytokine expression. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 231, 142149.

39IP Oswald , CM Dozois , R Barlagne , (2001) Cytokine mRNA expression in pigs infected with Schistosoma japonicum. Parasitology 122, 299307.

40K Von der Hardt , MA Kandler , L Fink , (2004) High frequency oscillatory ventilation suppresses inflammatory response in lung tissue and microdissected alveolar macrophages in surfactant depleted piglets. Pediatr Res 55, 339346.

41AR Royaee , RJ Husmann , HD Dawson , (2004) Deciphering the involvement of innate immune factors in the development of the host response to PRRSV vaccination. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 102, 199216.

42SN Peirson , JN Butler & RG Foster (2003) Experimental validation of novel and conventional approaches to quantitative real-time PCR data analysis. Nucleic Acids Res 31, e73.

43D Gardan , F Gondret & I Louveau (2006) Lipid metabolism and secretory function of porcine intramuscular adipocytes compared with subcutaneous and perirenal adipocytes. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 291, E372E380.

44B Hartmann , AH Johnsen , C Ørskov , (2000) Structure, measurement and secretion of human glucagon-like peptide-2. Peptides 21, 7380.

45JN Hunt & MT Knox (1969) The slowing of gastric emptying by nine acids. J Physiol 201, 161179.

47EG Manzanilla , JF Perez , M Martin , (2004) Effect of plant extracts and formic acid on the intestinal equilibrium of early-weaned pigs. J Anim Sci 82, 32103218.

49M Castillo , SM Martin-Orue , M Roca , (2006) The response of gastrointestinal microbiota to avilamycin, butyrate, and plant extracts in early-weaned pigs. J Anim Sci 84, 27252734.

50K Katoh & T Tsuda (1987) Effects of intravenous injection of butyrate on the exocrine pancreatic secretion in guinea pigs. Comp Biochem Physiol A 87, 569572.

51M Ohbo , K Katoh & Y Sasaki (1996) Effects of saturated fatty acids on amylase release from exocrine pancreatic segments of sheep, rats, hamsters, field voles and mice. J Comp Physiol B 166, 305309.

52V Sileikiene , R Mosenthin , M Tafaj , (2005) Effect of short chain fatty acids infused intraileally on interdigestive exocrine pancreatic secretions in growing pigs. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 89, 253259.

55CQ Sun , CJ O'Connor , SJ Turner , (1998) The effect of pH on the inhibition of bacterial growth by physiological concentrations of butyric acid: implications for neonates fed on suckled milk. Chem Biol Interact 113, 117131.

58MJ Egorin , ZM Yuan , DL Sentz , (1999) Plasma pharmacokinetics of butyrate after intravenous administration of sodium butyrate or oral administration of tributyrin or sodium butyrate to mice and rats. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 43, 445453.

60A Inagaki & T Sakata (2005) Dose-dependent stimulatory and inhibitory effects of luminal and serosal n-butyric acid on epithelial cell proliferation of pig distal colonic mucosa. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 51, 156160.

62TE Weber & BJ Kerr (2008) Effect of sodium butyrate on growth performance and response to lipopolysaccharide in weanling pigs. J Anim Sci 86, 442450.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *