This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
1 E Isolauri , S Salminen & AC Ouwehand (2004) Probiotics. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 18, 299–313.
2 RD Sleator & C Hill (2008) New frontiers in probiotic research. Lett Appl Microbiol 46, 143–147.
3 D Paineau , D Carcano , G Leyer , (2008) Effects of seven potential probiotic strains on specific immune responses in healthy adults: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 53, 107–113.
4 ML Cross , A Ganner , D Teilab , (2004) Patterns of cytokine induction by gram-positive and gram-negative probiotic bacteria. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 42, 173–180.
5 D Ghadimi , R Folster-Holst , M de Vrese , (2008) Effects of probiotic bacteria and their genomic DNA on T(H)1/T(H)2-cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy and allergic subjects. Immunobiology 213, 677–692.
6 U Helwig , KM Lammers , F Rizzello , (2006) Lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and E. coli Nissle induce pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. World J Gastroenterol 12, 5978–5986.
7 M Medina , E Izquierdo , S Ennahar , (2007) Differential immunomodulatory properties of Bifidobacterium logum strains: relevance to probiotic selection and clinical applications. Clin Exp Immunol 150, 531–538.
8 K Shida , T Suzuki , J Kiyoshima-Shibata , (2006) Essential roles of monocytes in stimulating human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with Lactobacillus casei to produce cytokines and augment natural killer cell activity. Clin Vaccine Immunol 13, 997–1003.
9 D Haller , S Blum , C Bode , (2000) Activation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by nonpathogenic bacteria in vitro: evidence of NK cells as primary targets. Infect Immun 68, 752–759.
10 LN Fink , LH Zeuthen , HR Christensen , (2007) Distinct gut-derived lactic acid bacteria elicit divergent dendritic cell-mediated NK cell responses. Int Immunol 19, 1319–1327.
11 AM Castellazzi , C Valsecchi , L Montagna , (2007) In vitro activation of mononuclear cells by two probiotics: Lactobacillus paracasei I 1688, Lactobacillus salivarius I 1794, and their mixture (PSMIX). Immunol Invest 36, 413–421.
14 P Kankaanpaa , Y Sutas , S Salminen , (2003) Homogenates derived from probiotic bacteria provide down-regulatory signals for peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Food Chem 83, 269–277.
15 LH Zeuthen , HR Christensen & H Frokiaer (2006) Lactic acid bacteria inducing a weak interleukin-12 and tumor necrosis factor alpha response in human dendritic cells inhibit strongly stimulating lactic acid bacteria but act synergistically with gram-negative bacteria. Clin Vaccine Immunol 13, 365–375.
16 S Salminen , MC Collado , E Isolauri , (2009) Microbial–host interactions: selecting the right probiotics and prebiotics for infants. Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program 64, 201–217.
17 P Lopez , M Gueimonde , A Margolles , (2010) Distinct Bifidobacterium strains drive different immune responses in vitro. Int J Food Microbiol 138, 157–165.
19 C Hessle , LA Hanson & AE Wold (1999) Lactobacilli from human gastrointestinal mucosa are strong stimulators of IL-12 production. Clin Exp Immunol 116, 276–282.
20 L Drago , L Nicola , E Iemoli , (2010) Strain-dependent release of cytokines modulated by Lactobacillus salivarius human isolates in an in vitro model. BMC Res Notes 3, 44–48.
21 B Foligne , S Nutten , C Grangette , (2007) Correlation between in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory properties of lactic acid bacteria. World J Gastroenterol 13, 236–243.
22 G Mastrangeli , S Corinti , C Butteroni , (2009) Effects of live and inactivated VSL#3 probiotic preparations in the modulation of in vitro and in vivo allergen-induced Th2 responses. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 150, 133–143.
23 AE Flinterman , EF Knol , AG van Ieperen-Van Dijk , (2007) Probiotics have a different immunomodulatory potential in vitro versus ex vivo upon oral administration in children with food allergy. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 143, 237–244.
24 RA Kekkonen , N Lummela , H Karjalainen , (2008) Probiotic intervention has strain-specific anti-inflammatory effects in healthy adults. World J Gastroenterol 14, 2029–2036.
25 IM Rea , SE McNerlan & HD Alexander (1999) CD69, CD25, and HLA-DR activation antigen expression on CD3+ lymphocytes and relationship to serum TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, and sIL-2R levels in aging. Exp Gerontol 34, 79–93.
26 AL Meyer , M Micksche , I Herbacek , (2006) Daily intake of probiotic as well as conventional yogurt has a stimulating effect on cellular immunity in young healthy women. Ann Nutr Metab 50, 282–289.
27 TB Ozkan , E Sahin , G Erdemir , (2007) Effect of Saccharomyces boulardii in children with acute gastroenteritis and its relationship to the immune response. J Int Med Res 35, 201–212.
28 M de Vrese , P Winkler , P Rautenberg , (2005) Effect of Lactobacillus gasseri PA 16/8, Bifidobacterium longum SP 07/3, B. bifidum MF 20/5 on common cold episodes: a double blind, randomized, controlled trial. Clin Nutr 24, 481–491.
29 P Garciapenarrubia , FT Koster , RO Kelley , (1989) Antibacterial activity of human natural-killer cells. J Exp Med 169, 99–113.
30 M Olivares , MP Diaz-Ropero , S Sierra , (2007) Oral intake of Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716 enhances the effects of influenza vaccination. Nutrition 23, 254–260.
31 D Bunout , G Barrera , S Hirsch , (2004) Effects of a nutritional supplement on the immune response and cytokine production in free-living Chilean elderly. J Parenter Enter Nutr 28, 348–354.
33 S Spanhaak , R Havenaar & G Schaafsma (1998) The effect of consumption of milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on the intestinal microflora and immune parameters in humans. Eur J Clin Nutr 52, 899–907.
34 AJ Cox , DB Pyne , PU Saunders , (2010) Oral administration of the probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum VRI-003 and mucosal immunity in endurance athletes. Br J Sports Med 44, 222–226.
35 H Ishikawa , I Akedo , T Otani , (2005) Randomized trial of dietary fiber and Lactobacillus casei administration for prevention of colorectal tumors. Int J Cancer 116, 762–767.
37 M Kalliomaki , JM Antoine , U Herz , (2010) Guidance for substantiating the evidence for beneficial effects of probiotics: prevention and management of allergic diseases by probiotics. J Nutr 140, 713S–721S.
38 CT Weaver , LE Harrington , PR Mangan , (2006) Th17: an effector CD4 T cell lineage with regulatory T cell ties. Immunity 24, 677–688.
39 VK Singh , S Mehrotra & SS Agarwal (1999) The paradigm of Th1 and Th2 cytokines – its relevance to autoimmunity and allergy. Immunol Res 20, 147–161.
40 AT Borchers , C Selmi , FJ Meyers , (2009) Probiotics and immunity. J Gastroenterol 44, 26–46.
41 RA Kekkonen , E Kajasto , M Miettinen , (2008) Probiotic Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp cremoris and Streptococcus thermophilus induce IL-12 and IFN-gamma production. World J Gastroenterol 14, 1192–1203.
42 HM Timmerman , LEM Niers , BU Ridwan , (2007) Design of a multispecies probiotic mixture to prevent infectious complications in critically ill patients. Clin Nutr 26, 450–459.
43 YM Vissers , J Snel , PF Zuurendonk , (2010) Differential effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum strains on cytokine induction in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 59, 60–70.
45 C Hessle , B Andersson & AE Wold (2000) Gram-positive bacteria are potent inducers of monocytic interleukin-12 (IL-12) while gram-negative bacteria preferentially stimulate IL-10 production. Infect Immun 68, 3581–3586.
46 AL Hart , K Lammers , P Brigidi , (2004) Modulation of human dendritic cell phenotype and function by probiotic bacteria. Gut 53, 1602–1609.
47 KM Lammers , P Brigidi , B Vitali , (2003) Immunomodulatory effects of probiotic bacteria DNA: IL-1 and IL-10 response in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 38, 165–172.
48 LEM Niers , HM Timmerman , GT Rijkers , (2005) Identification of strong interleukin-10 inducing lactic acid bacteria which down-regulate T helper type 2 cytokines. Clin Exp Allergy 35, 1481–1489.
49 GE Ji (2009) Probiotics in primary prevention of atopic dermatitis. In Food Factors for Health Promotion, pp. 117–128. Basel: Karger.
50 RL Clancy & G Pang (2007) Probiotics – industry myth or a practical reality? J Am Coll Nutr 26, 691S–694S.
51 R Kaji , J Kiyoshima-Shibata , M Nagaoka , (2010) Bacterial teichoic acids reverse predominant IL-12 production induced by certain Lactobacillus strains into predominant IL-10 production via TLR2-dependent ERK activation in macrophages. J Immunol 184, 3505–3513.
52 K Ivory , SJ Chambers , C Pin , (2008) Oral delivery of Lactobacillus casei Shirota modifies allergen-induced immune responses in allergic rhinitis. Clin Exp Allergy 38, 1282–1289.
53 T Shima , K Fukushima , H Setoyama , (2008) Differential effects of two probiotic strains with different bacteriological properties on intestinal gene expression, with special reference to indigenous bacteria. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 52, 69–77.
54 T Kobayashi , I Kato , M Nanno , (2010) Oral administration of probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium breve, does not exacerbate neurological symptoms in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 32, 116–124.
56 JA Pena & J Versalovic (2003) Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG decreases TNF-alpha production in lipopolysaccharide-activated murine macrophages by a contact-independent mechanism. Cell Microbiol 5, 277–285.
57 T Pessi , Y Sutas , H Hurme , (2000) Interleukin-10 generation in atopic children following oral Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Clin Exp Allergy 30, 1804–1808.
58 E Isolauri , T Arvola , Y Sutas , (2000) Probiotics in the management of atopic eczema. Clin Exp Allergy 30, 1604–1610.
59 M Kalliomaki , S Salminen , H Arvilommi , (2001) Probiotics in primary prevention of atopic disease: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 357, 1076–1079.
60 M Viljanen , E Savilahti , T Haahtela , (2005) Probiotics in the treatment of atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome in infants: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Allergy 60, 494–500.
61 K Kukkonen , M Kuitunen , T Haahtela , (2010) High intestinal IgA associates with reduced risk of IgE-associated allergic diseases. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 21, 67–73.
62 JD de Jonge , J Ezendam , LMJ Knippels , (2008) Lactobacillus casei Shirota does not decrease the food allergic response to peanut extract in Brown Norway rats. Toxicology 249, 140–145.
63 MV Kopp , I Hennemuth , A Heinzmann , (2008) Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of probiotics for primary prevention: no clinical effects of Lactobacillus GG supplementation. Pediatrics 121, E850–E856.
64 CE Rose , SSJ Sung & SM Fu (2003) Significant involvement of CCL2 (MCP-1) in inflammatory disorders of the lung. Microcirculation 10, 273–288.
65 A Steensberg , CP Fischer , C Keller , (2003) IL-6 enhances plasma IL-1ra, IL-10, and cortisol in humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 285, E433–E437.