Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-59b7f5684b-b2xwp Total loading time: 0.357 Render date: 2022-10-05T19:39:38.134Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": true, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

A computational framework for a nutrient flow representation of energy utilization by growing monogastric animals

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 March 2007

Stephen Birkett*
Affiliation:
Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1
Kees de Lange
Affiliation:
Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1
*
*Corresponding author: Dr Stephen Birkett, fax +1 519 836 9873, email birketts@wright.aps.uoguelph.ca
Rights & Permissions[Opens in a new window]

Abstract

HTML view is not available for this content. However, as you have access to this content, a full PDF is available via the ‘Save PDF’ action button.

A computational framework to represent nutrient utilization for body protein and lipid accretion by growing monogastric animals is presented. Nutrient and metabolite flows, and the biochemical and biological processes which transform these, are explicitly represented. A minimal set of calibration parameters is determined to provide five degrees of freedom in the adjustment of the marginal input–output response of this nutritional process model for a particular (monogastric) animal species. These parameters reflect the energy requirements to support the main biological processes: nutrient intake, faecal and urinary excretion, and production in terms of protein and lipid accretion. Complete computational details are developed and presented for these five nutritional processes, as well as a representation of the main biochemical transformations in the metabolic processing of nutrient intake. Absolute model response is determined as the residual nutrient requirements for basal processes. This model can be used to improve the accuracy of predicting the energetic efficiency of utilizing nutrient intake, as this is affected by independent diet and metabolic effects. Model outputs may be used to generate mechanistically predicted values for the net energy of a diet at particular defined metabolic states.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Nutrition Society 2001

References

Referenses

Armstrong, DG (1969) Cell bioenergetics and metabolism. In Handbuch der Tierernaehrung (Band 1) (Handbook of Animal Nutrition), pp. 385414 [Lenkheit, W, Breirem, K and Crasemann, E, editors]. Hamburg: Paul Parey.Google Scholar
Bakker, G (1996) Interaction between carbohydrates and fat in pigs. PhD Thesis, Wageningen Agricultural University.Google Scholar
Birkett, S & de Lange, K (2001 a) Limitations of conventional models and a conceptual framework for a nutrient flow representation of energy utilization by animals. British Journal of Nutrition 86, 647659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Birkett, S & de Lange, K (2001 b) Calibration of a nutrient flow model of energy utilization by growing pigs. British Journal of Nutrition 86, 675689.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Black, JL (1995) Modelling energy metabolism in the pig–critical evaluation of a simple reference model. In Modelling Growth in the Pig, EAAP Publication no. 78, pp. 87102 [Moughan, PJ, Verstegen, MWA and Visser-Reyneveld, MI, editors]. Wageningen: Wageningen Pers.Google Scholar
Blaxter, K (1989) Energy Metabolism in Animals and Man. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Boyd, J & McCracken, KJ (1979) Effect of dietary fat level and composition on fat and protein retention and efficiency of energy utilization by male castrate pigs between 13 and 40kg live weight. In Energy Metabolism, Proceedings of the Eighth Symposium on Energy Metabolism, Cambridge, September 1979, pp. 111114 [Mount, L, editor]. London: Butterworths.Google Scholar
Buttery, PJ & Boorman, KN (1976) The energetic efficiency of amino acid metabolism. In Protein Metabolism and Nutrition, EAAP Publication no. 16, pp. 197206 [Cole, DJ, Boorman, KN, Buttery, PJ, Lewis, D, Neale, RJ and Swan, H, editors]. London: Butterworths.Google Scholar
Centraal Veevoeder Bureau (1998) Veevoedertabel (Table of Feeding Value of Animal Feed Ingredients). Lelystad: Centraal Veevoeder Bureau.Google Scholar
Chudy, A & Schiemann, R (1967) Utilization of dietary fat for maintenance and fat deposition in model studies with rats. In Energy Metabolism of Farm Animals, Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium, Warsaw, Poland, September 1967, EAAP Publication no. 12, pp. 161168 [Blaxter, KL, Kielanowski, J and Thorbek, G, editors]. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Oriel Press.Google Scholar
Chwalibog, A, Tadson, AH & Thorbek, G (1998) Nutrient oxidation and lipogenesis in growing pigs. In Manipulating Pig Production VI, Proceedings of the Sixth Biennial Conference of the Australasian Pig Science Association (APSA), December 1997, pp. 311 [Cranwell, PD, editor]. Werribee, Victoria, Australia: APSA.Google Scholar
Dijkstra, J, Neal, H, Beever, D & France, J (1992) Simulation of nutrient digestion absorption, and outflow in the rumen: model description. Journal of Nutrition 122, 22392256.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Emmans, GC (1994) Effective energy: a concept of energy utilization applied across species. British Journal of Nutrition 71, 801821.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Enser, M (1984) The chemistry, biochemistry and nutritional importance of animal fats. In Fats in Animal Nutrition, pp. 2351 [Wiseman, J, editor]. London: Butterworths.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frayn, K, Humphreys, S & Coppack, S (1995) Fuel selection in white adipose tissue. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 54, 177189.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fuller, MF, Reeds, PJ, Cadenhead, A, Seve, B & Preston, T (1987) Effects of the amount and quality of dietary protein on nitrogen metabolism and protein turnover of pigs. British Journal of Nutrition 58, 287300.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gerrits, W (1996) Modelling the growth of preruminant calves PhD Thesis, Wageningen Agricultural University.Google Scholar
Gill, M, France, J, Summers, M, McBride, B & Milligan, L (1989) Simulation of the energy costs associated with protein turnover and Na+/K+ transport in growing lambs. Journal of Nutrition 119, 12871299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gill, M, Thornley, J, Black, J, Oldham, J & Beever, D (1984) Simulation of the metabolism of absorbed energy-yielding nutrients in young sheep. British Journal of Nutrition 52, 621649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hungate, RE (1966) The Rumen and its Microbes. New York, NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Jorgensen, H, Jakobsen, K & Eggum, BO (1993) Determination of endogenous fat and fatty acids at the terminal ileum and on faeces in growing pigs. Acta Agricultuae Scandinavica, Section A, Animal Science 43, 101106.Google Scholar
Jorgensen, H, Zhao, X-Q & Eggum, BO (1996) The influence of dietary fibre and environmental temperature on the development of the gastrointestinal tract, digestibility, degree of fermentation in the hind-gut and energy metabolism in pigs. British Journal of Nutrition 75, 365378.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kielanowski, J (1971) Energy requirements of the growing pig. In Pig Production, Proceedings of the Eighteenth Easter School in Agricultural Science, Nottingham, 1971, pp. 183201 [Cole, DJA, editor]. University Park, PA: Penn State University Press, University Park.Google Scholar
Kirchgeßner, M & Müller, HL (1991) Energy utilization via hindgut fermentation in pigs. In Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition (Supp. to Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition), pp. 4049.Google Scholar
Koch, DE, Pearson, AM, Magee, AM, Hoefer, WT & Schweigert, JA (1968) Effect of diet on the fatty acid composition of pork fat. Journal of Animal Science 27, 360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Knap, P (2000) Variation in maintenance requirements of growing pigs in relation to body composition. A simulation study. PhD Thesis, Wageningen Agricultural University.Google Scholar
Krebs, H (1964) The metabolic fate of amino acids. In Mammalian Protein Metabolism, chapter 5, vol. 1, pp. 125176 [Munro, H & Allison, JB, editors]. New York, NY: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leat, W, Cuthbertson, A, Howard, A & Gresham, G (1964) Studies on pigs reared on semi-synthetic diets containing no fat, beef tallow and maize oil: composition of carcass and fatty acid composition of various fat depots. Journal of Agricultural Science 63, 311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lehninger, A, Nelson, D & Cox, M (1993) Principles of Biochemistry, chapter 20. New York, NY: Worth Publishing.Google Scholar
Lindsay, DB (1976) Amino acids as sources of energy. In Protein Metabolism and Nutrition, EAAP Publication no. 16, pp. 183195 [Cole, DJ, Boorman, KN, Buttery, PJ, Lewis, D, Neale, RJ and Swan, H, editors]. London: Butterworths.Google Scholar
Longland, A, Low, A & Close, W (1988) Contribution of carbohydrate fermentation to energy balance in pigs. In Digestive Physiology in the Pig, Proceedings of the Symposium, Jablonna, Poland, pp. 108119. [Buraczewska, L, Buraczewska, S, Pastuszewska, B and Zebrowska, T, editors]. Jablonna, Poland: Polish Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
McDonald, P, Greenhalgh, JFD, Edwards, RA & Morgan, CA (1995)Animal Nutrition (Fifth ed.). New York, NY: Longmans.Google Scholar
Metz, S, de Wijs, M, Dekker, R & Jongbloed, A (1977) De inbouw van voervet in lichaamsvet en de afbraaksnelheid van lichaamsvet in het groeiende varken (The incorporation of diet fat in body fat and the rate of degradation of body fat in the growing pig). Rapport 106, IVVO Lelystad, The Netherlands: Instituut vor Veevoedingsonderzoek.Google Scholar
Milligan, L & Summers, M (1986) The biological basis of maintenance and its relevance to assessing responses to nutrients. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 45, 185193.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mills, S, Cook, L, Scott, T & Nestel, P (1976) Effect of dietary fat supplementation on the composition and positional distribution of fatty acids in ruminant and porcine glycerides. Lipids 11, 49.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moughan, PJ (1999) Protein metabolism in the growing pig. In A Quantitative Biology of the Pig, pp. 299332 [Kyriazakis, I, editor]. Wallingford: CAB International.Google Scholar
Noblet, J, Fortune, H, Dubois, S & Henry, Y (1989) Nouvelles Bases d'Estimation des Teneurs en Energie Digestible, Metabilisable et Nette des Aliments pour le Porc (New Basis for Estimation of Digestible and Metabolizable Net Energy in Swine Feeds). Saint Gilles: INRA.Google Scholar
Noblet, J, Fortune, H, Shi, XS & Dubois, S (1994) Prediction of net energy values of feeds for growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science 72, 344354.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Noblet, J & Henry, Y (1991) Energy evaluation systems for pig diets. In Manipulating Pig Production III, Proceedings of the Third Biennial Conference of the Australasian Pig Science Assoiation (APSA), Albury, NSW, November 24–27, 1991, pp. 87110 [Batterham, ES, editor]. Victoria: APSA.Google Scholar
Nyachoti, M, de Lange, CFM, McBride, B, Leeson, S & Gabert, V (2000) Endogenous gut nitrogen losses in growing pigs are not caused by increased protein synthesis rates in the small intestine. Journal of Nutrition 130, 566572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pettigrew, J, Gill, M, France, J & Close, W (1992) A mathematical integration of energy and amino acid metabolism of lactating sows. Journal of Animal Science 70, 37423761.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reeds, PJ (1992) Isotopic estimation of protein synthesis and proteolysis in vivo. In Modern Methods in Protein Nutrition and Metabolism, pp. 249273 [Nissen, S, editor]. New York, NY: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reeds, PJ, Cadenhead, A, Fuller, MF, Lobley, GE & McDonald, JD (1980) Protein turnover in growing pigs. Effects of age and food intake. British Journal of Nutrition 43, 445455.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reeds, PJ & Fuller, MF (1983) Nutrient intake and protein turnover. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 42, 463471.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schiemann, R, Hoffmann, L & Nehring, K (1962) Die Verwwertung reiner Nührstoffe 2. Mitteilung (Utilization of pure nutrients 2. Announcement). Archiv Tierernührung 11, 283320.Google Scholar
Schultz, AR (1978) Simulation of energy metabolism in the single-stomached animal. British Journal of Nutrition 39, 235254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tess, M (1981) Simulated effects of genetic change upon life-cycle production efficiency in swine and the effects of body composition upon energy utilization in the growing pig. PhD Thesis University of Nebraska.Google Scholar
Whittemore, CT (1983) Development of recommended energy and protein allowances for growing pigs. Agricultural Systems 11, 159186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Whittemore, CT (1997) An analysis of methods for the utilisation of net energy concepts to improve the accuracy of feed evaluation in diets for pigs. Animal Feed Science Technology 68, 8999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yen, J-T (1997) Oxygen consumption and energy flux of porcine splanchnic tissues. In Digestive Physiology in Pigs, Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Digestive Physiology in Pigs, Saint Malo, France, 1997, EAAP Publication no. 88, pp. 260269 [Laplace, J-P, Février, C and Barbeau, A, editors]. Paris, France: INRA.Google Scholar
Zhu, J, Fowler, V & Fuller, MF (1993) Assessment of fermentation in growing pigs given unmolassed sugar-beet pulp: a stoichiometric approach. British Journal of Nutrition 69, 511525.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
You have Access
35
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

A computational framework for a nutrient flow representation of energy utilization by growing monogastric animals
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

A computational framework for a nutrient flow representation of energy utilization by growing monogastric animals
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

A computational framework for a nutrient flow representation of energy utilization by growing monogastric animals
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *