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Consistent dietary patterns identified from childhood to adulthood: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 March 2007

V. Mikkilä*
Affiliation:
Division of Nutrition, PO Box 66, FIN-00 014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
L. Räsänen
Affiliation:
Division of Nutrition, PO Box 66, FIN-00 014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
O.T. Raitakari
Affiliation:
Department of Clinical Physiology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
P. Pietinen
Affiliation:
Department of Epidemiology and Health Promotion, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
J. Viikari
Affiliation:
Department of Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
*
*Corresponding author: Dr V. Mikkilä, fax +358 9 191 58 269, email vera.mikkila@helsinki.fi
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Abstract

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Dietary patterns are useful in nutritional epidemiology, providing a comprehensive alternative to the traditional approach based on single nutrients. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study is a prospective cohort study with a 21-year follow-up. At baseline, detailed quantitative information on subjects' food consumption was obtained using a 48 h dietary recall method (n 1768, aged 3–18 years). The interviews were repeated after 6 and 21 years (n 1200 and n 1037, respectively). We conducted a principal component analysis to identify major dietary patterns at each study point. A set of two similar patterns was recognised throughout the study. Pattern 1 was positively correlated with consumption of traditional Finnish foods, such as rye, potatoes, milk, butter, sausages and coffee, and negatively correlated with fruit, berries and dairy products other than milk. Pattern 1 type of diet was more common among male subjects, smokers and those living in rural areas. Pattern 2, predominant among female subjects, non-smokers and in urban areas, was characterised by more health-conscious food choices such as vegetables, legumes and nuts, tea, rye, cheese and other dairy products, and also by consumption of alcoholic beverages. Tracking of the pattern scores was observed, particularly among subjects who were adolescents at baseline. Of those originally belonging to the uppermost quintile of pattern 1 and 2 scores, 41 and 38 % respectively, persisted in the same quintile 21 years later. Our results suggest that food behaviour and concrete food choices are established already in childhood or adolescence and may significantly track into adulthood.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Nutrition Society 2005

References

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