1Lock, K, Pomerleau, J, Causer, L, Altmann, DR & McKee, M (2005) The global burden of disease attributable to low consumption of fruit and vegetables: implications for the global strategy on diet. Bull World Health Organ 83, 100–108.
2Rimm, EB, Ascherio, A, Giovannucci, E, Spiegelman, D, Stampfer, MJ & Willett, WC (1996) Vegetable, fruit, and cereal fiber intake and risk of coronary heart disease among men. JAMA 275, 447–451.
3Joshipura, KJ, Ascherio, A, Manson, JE, Stampfer, MJ, Rimm, EB, Speizer, FE, Hennekens, CH, Spiegelman, D & Willett, WC (1999) Fruit and vegetable intake in relation to risk of ischemic stroke. JAMA 282, 1233–1239.
4Liu, S, Manson, JE, Lee, I-M, Cole, SR, Hennekens, CH, Willett, WC & Buring, JE (2000) Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of cardiovascular disease: the Women's Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 922–928.
5Liu, S, Lee, I-M, Ajani, U, Cole, SR, Buring, JE & Manson, JAE (2001) Intake of vegetables rich in carotenoids and risk of coronary heart disease in men: The Physicians' Health Study. Int J Epidemiol 30, 130–135.
6Joshipura, KJ, Hu, FB, Manson, JE, et al. (2001) The effect of fruit and vegetable intake on risk for coronary heart disease. Ann Intern Med 134, 1106–1114.
7Bazzano, LA, He, J, Ogden, LG, Loria, CM, Vupputuri, S, Myers, L & Whelton, PK (2002) Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in US adults: the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic follow-up study. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 93–99.
8Hung, H-C, Joshipura, KJ, Jiang, R, Hu, FB, Hunter, D, Smith-Warner, SA, Colditz, GA, Rosner, B, Spiegelman, D & Willett, WC (2004) Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of major chronic disease. J Natl Cancer Inst 96, 1577–1584.
9Ignarro, LJ, Balestrieri, ML & Napoli, C (2007) Nutrition, physical activity, and cardiovascular disease: an update. Cardiovasc Res 73, 326–340.
10Horton, R (2005) Expression of concern: Indo-Mediterranean Diet Heart Study. Lancet 366, 354–356.
11de Lorgeril, M, Renaud, S, Mamelle, N, Salen, P, Martin, JL, Monjaud, I, Guidollet, J, Touboul, P & Delaye, J (1994) Mediterranean α-linolenic acid-rich diet in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Lancet 343, 1454–1459.
12Persson, J, Israelsson, B, Stavenow, L, Holmstrom, E & Berglund, G (1996) Progression of atherosclerosis in middle-aged men: effects of multifactorial intervention. J Intern Med 239, 425–433.
13Markus, RA, Mack, WJ, Azen, SP & Hodis, HN (1997) Influence of lifestyle modification on atherosclerotic progression determined by ultrasonographic change in the common carotid intima-media thickness. Am J Clin Nutr 65, 1000–1004.
14Bemelmans, WJE, Lefrandt, JD, Feskens, EJM, Broer, J, Tervaert, JWC, May, JF & Smit, AJ (2002) Change in saturated fat intake is associated with progression of carotid and femoral intima-media thickness, and with levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Atherosclerosis 163, 113–120.
15O'Leary, DHJ & Polak, JF (2002) Intima-media thickness: a tool for atherosclerosis imaging and event prediction. Am J Cardiol 90, Suppl., 18L–21L.
16Iribarren, C, Folsom, A, Jacobs, DR Jr, Gross, MD, Belcher, JD & Eckfeldt, JH (1997) Association of serum vitamin levels, LDL susceptibility to oxidation, and autoantibodies against MDA-LDL with carotid atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 17, 1171–1177.
17Rissanen, TH, Voutilainen, S, Nyyssönen, K, Salonen, R, Kaplan, GA & Salonen, JT (2003) Serum lycopene concentrations and carotid atherosclerosis: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 133–138.
18Dwyer, JH, Paul-Labrador, MJ, Fan, J, Shircore, AM, Merz, CNB & Dwyer, KM (2004) Progression of carotid intima-media thickness and plasma antioxidants: the Los Angeles Atherosclerosis Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 24, 313–319.
19Hjerkinn, EM, Abdelnoor, M, Breivik, L, Bergengen, L, Ellingsen, I, Seljeflot, I, Aase, O, Klemdal, TO, Hjermann, I & Arnesen, H (2006) Effect of diet or very long chain ω-3 fatty acids on progression of atherosclerosis, evaluated by carotid plaques, intima-media thickness and by pulse wave propagation in elderly men with hypercholesterolaemia. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehab 13, 325–333.
20Hjermann, I, Velve, BK, Holme, I & Leren, P (1981) Effect of diet and smoking intervention on the incidence of coronary heart disease. Lancet ii, 1303–1310.
21Blomhoff, R (2005) Dietary antioxidants and cardiovascular disease. Curr Opin Lipidol 16, 47–54.
22Johansson, L, Solvoll, K, Bjørneboe, G-E & Drevon, CA (1997) Dietary habits among Norwegian men and women. Scand J Nutr 41, 63–70.
23Solvoll, K (2000) .
24Ellingsen, I, Hjerkinn, EM, Arnesen, H, Seljeflot, I, Hjermann, I & Tonstad, S (2006) Follow-up of diet and cardiovascular risk factors 20 years after cessation of intervention in the Oslo Diet and Antismoking Study. Eur J Clin Nutr 60, 378–385.
25Andersen, LF, Solvoll, K, Johansson, LR, Salminen, I, Aro, A & Drevon, CA (1999) Evaluation of a food frequency questionnaire with weighed records, fatty acids, and α-tocopherol in adipose tissue and serum. Am J Epidemiol 150, 75–87.
26Andersen, LF, Veierød, MB, Johansson, L, Sakhi, A, Solvoll, K & Drevon, CA (2005) Evaluation of three dietary assessment methods and serum biomarkers as measures of fruit and vegetable intake, using the method of triads. Br J Nutr 93, 519–527.
27Persson, J, Stavenow, L, Wikstrand, J, Israelsson, B, Formgren, J & Berglund, G (1992) Noninvasive quantification of atherosclerotic lesions. Reproducibility of ultrasonographic measurement of arterial wall thickness and plaque size. Arterioscler Thromb 12, 261–266.
28Willett, W & Stampfer, M (1998) Implications of total energy intake for epidemiologic analyses. In Nutritional Epidemiology, 2nd ed., pp. 291–292 [Willett, W, editor]. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
29Chambless, LE, Folsom, AR, Davis, V, Sharrett, R, Heiss, G, Sorlie, P, Szklo, M, Howard, G & Evans, GW (2002) Risk factors for progression of common carotid atherosclerosis: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, 1987–1998. Am J Epidemiol 155, 38–47.
30Trøseid, M, Hjerkinn, EM, Seljeflot, I, Klemsdal, TO, Bergengen, L, Brievik, L & Arnesen, H (2006) Comparison of biochemical, functional and structural aspects of arterial wall properties in elderly men. Scan J Clin Lab Invest 66, 137–146.
31Strandhagen, E, Hansson, PO, Bosaeus, I, Isaksson, B & Eriksson, H (2000) High fruit intake may reduce mortality among middle-aged and elderly men. The Study of Men Born in 1913. Eur J Clin Nutr 54, 337–341.
32Gaziano, JM, Manson, JE, Branch, LG, Colditz, GA, Willett, WC & Buring, JE (1995) A prospective study of consumption of carotenoids in fruits and vegetables and decreased cardiovascular mortality in the elderly. Ann Epidemiol 5, 255–260.
33Woodside, JV, McCall, D, McGartland, C & Young, IS (2005) Micronutrients: dietary intake v. supplement use. Proc Nutr Soc 64, 543–553.
34Knekt, P, Ritz, J, Pereira, MA, et al. (2004) Antioxidant vitamins and coronary heart disease risk: a pooled analysis of 9 cohorts. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 1508–1520.
35Dauchet, L, Amouyel, P, Hercberg, S & Dallongeville, J (2006) Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. J Nutr 136, 2588–2593.
36Rissanen, TH, Voutilainen, S, Virtanen, JK, Venho, B, Vanharanta, M, Mursu, J & Salonen, JT (2003) Low intake of fruits, berries and vegetables is associated with excess mortality in men: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor (KIHD) Study. J Nutr 133, 199–204.
37van't Veer, P, Jansen, MCJK, Klerk, M & Kok, FJ (2000) Fruits and vegetables in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Public Health Nutr 3, 103–107.
38Rosvall, M, Östergren, PO, Hedblad, B, Isacsson, S-O, Janson, L & Berglund, G (2000) Occupational status, educational level, and the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis in a general population sample of middle-aged Swedish men and women: results from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Am J Epidemiol 152, 334–346.