Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Consumption of gold kiwifruit reduces severity and duration of selected upper respiratory tract infection symptoms and increases plasma vitamin C concentration in healthy older adults

  • Denise C. Hunter (a1), Margot A. Skinner (a1), Frances M. Wolber (a2), Chris L. Booth (a2), Jacelyn M. S. Loh (a1), Mark Wohlers (a1), Lesley M. Stevenson (a1) and Marlena C. Kruger (a2)...
Abstract

In the elderly, immunosenescence and malnourishment can contribute to increased risk and severity of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). Gold kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis ‘Hort16A’) contains nutrients important for immune function and mitigation of symptoms of infection, including vitamins C and E, folate, polyphenols and carotenoids. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether regular consumption of gold kiwifruit reduces symptoms of URTI in older people, and determine the effect it has on plasma antioxidants, and markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and immune function. A total of thirty-two community-dwelling people ( ≥ 65 years) participated in a randomised crossover study, consuming the equivalent of four kiwifruit or two bananas daily for 4 weeks, with treatments separated by a 4-week washout period. Participants completed the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21 daily, and blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of each treatment and washout period. Gold kiwifruit did not significantly reduce the overall incidence of URTI compared with banana, but significantly reduced the severity and duration of head congestion, and the duration of sore throat. Gold kiwifruit significantly increased plasma vitamin C, α-tocopherol and lutein/zeaxanthin concentrations, and erythrocyte folate concentrations, and significantly reduced plasma lipid peroxidation. No changes to innate immune function (natural killer cell activity, phagocytosis) or inflammation markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, homocysteine) were detected. Consumption of gold kiwifruit enhanced the concentrations of several dietary plasma analytes, which may contribute to reduced duration and severity of selected URTI symptoms, offering a novel tool for reducing the burden of URTI in older individuals.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Consumption of gold kiwifruit reduces severity and duration of selected upper respiratory tract infection symptoms and increases plasma vitamin C concentration in healthy older adults
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Consumption of gold kiwifruit reduces severity and duration of selected upper respiratory tract infection symptoms and increases plasma vitamin C concentration in healthy older adults
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Consumption of gold kiwifruit reduces severity and duration of selected upper respiratory tract infection symptoms and increases plasma vitamin C concentration in healthy older adults
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: D. C. Hunter, fax +64 9 925 7001, email denise.hunter@plantandfood.co.nz
References
Hide All
1Rowe, CA, Nantz, MP, Bukowski, JF, et al. (2007) Specific formulation of Camellia sinensis prevents cold and flu symptoms and enhances gamma delta T cell function: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Am Coll Nutr 26, 445452.
2Saxena, RC, Singh, R, Kumar, P, et al. (2010) A randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical evaluation of extract of Andrographis paniculata (KalmCold (TM)) in patients with uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infection. Phytomedicine 17, 178185.
3Jefferson, T, Rivetti, D, Rivetti, A, et al. (2005) Efficacy and effectiveness of influenza vaccines in elderly people: a systematic review. Lancet 366, 11651174.
4Fleming, DM (2001) Managing influenza: amantadine, rimantadine and beyond. Int J Clin Pract 55, 189195.
5Dapat, C, Suzuki, Y, Saito, R, et al. (2010) Rare influenza A (H3N2) variants with reduced sensitivity to antiviral drugs. Emerg Infect Dis 16, 493496.
6Le, QM, Kiso, M, Someya, K, et al. (2005) Avian flu: isolation of drug-resistant H5N1 virus. Nature 437, 1108.
7Eccles, R (2005) Understanding the symptoms of the common cold and influenza. Lancet Infect Dis 5, 718725.
8Calder, PC & Kew, S (2002) The immune system: a target for functional foods? Br J Nutr 88, S165S176.
9Field, CJ, Johnson, IR & Schley, PD (2002) Nutrients and their role in host resistance to infection. J Leukoc Biol 71, 1632.
10Beck, MA, Handy, J & Levander, OA (2004) Host nutritional status: the neglected virulence factor. Trends Microbiol 12, 417423.
11Sanderson, P, Elsom, RL, Kirkpatrick, V, et al. (2010) UK food standards agency workshop report: diet and immune function. Br J Nutr 103, 16841687.
12Roschek, B Jr, Fink, RC, McMichael, MD, et al. (2009) Elderberry flavonoids bind to and prevent H1N1 infection in vitro. Phytochemistry 70, 12551261.
13Yingsakmongkon, S, Miyamoto, D, Sriwilaijaroen, N, et al. (2008) In vitro inhibition of human influenza A virus infection by fruit-juice concentrate of Japanese plum (Prunus mume SIEB. et ZUCC). Biol Pharm Bull 31, 511515.
14Hamauzu, Y, Yasui, H, Inno, T, et al. (2005) Phenolic profile, antioxidant property, and anti-influenza viral activity of Chinese quince (Pseudocydonia sinensis Schneid.), quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.), and apple (Malus domestica Mill.) fruits. J Agric Food Chem 53, 928934.
15Knox, YM, Suzutani, T, Yosida, I, et al. (2003) Anti-influenza virus activity of crude extract of Ribes nigrum L. Phytother Res 17, 120122.
16Zakay-Rones, Z, Thom, E, Wollan, T, et al. (2004) Randomized study of the efficacy and safety of oral elderberry extract in the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections. J Int Med Res 32, 132140.
17Ferguson, AR & Ferguson, LR (2003) Are kiwifruit really good for you? Acta Hortic 610, 131138.
18Hunter, DC, Denis, M, Parlane, NA, et al. (2008) Feeding ZESPRI™ GOLD Kiwifruit puree to mice enhances serum immunoglobulins specific for ovalbumin and stimulates ovalbumin-specific mesenteric lymph node cell proliferation in response to orally administered ovalbumin. Nutr Res 28, 251257.
19Skinner, MA, Loh, JMS, Hunter, DC, et al. . (2011) Gold kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis ‘Hort16A’) for immune support. Proc Nutr Soc 70, 276280.
20Barrett, B, Brown, RL, Mundt, MP, et al. (2009) Validation of a short form Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom. Health Qual Life Outcomes 7, 76.
21Su, Q, Rowley, KG & O'Dea, K (1999) Stability of individual carotenoids, retinol and tocopherols in human plasma during exposure to light and after extraction. J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl 729, 191198.
22Prior, RL, Hoang, H, Gu, LW, et al. (2003) Assays for hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC(FL))) of plasma and other biological and food samples. J Agric Food Chem 51, 32733279.
23Huang, D, Ou, B, Hampsch-Woodill, M, et al. (2002) Development and validation of oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay for lipophilic antioxidants using randomly methylated β-cyclodextrin as the solubility enhancer. J Agric Food Chem 50, 18151821.
24Benzie, IFF & Strain, JJ (1999) Ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay: direct measure of total antioxidant activity of biological fluids and modified version for simultaneous measurement of total antioxidant power and ascorbic acid concentration. In Methods Enzymology, pp. 1527 [Lester, P, editor]. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
25Zamai, L, Mariani, AR, Zauli, G, et al. (1998) Kinetics of in vitro natural killer activity against K562 cells as detected by flow cytometry. Cytometry 32, 280285.
26Johann, S, Blumel, G, Lipp, M, et al. (1995) A versatile flow cytometry-based assay for the determination of short-term and long-term natural killer cell activity. J Immunol Methods 185, 209216.
27Kantakamalakul, W, Jaroenpool, H & Pattanapanyasat, K (2003) A novel enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-K562 flow cytometric method for measuring natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxic activity. J Immunol Methods 272, 189197.
28Bracher, M, Gould, HJ, Sutton, BJ, et al. (2007) Three-colour flow cytometric method to measure antibody-dependent tumour cell killing by cytotoxicity and phagocytosis. J Immunol Methods 323, 160171.
29Bruunsgaard, H, Pedersen, AN, Schroll, M, et al. (2001) Decreased natural killer cell activity is associated with atherosclerosis in elderly humans. Exp Gerontol 37, 127136.
30Gill, HS, Rutherford, KJ & Cross, ML (2001) Dietary probiotic supplementation enhances natural killer cell activity in the elderly: an investigation of age-related immunological changes. J Clin Immunol 21, 264271.
31Soinio, M, Marniemi, J, Laakso, M, et al. (2004) Elevated plasma homocysteine level is an independent predictor of coronary heart disease events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ann Intern Med 140, 94100.
32Zacho, J, Tybjaerg-Hansen, A & Nordestgaard, BG (2010) C-reactive protein and all-cause mortality-the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Eur Heart J 31, 16241632.
33Roll, S, Nocon, M & Willich, SN (2010) Reduction of common cold symptoms by encapsulated juice powder concentrate of fruits and vegetables: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Br J Nutr 105, 118122.
34Bøhn, SK, Myhrstad, MC, Thoresen, M, et al. (2010) Blood cell gene expression associated with cellular stress defense is modulated by antioxidant-rich food in a randomised controlled clinical trial of male smokers. BMC Med 8, 54.
35Hamer, DH, Sempertegui, F, Estrella, B, et al. (2009) Micronutrient deficiencies are associated with impaired immune response and higher burden of respiratory infections in elderly Ecuadorians. J Nutr 139, 113119.
36Hara, M, Tanaka, K & Hirota, Y (2005) Immune response to influenza vaccine in healthy adults and the elderly: association with nutritional status. Vaccine 23, 14571463.
37Hughes, DA (2000) Dietary antioxidants and human immune function. Nutr Bull 25, 3541.
38Han, SN, Meydani, M, Wu, DY, et al. (2000) Effect of long-term dietary antioxidant supplementation on influenza virus infection. J Gerontol 55, B496B503.
39Hennet, T, Peterhans, E & Stocker, R (1992) Alterations in antioxidant defences in lung and liver of mice infected with influenza A virus. J Gen Virol 73, 3946.
40Ichiyama, K, Mitsuzumi, H, Zhong, M, et al. (2009) Promotion of IL-4-and IL-5-dependent differentiation of anti-mu-primed B cells by ascorbic acid 2-glucoside. Immunol Lett 122, 219226.
41Cox, RJ, Brokstad, KA & Ogra, P (2004) Influenza virus: immunity and vaccination strategies. Comparison of the immune response to inactivated and live, attenuated influenza vaccines. Scand J Immunol 59, 115.
42Maggini, S, Wintergerst, ES, Beveridge, S, et al. (2007) Selected vitamins and trace elements support immune function by strengthening epithelial barriers and cellular and humoral immune responses. Br J Nutr 98, Suppl. 91, S29S35.
43Kaiser, L, Fritz, RS, Straus, SE, et al. (2001) Symptom pathogenesis during acute influenza: interleukin-6 and other cytokine responses. J Med Virol 64, 262268.
44Saedisomeolia, A, Wood, LG, Garg, ML, et al. (2009) Lycopene enrichment of cultured airway epithelial cells decreases the inflammation induced by rhinovirus infection and lipopolysaccharide. J Nutr Biochem 20, 577585.
45Gauliard, B, Grieve, D, Wilson, R, et al. (2008) The effects of dietary phenolic compounds on cytokine and antioxidant production by a549 cells. J Med Food 11, 382384.
46Novoselova, EG, Lunin, SM, Novoselova, TV, et al. (2009) Naturally occurring antioxidant nutrients reduce inflammatory response in mice. Eur J Pharmacol 615, 234240.
47Nantz, MP, Rowe, CA, Nieves, C, et al. (2006) Immunity and antioxidant capacity in humans is enhanced by consumption of a dried, encapsulated fruit and vegetable juice concentrate. J Nutr 136, 26062610.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 59
Total number of PDF views: 359 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 745 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 18th September 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.