Ainsworth, BE, Haskell, WL, Leon, AS, Jacobs, DR, Montoye, HJ, Sallis, JF and Paffenbarger, RS (1993) Compendium of physical activities: Classification of energy costs of human physical activities. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 25, 71–80.
Barker, ME, McClean, SI, Strain, JJ and Thompson, KA (1992) Dietary behaviour and health in Northern Ireland: an exploration of biochemical and haematological associations. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 46, 151–156.
Barker, ME, McClean, SI, Thompson, KA and Reid, NG (1990) Dietary behaviours and sociocultural demographics in Northern Ireland. British Journal of Nutrition 64, 319–329.
Bull, NL (1965) Dietary habits of 15 to 25 year olds. Human Nutrition: Applied Nutrition 38, 1–68.
Cattell, RB (1965) Factor analysis: An introduction to essentials. Biometrics 21, 190–215.
Cattell, RB (1966) The Scree Test for the number of factors. Multivariate Behavioral Research 1, 245–276.
Cox, BDB, laxter, M, Buckle, ALJ, Fenner, NP, Golding, JF, Gore, M, Huppert, FA, Nickson, J, Roth, M, Stark, J, Wadsworth, MEJ & Whichelow, M (1987) The Health and Lifestyle Survey: Preliminary Report. Cambridge: Health Promotion Research Trust.
Daly, ME, Vale, C, Walker, M, Alberti, KG and Mathers, JC (1997) Dietary carbohydrates and insulin sensitivity: a review of the evidence and clinical implications. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 66, 1072–1085.
Friedewald, WT, Levy, RI and Fredrickson, DS (1972) Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clinical Chemistry 18, 499–502.
Gittelsohn, J, Wolever, TMS, Harris, SB, Harris-Giraldo R, Hanley, AJG and Zinman, B (1998) Specific patterns of food consumption and preparation are associated with diabetes and obesity in a Native Canadian community. Journal of Nutrition 128, 541–547.
Gregory, J, Foster, K, Tyler, H & Wiseman, M (1990) The Dietary and Nutritional Survey of British Adults. London: H.M. Stationery Office.
Haffner, SM, Valdez, RA, Hazuda, HP, Mitchell, BD, Morales, PA and Stern, MP (1992) Prospective analysis of the insulin-resistance syndrome (Syndrome X). Diabetes 41, 715–722.
Hamman, RF (1992) Genetic and environmental determinants of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Diabetes/Metabolism Reviews 8, 287–338.
Huijbregts, PPCW, Feskens, EJM and Kromhout, D (1995) Dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in elderly men: The Zutphen Elderly Study. International Journal of Epidemiology 24, 313–320.
Johnson, MF, Nichols, JF, Sallis, JF, Calfas, KJ and Hovel, MF (1998) Interrelationships between physical activity and other health behaviors among University women and men. Preventive Medicine 27, 536–544.
Kant, AK, Schatzkin, A and Ziegler, RG (1995) Dietary diversity and subsequent cause-specific mortality in the NHANES I epidemiologic follow-up study. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 14, 233–238.
King, H and Rewers, M (1993) Global estimates for prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in adults. WHO ad hoc Diabetes Reporting Group. Diabetes Care 16, 157–177.
Kunst, A, Draeger, B & Ziegenhon, J (1983) UV-methods with hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. In Methods of Enzymatic Analysis, pp. 163–172 [Bergmeyer, HU, editor]. Deerfield, IL: Weinheim Verlag Chemie.
Mardia, KV, Kent, JT & Bibby, JM (1979) Multivariate Analysis. London: Academic Press.
Margetts, BM and Jackson, AA (1993) Interactions between people's diet and their smoking habits: The dietary and nutritional survey of British adults. British Medical Journal 307, 1381–1384.
Meigs, JB, D'Agostino RB, Wilson, PWF, Cupples, LA, Nathan, DM and Singer, DE (1997) Risk variable clustering in the insulin resistance syndrome: The Framingham Offspring Study. Diabetes 46, 1594–1600.
Paffenbarger, RS, Blair, SN, Lee, I and Hyde, RT (1993) Measurement of physical activity to assess health effects in free-living populations. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 25, 60–70.
Prevost, AT, Whichelow, MJ and Cox, BD (1997) Longitudinal dietary changes between 1984–5 and 1991–2 in British adults: associations with socio-demographic, lifestyle and health factors. British Journal of Nutrition 78, 873–888.
Purnell, JQ and Brunzell, JD (1997) The central role of dietary fat, not carbohydrate, in the insulin resistance syndrome. Current Opinion in Lipidology 8, 17–22.
Reaven, GM (1988) Role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes 37, 1595–1607.
Registrar General (1980) Classification of Occupations. London: H.M. Stationery Office.
Wareham, NJ, Hennings, SJ, Byrne, CD, Hales, CN and Day, NE (1998) A quantitative analysis of the relationship between habitual energy expenditure, fitness and the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. British Journal of Nutrition 80, 235–241.
Wareham, NJ, Ness, EM, Byrne, CD, Cox, BD, Day, NE and Hales, CN (1996) Cigarette smoking is not associated with hyperinsulinemia: Evidence against a causal relationship between smoking and insulin resistance. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental 45, 1551–1556.
Whichelow, MJ, Erzinclioglu, SW and Cox, BD (1991) Some regional variations in dietary patterns in a random sample of British adults. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 45, 253–262.
Whichelow, MJ, Erzinclioglu, SW and Cox, BD (1991) A comparison of the diets of non-smokers and smokers. British Journal of Addiction to Alcohol and Other Drugs 86, 71–81.
Whichelow, MJ and Prevost, AT (1996) Dietary patterns and their associations with demographic, lifestyle and health variables in a random sample of British adults. British Journal of Nutrition 76, 17–30.
Williams, DRR, Wareham, NJ, Brown, DC, Byrne, CD, Clark, PMS, Cox, BD, Cox, LJ, Day, NE, Hales, CN, Palmer, CR, Shackleton, JR and Wang, TWM (1995) Undiagnosed glucose intolerance in the community: The Isle of Ely Diabetes Project. Diabetic Medicine 12, 30–35.
Williams, DE, Wareham, NJ, Cox, BD, Byrne, CD, Hales, CN and Day, NE (1999) Frequent salad vegetable consumption is associated with a reduction in the risk of diabetes mellitus. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 52, 329–335.
World Health Organization (1985) Diabetes Mellitus: Report of a WHO Study Group, Technical Report Series no. 727. Geneva: WHO.
Yarnell, JWG, Fehily, AM, Milbank, JE, Sweetnam, PM and Walker, CL (1983) A short dietary questionnaire for use in an epidemiological survey: Comparison with weighed dietary records. Human Nutrition: Applied Nutrition 37, 103–112.