1Mozaffarian, D, Aro, A & Willett, WC (2009) Health effects of trans-fatty acids: experimental and observational evidence. Eur J Clin Nutr 63, Suppl. 2, S5–S21.
2Brouwer, IA, Wanders, AJ & Katan, MB (2010) Effect of animal and industrial trans fatty acids on HDL and LDL cholesterol levels in humans – a quantitative review. PloS one 5, e9434.
3Voorrips, LE, Brants, HA, Kardinaal, AF, et al. (2002) Intake of conjugated linoleic acid, fat, and other fatty acids in relation to postmenopausal breast cancer: the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 873–882.
4Chavarro, JE, Stampfer, MJ, Campos, H, et al. (2008) A prospective study of trans-fatty acid levels in blood and risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 17, 95–101.
5Vinikoor, LC, Millikan, RC, Satia, JA, et al. (2010) Trans-fatty acid consumption and its association with distal colorectal cancer in the North Carolina Colon Cancer Study II. Cancer Causes Control 21, 171–180.
6Stachowska, E (2008) Conjugated dienes of linoleic acid and tumorigenesis. Ann Acad Med Stetin 54, 122–125.
7Kennedy, A, Martinez, K, Schmidt, S, et al. (2010) Antiobesity mechanisms of action of conjugated linoleic acid. J Nutr Biochem 21, 171–179.
8Reynolds, CM & Roche, HM (2010) Conjugated linoleic acid and inflammatory cell signalling. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 82, 199–204.
9Gebauer, SK, Chardigny, JM, Jakobsen, MU, et al. (2011) Effects of ruminant trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease and cancer: a comprehensive review of epidemiological, clinical, and mechanistic studies. Adv Nutr 2, 332–354.
10Bendsen, NT, Christensen, R, Bartels, EM, et al. (2011) Consumption of industrial and ruminant trans fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Eur J Clin Nutr 65, 773–783.
11Brouwer, IA, Wanders, AJ & Katan, MB (2013) Trans fatty acids and cardiovascular health-research completed? Eur J Clin Nutr (epublication ahead of print version 27 March 2013).
12EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) (2012) Statement on the safety of the “conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-rich oils” Clarinol and Tonalin TG80 as Novel Food ingredients. EFSA J 10, 2700.
14EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) (2010) Scientific opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers. EFSA J 8, 1794.
15Riserus, U, Arner, P, Brismar, K, et al. (2002) Treatment with dietary trans10cis12 conjugated linoleic acid causes isomer-specific insulin resistance in obese men with the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care 25, 1516–1521.
16Riserus, U, Basu, S, Jovinge, S, et al. (2002) Supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid causes isomer-dependent oxidative stress and elevated C-reactive protein: a potential link to fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. Circulation 106, 1925–1929.
17Riserus, U, Vessby, B, Arner, P, et al. (2004) Supplementation with trans10cis12-conjugated linoleic acid induces hyperproinsulinaemia in obese men: close association with impaired insulin sensitivity. Diabetologia 47, 1016–1019.
19Palmquist, DL, Lock, AL, Shingfield, KJ, et al. (2005) Biosynthesis of conjugated linoleic acid in ruminants and humans. Adv Food Nutr Res 50, 179–217.
20McCrorie, TA, Keaveney, EM, Wallace, JM, et al. (2011) Human health effects of conjugated linoleic acid from milk and supplements. Nutr Res Rev 24, 206–227.
22Tetens, I (2010) Scientific Opinion on the safety of “conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-rich oil” (Tonalin® TG 80) as a Novel Food ingredient. EFSA J 8, 1600.
23Lock, AL & Bauman, DE (2004) Modifying milk fat composition of dairy cows to enhance fatty acids beneficial to human health. Lipids 39, 1197–1206.
24Parodi, PW (1999) Conjugated linoleic acid: an anticarcinogenic fatty acid present in milk fat. J Dairy Sci 82, 1339–1349.
25Fritsche, J & Steinhart, H (1998) Amounts of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in German foods and evaluation of daily intake. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 2065, 77–82.
26Maurelli, S, Blasi, F, Cossignani, L, et al. (2009) Enzymatic synthesis of structured triacylglycerols containing CLA isomers starting from sn-1,3-diacylglycerols. J Am Oil Chem Soc 86, 127–133.
27Chardigny, JM, Masson, E, Sergiel, JP, et al. (2003) The position of rumenic acid on triacylglycerols alters its bioavailability in rats. J Nutr 133, 4212–4214.
28Valeille, K & Martin, JC (2004) Complete stereospecific determination of conjugated linoleic acids in triacylglycerol of milk-fat. Reprod Nutr Dev 44, 459–464.
29Paterson, LJ, Weselake, RJ, Mir, PS, et al. (2002) Positional distribution of CLA in TAG of lamb tissues. Lipids 37, 605–611.
30Yurawecz, MP, Hood, JK, Mossoba, MM, et al. (1995) Furan fatty acids determined as oxidation products of conjugated octadecadienoic acid. Lipids 30, 595–598.
31Sugano, M, Tsujita, A, Yamasaki, M, et al. (1997) Lymphatic recovery, tissue distribution, and metabolic effects of conjugated linoleic acid in rats. J Nutr Biochem 8, 38–43.
32Martin, JC, Sebedio, JL, Caselli, C, et al. (2000) Lymphatic delivery and in vitro pancreatic lipase hydrolysis of glycerol esters of conjugated linoleic acids in rats. J Nutr 130, 1108–1114.
33Bracco, U (1994) Effect of triglyceride structure on fat absorption. Am J Clin Nutr 60, 1002S–1009S.
34Gervais, R, Gagnon, F, Kheadr, EE, et al. (2009) Bioaccessibility of fatty acids from conjugated linoleic acid-enriched milk and milk emulsions studied in a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model. Int Dairy J 19, 574–581.
35Engberink, MF, Geleijnse, JM, Wanders, AJ, et al. (2012) The effect of conjugated linoleic acid, a natural trans fat from milk and meat, on human blood pressure: results from a randomized crossover feeding study. J Hum Hypertens 26, 127–132.
36de Roos, B, Wanders, AJ, Wood, S, et al. (2011) A high intake of industrial or ruminant trans fatty acids does not affect the plasma proteome in healthy men. Proteomics 11, 3928–3934.
37Smit, LA, Katan, MB, Wanders, AJ, et al. (2011) A high intake of trans fatty acids has little effect on markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in humans. J Nutr 141, 1673–1678.
38Wanders, AJ, Brouwer, IA, Siebelink, E, et al. (2010) Effect of a high intake of conjugated linoleic acid on lipoprotein levels in healthy human subjects. PloS one 5, e9000.
39Sluijs, I, Plantinga, Y, de Roos, B, et al. (2010) Dietary supplementation with cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid and aortic stiffness in overweight and obese adults. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 175–183.
40Asp, ML, Collene, AL, Norris, LE, et al. (2011) Time-dependent effects of safflower oil to improve glycemia, inflammation and blood lipids in obese, post-menopausal women with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-masked, crossover study. Clin Nutr 30, 443–449.
41Joseph, SV, Jacques, H, Plourde, M, et al. (2011) Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for 8 weeks does not affect body composition, lipid profile, or safety biomarkers in overweight, hyperlipidemic men. J Nutr 141, 1286–1291.
42Pfeuffer, M, Fielitz, K, Laue, C, et al. (2011) CLA does not impair endothelial function and decreases body weight as compared with safflower oil in overweight and obese male subjects. J Am Coll Nutr 30, 19–28.
43Smit, LA, Baylin, A & Campos, H (2010) Conjugated linoleic acid in adipose tissue and risk of myocardial infarction. Am J Clin Nutr 92, 34–40.
44Castro-Webb, N, Ruiz-Narvaez, EA & Campos, H (2012) Cross-sectional study of conjugated linoleic acid in adipose tissue and risk of diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 96, 175–181.
45Venkatramanan, S, Joseph, SV, Chouinard, PY, et al. (2010) Milk enriched with conjugated linoleic acid fails to alter blood lipids or body composition in moderately overweight, borderline hyperlipidemic individuals. J Am Coll Nutr 29, 152–159.
46Brown, AW, Trenkle, AH & Beitz, DC (2011) Diets high in conjugated linoleic acid from pasture-fed cattle did not alter markers of health in young women. Nutr Res 31, 33–41.
47Lacroix, E, Charest, A, Cyr, A, et al. (2012) Randomized controlled study of the effect of a butter naturally enriched in trans fatty acids on blood lipids in healthy women. Am J Clin Nutr 95, 318–325.
48Zlatanos, SN, Laskaridis, K & Sagredos, A (2008) Conjugated linoleic acid content of human plasma. Lipids Health Dis 7, 34.
49Sato, K, Shinohara, N, Honma, T, et al. (2011) The change in conjugated linoleic acid concentration in blood of Japanese fed a conjugated linoleic acid diet. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 57, 364–371.
50Declercq, V, Taylor, CG & Zahradka, P (2011) Isomer-specific effects of conjugated linoleic acid on blood pressure, adipocyte size and function. Br J Nutr 107, 1413–1421.
51Park, Y, Terk, M & Park, Y (2011) Interaction between dietary conjugated linoleic acid and calcium supplementation affecting bone and fat mass. J Bone Miner Metab 29, 268–278.
52Lasa, A, Simon, E, Churruca, I, et al. (2011) Effects of trans-10, cis-12 CLA on liver size and fatty acid oxidation under energy restriction conditions in hamsters. Nutrition 27, 116–121.
53Obsen, T, Faergeman, NJ, Chung, S, et al. (2012) Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid decreases de novo lipid synthesis in human adipocytes. J Nutr Biochem 23, 580–590.
54Lasa, A, Miranda, J, Churruca, I, et al. (2011) The combination of resveratrol and CLA does not increase the delipidating effect of each molecule in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Nutr Hosp 26, 997–1003.
55Ashwell, MS, Ceddia, RP, House, RL, et al. (2010) Trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid alters hepatic gene expression in a polygenic obese line of mice displaying hepatic lipidosis. J Nutr Biochem 21, 848–855.
56Yu, J, Yu, B, Jiang, H, et al. (2012) Conjugated linoleic acid induces hepatic expression of fibroblast growth factor 21 through PPAR-alpha. Br J Nutr 107, 461–465.
57Hommelberg, PP, Plat, J, Remels, AH, et al. (2010) Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid inhibits skeletal muscle differentiation and GLUT4 expression independently from NF-kappaB activation. Mol Nutr Food Res 54, 1763–1772.
58Jiang, S, Chen, H, Wang, Z, et al. (2011) Activated AMPK and prostaglandins are involved in the response to conjugated linoleic acid and are sufficient to cause lipid reductions in adipocytes. J Nutr Biochem 22, 656–664.
59Martinez, K, Kennedy, A & McIntosh, MK (2011) JNK inhibition by SP600125 attenuates trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid-mediated regulation of inflammatory and lipogenic gene expression. Lipids 46, 885–892.
60Zhai, JJ, Liu, ZL, Li, JM, et al. (2010) Different mechanisms of cis-9, trans-11- and trans-10, cis-12- conjugated linoleic acid affecting lipid metabolism in 3T3-L1 cells. J Nutr Biochem 21, 1099–1105.
61Stringer, DM, Zahradka, P, Declercq, VC, et al. (2010) Modulation of lipid droplet size and lipid droplet proteins by trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid parallels improvements in hepatic steatosis in obese, insulin-resistant rats. Biochim Biophys Acta 1801, 1375–1385.
62DeClercq, V, Zahradka, P & Taylor, CG (2010) Dietary t10, c12-CLA but not c9, t11 CLA reduces adipocyte size in the absence of changes in the adipose renin–angiotensin system in fa/fa Zucker rats. Lipids 45, 1025–1033.
63Stachowska, E, Siennicka, A, Baskiewcz-Halasa, M, et al. (2012) Conjugated linoleic acid isomers may diminish human macrophages adhesion to endothelial surface. Int J Food Sci Nutr 63, 30–35.
64Rungapamestry, V, McMonagle, J, Reynolds, C, et al. (2012) Inter-organ proteomic analysis reveals insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-diabetic effects of cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid in ob/ob mice. Proteomics 12, 461–476.
65Hsu, YC, Meng, X, Ou, L, et al. (2010) Activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase-p38 MAP kinase pathway mediates apoptosis induced by conjugated linoleic acid in p53-mutant mouse mammary tumor cells. Cell Signal 22, 590–599.
66Stachowska, E, Kijowski, J, Dziedziejko, V, et al. (2011) Conjugated linoleic acid regulates phosphorylation of PPARgamma by modulation of ERK 1/2 and p38 signaling in human macrophages/fatty acid-laden macrophages. J Agric Food Chem 59, 11846–11852.
67Declercq, V, Taylor, CG, Wigle, J, et al. (2012) Conjugated linoleic acid improves blood pressure by increasing adiponectin and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity. J Nutr Biochem 23, 487–493.
68Kim, DI, Kim, KH, Kang, JH, et al. (2011) Trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid modulates NF-kappaB activation and TNF-alpha production in porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells via a PPARgamma-dependent pathway. Br J Nutr 105, 1329–1336.
69Kim, KH, Kim, DI, Kim, SH, et al. (2011) Trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid attenuates tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells through induction of interleukin-10. Cytokine 56, 224–230.
70Perdomo, MC, Santos, JE & Badinga, L (2011) Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid and the PPAR-gamma agonist rosiglitazone attenuate lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha production by bovine immune cells. Domest Anim Endocrinol 41, 118–125.
71Paek, J, Kang, JH, Kim, SS, et al. (2010) Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid directly enhances the chemotactic activity of porcine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes by activating F-actin polymerization in vitro. Res Vet Sci 89, 191–195.
72Kelley, NS, Hubbard, NE & Erickson, KL (2007) Conjugated linoleic acid isomers and cancer. J Nutr 137, 2599–2607.
73Bialek, A, Tokarz, A, Dudek, A, et al. (2010) Influence of diet enriched with conjugated linoleic acids on their distribution in tissues of rats with DMBA induced tumors. Lipids Health Dis 9, 126.
74Bougnoux, P, Hajjaji, N, Maheo, K, et al. (2010) Fatty acids and breast cancer: sensitization to treatments and prevention of metastatic re-growth. Prog Lipid Res 49, 76–86.
75Heinze, VM & Actis, AB (2012) Dietary conjugated linoleic acid and long-chain n-3 fatty acids in mammary and prostate cancer protection: a review. Int J Food Sci Nutr 63, 66–78.
76Hsu, YC & Ip, MM (2011) Conjugated linoleic acid-induced apoptosis in mouse mammary tumor cells is mediated by both G protein coupled receptor-dependent activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway and by oxidative stress. Cell Signal 23, 2013–2020.
77Rakib, MA, Kim, YS, Jang, WJ, et al. (2010) Attenuation of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) inhibition in MCF-10A cells by c9, t11-conjugated linoleic acid. J Agric Food Chem 58, 12022–12030.
78Palmieri, G, Bergamo, P, Luini, A, et al. (2011) Acylpeptide hydrolase inhibition as targeted strategy to induce proteasomal down-regulation. PloS one 6, e25888.
79Degen, C, Lochner, A, Keller, S, et al. (2011) Influence of in vitro supplementation with lipids from conventional and Alpine milk on fatty acid distribution and cell growth of HT-29 cells. Lipids Health Dis 10, 131.
80Bassaganya-Riera, J & Hontecillas, R (2010) Dietary conjugated linoleic acid and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in inflammatory bowel disease. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 13, 569–573.
81Gorissen, L, Raes, K, Weckx, S, et al. (2010) Production of conjugated linoleic acid and conjugated linolenic acid isomers by Bifidobacterium species. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 87, 2257–2266.
82Martin, CA, Milinsk, MC, Visentainer, JV, et al. (2007) Trans fatty acid-forming processes in foods: a review. An Acad Bras Cienc 79, 343–350.
83Kemeny, Z, Recseg, K, Henon, G, et al. (2001) Deodorization of vegetable oils: prediction of trans polyunsaturated fatty acid content. J Am Oil Chem Soc 78, 973–979.
84Mozaffarian, D (2008) Commentary: ruminant trans fatty acids and coronary heart disease – cause for concern? Int J Epidemiol 37, 182–184.
85Santora, JE, Palmquist, DL & Roehrig, KL (2000) Trans-vaccenic acid is desaturated to conjugated linoleic acid in mice. J Nutr 130, 208–215.
86Turpeinen, AM, Mutanen, M, Aro, A, et al. (2002) Bioconversion of vaccenic acid to conjugated linoleic acid in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 504–510.
87Bhattacharya, A, Banu, J, Rahman, M, et al. (2006) Biological effects of conjugated linoleic acids in health and disease. J Nutr Biochem 17, 789–810.
88Wolff, RL, Combe, NA, Destaillats, F, et al. (2000) Follow-up of the delta4 to delta16 trans-18 : 1 isomer profile and content in French processed foods containing partially hydrogenated vegetable oils during the period 1995–1999. Analytical and nutritional implications. Lipids 35, 815–825.
89Micha, R, King, IB, Lemaitre, RN, et al. (2010) Food sources of individual plasma phospholipid trans fatty acid isomers: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 883–893.
90Sartika, RA (2011) Effect of trans fatty acids intake on blood lipid profile of workers in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Malays J Nutr 17, 119–127.
91Varraso, R, Kabrhel, C, Goldhaber, SZ, et al. (2012) Prospective study of diet and venous thromboembolism in US women and men. Am J Epidemiol 175, 114–126.
92Vesper, HW, Kuiper, HC, Mirel, LB, et al. (2012) Levels of plasma trans-fatty acids in non-Hispanic white adults in the United States in 2000 and 2009. JAMA 307, 562–563.
93Laake, I, Pedersen, JI, Selmer, R, et al. (2011) A prospective study of intake of trans-fatty acids from ruminant fat, partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, and marine oils and mortality from CVD. Br J Nutr 108, 743–754.
94Hansen, CP, Berentzen, TL, Halkjaer, J, et al. (2012) Intake of ruminant trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference. Eur J Clin Nutr 66, 1104–1109.
95Baylin, A, Kabagambe, EK, Ascherio, A, et al. (2003) High 18 : 2 trans-fatty acids in adipose tissue are associated with increased risk of nonfatal acute myocardial infarction in Costa Rican adults. J Nutr 133, 1186–1191.
96Lemaitre, RN, King, IB, Mozaffarian, D, et al. (2006) Plasma phospholipid trans fatty acids, fatal ischemic heart disease, and sudden cardiac death in older adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study. Circulation 114, 209–215.
97Kraft, J, Spiltoir, JI, Salter, AM, et al. (2011) Differential effects of the trans-18 : 1 isomer profile of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils on cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism in male F1B hamsters. J Nutr 141, 1819–1826.
98Teixeira, AM, Dias, VT, Pase, CS, et al. (2012) Could dietary trans fatty acids induce movement disorders? Effects of exercise and its influence on NaK-ATPase and catalase activity in rat striatum. Behav Brain Res 226, 504–510.
99Collison, KS, Zaidi, MZ, Saleh, SM, et al. (2012) Nutrigenomics of hepatic steatosis in a feline model: effect of monosodium glutamate, fructose, and trans-fat feeding. Genes Nutr 7, 265–280.
100Dhibi, M, Brahmi, F, Mnari, A, et al. (2011) The intake of high fat diet with different trans fatty acid levels differentially induces oxidative stress and non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats. Nutr Metab 8, 65.
101Pimentel, GD, Lira, FS, Rosa, JC, et al. (2012) Intake of trans fatty acids during gestation and lactation leads to hypothalamic inflammation via TLR4/NFkappaBp65 signaling in adult offspring. J Nutr Biochem 23, 265–271.
102Bowman, GL, Silbert, LC, Howieson, D, et al. (2012) Nutrient biomarker patterns, cognitive function, and MRI measures of brain aging. Neurology 78, 241–249.
103Harvey, KA, Arnold, T, Rasool, T, et al. (2008) Trans-fatty acids induce pro-inflammatory responses and endothelial cell dysfunction. Br J Nutr 99, 723–731.
104Kummerow, FA, Zhou, Q & Mahfouz, MM (1999) Effect of trans fatty acids on calcium influx into human arterial endothelial cells. Am J Clin Nutr 70, 832–838.
105Iwata, NG, Pham, M, Rizzo, NO, et al. (2011) Trans fatty acids induce vascular inflammation and reduce vascular nitric oxide production in endothelial cells. PloS one 6, e29600.
106Mozaffarian, D (2006) Trans fatty acids – effects on systemic inflammation and endothelial function. Atheroscler Suppl 7, 29–32.
107Fournier, N, Attia, N, Rousseau-Ralliard, D, et al. (2012) Deleterious impact of elaidic fatty acid on ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux from mouse and human macrophages. Biochim Biophys Acta 1821, 303–312.
108Enke, U, Jaudszus, A, Schleussner, E, et al. (2011) Fatty acid distribution of cord and maternal blood in human pregnancy: special focus on individual trans fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids. Lipids Health Dis 10, 247.
109Rosenthal, MD & Doloresco, MA (1984) The effects of trans fatty acids on fatty acyl delta 5 desaturation by human skin fibroblasts. Lipids 19, 869–874.
110Tyburczy, C, Major, C, Lock, AL, et al. (2009) Individual trans octadecenoic acids and partially hydrogenated vegetable oil differentially affect hepatic lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in golden Syrian hamsters. J Nutr 139, 257–263.
111Wang, Y, Jacome-Sosa, MM, Ruth, MR, et al. (2009) Trans-11 vaccenic acid reduces hepatic lipogenesis and chylomicron secretion in JCR:LA-cp rats. J Nutr 139, 2049–2054.
112Bassett, CM, Edel, AL, Patenaude, AF, et al. (2010) Dietary vaccenic acid has antiatherogenic effects in LDLr − / − mice. J Nutr 140, 18–24.
113Jacome-Sosa, MM, Lu, J, Wang, Y, et al. (2010) Increased hypolipidemic benefits of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid in combination with trans-11 vaccenic acid in a rodent model of the metabolic syndrome, the JCR:LA-cp rat. Nutr Metab 7, 60.
114Anadon, A, Martinez-Larranaga, MR, Martinez, MA, et al. (2011) A 4-week repeated oral dose toxicity study of dairy fat naturally enriched in vaccenic, rumenic and alpha-linolenic acids in rats. J Agric Food Chem 59, 8036–8046.
115Sun, X, Zhang, J, Macgibbon, AK, et al. (2011) Bovine milk fat enriched in conjugated linoleic and vaccenic acids attenuates allergic dermatitis in mice. Clin Exp Allergy 41, 729–738.
116Van Nieuwenhove, CP, Cano, PG, Perez-Chaia, AB, et al. (2011) Effect of functional buffalo cheese on fatty acid profile and oxidative status of liver and intestine of mice. J Med Food 14, 420–427.
117Wang, Y, Jacome-Sosa, MM, Ruth, MR, et al. (2012) The intestinal bioavailability of vaccenic acid and activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and -γ in a rodent model of dyslipidemia and the metabolic syndrome. Mol Nutr Food Res 56, 1234–1246.
118Chardigny, JM, Destaillats, F, Malpuech-Brugere, C, et al. (2008) Do trans fatty acids from industrially produced sources and from natural sources have the same effect on cardiovascular disease risk factors in healthy subjects? Results of the trans Fatty Acids Collaboration (TRANSFACT) study. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 558–566.
119Motard-Belanger, A, Charest, A, Grenier, G, et al. (2008) Study of the effect of trans fatty acids from ruminants on blood lipids and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 593–599.
120Tardy, AL, Lambert-Porcheron, S, Malpuech-Brugere, C, et al. (2009) Dairy and industrial sources of trans fat do not impair peripheral insulin sensitivity in overweight women. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 88–94.
121Onakpoya, IJ, Posadzki, PP, Watson, LK, et al. (2012) The efficacy of long-term conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on body composition in overweight and obese individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Eur J Nutr 51, 127–134.
122Schoeller, DA, Watras, AC & Whigham, LD (2009) A meta-analysis of the effects of conjugated linoleic acid on fat-free mass in humans. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 34, 975–978.
123Whigham, LD, Watras, AC & Schoeller, DA (2007) Efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid for reducing fat mass: a meta-analysis in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 1203–1211.
124Lenz, TL & Hamilton, WR (2004) Supplemental products used for weight loss. J Am Pharm Assoc 44, 59–67, .
125Salas-Salvadó, J, Marquez-Sandoval, F & Bullo, M (2006) Conjugated linoleic acid intake in humans: a systematic review focusing on its effect on body composition, glucose, and lipid metabolism. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 46, 479–488.
126Tricon, S & Yaqoob, P (2006) Conjugated linoleic acid and human health: a critical evaluation of the evidence. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 9, 105–110.
127Bachmair, EM, Bots, ML, Mennen, LI, et al. (2012) Effect of supplementation with an 80:20 cis9, trans11 conjugated linoleic acid blend on the human platelet proteome. Mol Nutr Food Res 56, 1148–1159.
128Labonte, ME, Couture, P, Paquin, P, et al. (2011) Comparison of the impact of trans fatty acids from ruminant and industrial sources on surrogate markers of cholesterol homeostasis in healthy men. Mol Nutr Food Res 55, Suppl. 2, S241–S247.