1Haslam D, Sattar N & Lean M (2006) Obesity – time to wake up. BMJ 333, 640–642.
3Heslehurst N, Lang R, Rankin J, Wilkinson JR & Summerbell CD (2007) Obesity in pregnancy: a study of the impact of maternal obesity on NHS maternity services. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 114, 334–342.
4Sattar N, Clark PH, Lean MEJ, Walker I & Greer IA (2001) Antenatal waist circumference and hypertension risk. Obstet Gynecol 97, 268–271.
5Duckitt K & Harrington D (2005) Risk factors for pre-eclampsia at antenatal booking: systematic review of controlled studies. BMJ 330, 565.
6O'Brien TE, Ray JG & Chan WS (2003) Maternal body mass index and risk of preeclampsia: a systematic review. Epidemiology 14, 368–374.
7Catalano PM & Ehrenberg HM (2006) The short- and long-term implications of maternal obesity on the mother and her offspring. BJOG 113, 1126–1133.
8King JC (2006) Maternal obesity, metabolism and pregnancy outcome. Ann Rev Nutr 26, 271–291.
9Abenhaim HA, Kinch RA, Morin L, Benjamin A & Usher R (2007) Effect of prepregnancy body mass index categories on obstetrical and neonatal outcomes. Arch Gynecol Obstet 275, 39–43.
10Sewell MF, Huston-Presley L, Super DM & Catalano P (2006) Increased neonatal fat mass, no lean body mass, is associated with maternal obesity. Am J Obstet Gynecol 195, 1100–1103.
11Gale CR, Javaid MK, Robinson SM, Law CM, Godfrey KM & Cooper C (2007) Maternal size in pregnancy and body composition in children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92, 3904–3911.
12Flegal KM, Graubard BI, Williamson DF & Gail MH (2005) Excess deaths associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity. JAMA 293, 1861–1867.
13Snijder MB, van Dam RM, Visser M & Seidell JC (2006) What aspects of body fat are particularly hazardous and how do we measure them? Int J Epidemiol 35, 83–92.
14Lean MEJ, Han TS & Morrison CE (1995) Waist circumference as a measure for indicating need for weight management. BMJ 311, 158–161.
15Han TS, Sattar N & Lean M (2006) Assessment of obesity and its clinical implications. BMJ 333, 695–698.
16Ashwell M & Hsieh SD (2005) Six reasons why the waist-to-height ratio is a rapid and effective global indicator for health risks of obesity and how its use could simplify the international public health message on obesity. Int J Food Sci Nutr 56, 303–307.
17Ashwell M, Cole TJ & Dixon AK (1996) Ratio of waist circumference to height is strong predictor of intra-abdominal fat. BMJ 313, 559–560.
18Cox BD & Whichelow MJ (1996) Ratio of waist circumference to height is better predictor of death than body mass index. BMJ 313, 1487.
19Hsieh SD, Yoshinaga H & Muto T (2003) Waist-to-height ratio, a simple and practical index for assessing central fat distribution and metabolic risk in Japanese men and women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 27, 610–616.
20Inskip HM, Godfrey KM, Robinson SM, Law CM, Barker DJP, Cooper C & SWS Study Group (2006) Cohort profile: the Southampton Women's Survey. Int J Epidemiol 35, 42–48.
21Fidanza F (1991) . In Nutritional Status Assessment, pp. 1–62 [Fidanza F, editor]. London: Chapman & Hall.
22Callaway CW, Chumlea WC, Bouchard C, Himes JH, Lohman TG, Martin AD, Mitchell CD, Mueller WH, Roche AF & Seefeldt VD (1988) . In Anthropometric Standardization Reference Manual, pp. 39–54 [Lohman TG, Roche AF and Martorell R, editors]. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Books.
23Harrison GG, Buskirk ER, Carter JEL, Johnston FE, Lohman TG, Pollock ML, Roche AF & Wilmore J (1988) . In Anthropometric Standardization Reference Manual, pp. 55–70 [Lohman TG, Roche AF and Martorell R, editors]. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Books.
24Deurenberg P, Deurenberg Yap M, Wang J, Lin FP & Schmidt G (1999) The impact of body build on the relationship between body mass index and percent body fat. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 23, 537–542.
25Durnin JVGA & Womersley J (1974) Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skinfold thickness: measurements on 481 men and women aged from 16 to 72 years. Br J Nutr 32, 77–97.
26Wells JC & Victora CG (2005) Indices of whole-body and central adiposity for evaluating the metabolic load of obesity. Int J Obes (Lond) 29, 483–489.
27Heymsfield SB, Gallagher D, Mayer L, Beetsch J & Pietrobelli A (2007) Scaling of human body composition to stature: new insights into body mass index. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 82–91.
28Ruston D, Hoare J, Henderson L, Gregory J, Bates CJ, Prentice A, Birch M, Swan G & Farron M (2004) The National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Adults Aged 19 to 64 Years, volume 4. London: The Stationery Office. http://www.food.gov.uk/multimedia/pdfs/ndnsfour.pdf.
30Wells JCK, Treleaven P & Cole TJ (2007) BMI compared with 3-dimensional body shape: the UK National Sizing Survey. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 419–425.
31Buchan IE, Bundred PE, Kitchiner DJ & Cole TJ (2007) Body mass index has risen more steeply in tall than in short 3-year olds: serial cross-sectional surveys 1988–2003. Int J Obes (Lond) 31, 23–29.
32Han TS, Seidell JC, Currall JEP, Morrison CE, Deurenberg P & Lean MEJ (1997) The influences of height and age on waist circumference as an index of adiposity in adults. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 21, 83–89.
33Van Itallie TB, Yang MU, Heymsfield SB, Funk RC & Boileau RA (1990) Height-normalized indices of the body's fat-free mass and fat mass: potentially useful indicators of nutritional status. Am J Clin Nutr 52, 953–959.
34Lissner L, Bjorkelund C, Heitmann BL, Lapidus L, Bjorntorp P & Bengtsson C (1998) Secular increases in waist–hip ratio among Swedish women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 22, 1116–1120.
35McCarthy HD, Ellis SM & Cole TJ (2003) Central overweight and obesity in British youth aged 11–16 years: cross sectional surveys of waist circumference. BMJ 326, 624.
36Yusuf S, Hawken S, Ounpuu S, et al. (2005) Obesity and the risk of myocardial infarction in 27 000 participants from 52 countries: a case–control study. Lancet 366, 1640–1649.
37Meisinger C, Doring A, Thorand B, Heier M & Lowel H (2006) Body fat distribution and risk of type 2 diabetes in the general population: are there differences between men and women? The MONICA/KORA Augsburg Cohort Study. Am J Clin Nutr 84, 483–489.
38Carey VJ, Walters EE, Colditz GA, Solomon CG, Willett WC, Rosner BA, Speizer FE & Manson JE (1997) Body fat distribution and risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. The Nurses' Health Study. Am J Epidemiol 145, 614–619.
39Weinbrenner T, Schröder H, Escurriol V, Fito M, Elosua R, Vila J, Marrugat J & Covas MI (2006) Circulating oxidized LDL is associated with increased waist circumference independent of body mass index in men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 30–35.
40Canoy D, Luben R, Welch A, Bingham S, Wareham N, Day N & Khaw KT (2004) Fat distribution, body mass index and blood pressure in 22 090 men and women in the Norfolk cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Norfolk) study. J Hypertens 22, 2067–2074.
41Woolf AD, Breedveld FC & Kvien TK (2006) Controlling the obesity epidemic is important for maintaining musculoskeletal health. Ann Rheum Dis 65, 1401–1402.