1. Townsend, N, Wilson, L, Bhatnagar, P, et al. (2016) Cardiovascular disease in Europe: epidemiological update 2016. Eur Heart J 37, 3232–3245.
2. D’Agostino, RB Sr, Vasan, RS, Pencina, MJ, et al. (2008) General cardiovascular risk profile for use in primary care: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 117, 743–753.
3. O’Keefe, JH & Bell, DS (2007) Postprandial hyperglycemia/hyperlipidemia (postprandial dysmetabolism) is a cardiovascular risk factor. Am J Cardiol 100, 899–904.
4. Miller, M, Stone, NJ, Ballantyne, C, et al. (2011) Triglycerides and cardiovascular disease: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation 123, 2292–2333.
5. Hokanson, JE & Austin, MA (1996) Plasma triglyceride level is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease independent of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level: a meta-analysis of population-based prospective studies. J Cardiovasc Risk 3, 213–219.
6. Di Angelantonio, E, Sarwar, N, Perry, P, et al. (2009) Major lipids, apolipoproteins, and risk of vascular disease. JAMA 302, 1993–2000.
7. Ramasamy, I (2014) Recent advances in physiological lipoprotein metabolism. Clin Chem Lab Med 52, 1695–1727.
8. Nakajima, K, Nakano, T, Tokita, Y, et al. (2011) Postprandial lipoprotein metabolism: VLDL vs chylomicrons. Clin Chim Acta 412, 1306–1318.
9. Bravo, E, Napolitano, M & Botham, KM (2010) Postprandial lipid metabolism: the missing link between life-style habits and the increasing incidence of metabolic diseases in western countries? Open Transl Med J 2, 1–13.
10. Mundal, L, Sarancic, M, Ose, L, et al. (2014) Mortality among patients with familial hypercholesterolemia: a registry-based study in Norway, 1992–2010. J Am Heart Assoc 3, e001236.
11. Brautbar, A, Leary, E, Rasmussen, K, et al. (2015) Genetics of familial hypercholesterolemia. Curr Atheroscler Rep 17, 491.
12. Chan, DC & Watts, GF (2012) Postprandial lipoprotein metabolism in familial hypercholesterolemia: thinking outside the box. Metabolism 61, 3–11.
13. Kolovou, GD, Kostakou, PM & Anagnostopoulou, KK (2011) Familial hypercholesterolemia and triglyceride metabolism. Int J Cardiol 147, 349–358.
14. Kolovou, GD, Anagnostopoulou, KK, Pilatis, ND, et al. (2005) Heterozygote men with familial hypercholesterolaemia may have an abnormal triglyceride response post-prandially. Evidence for another predictor of vascular risk in familial hypercholesterolaemia. Int J Clin Pract 59, 311–317.
15. Rubinsztein, DC, Cohen, JC, Berger, GM, et al. (1990) Chylomicron remnant clearance from the plasma is normal in familial hypercholesterolemic homozygotes with defined receptor defects. J Clin Invest 86, 1306–1312.
16. Cummings, MH, Watts, GF, Umpleby, M, et al. (1995) Increased hepatic secretion of very-low-density-lipoprotein apolipoprotein B-100 in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia: a stable isotope study. Atherosclerosis 113, 79–89.
17. Millar, JS, Maugeais, C, Ikewaki, K, et al. (2005) Complete deficiency of the low-density lipoprotein receptor is associated with increased apolipoprotein B-100 production. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 25, 560–565.
18. Dane-Stewart, CA, Watts, GF, Mamo, JC, et al. (2001) Elevated apolipoprotein B-48 and remnant-like particle-cholesterol in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia. Eur J Clin Invest 31, 113–117.
19. Mamo, JC, Smith, D, Yu, KC, et al. (1998) Accumulation of chylomicron remnants in homozygous subjects with familial hypercholesterolaemia. Eur J Clin Invest 28, 379–384.
20. Druce, I, Abujrad, H & Ooi, TC (2015) PCSK9 and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism. J Biomed Res 29, 429–436.
21. Kwakernaak, AJ, Lambert, G & Dullaart, RP (2014) Plasma proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 is predominantly related to intermediate density lipoproteins. Clin Biochem 47, 679–682.
22. Chan, DC, Wong, AT, Pang, J, et al. (2015) Inter-relationships between proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, apolipoprotein C-III and plasma apolipoprotein B-48 transport in obese subjects: a stable isotope study in the postprandial state. Clin Sci (London) 128, 379–385.
23. Bjermo, H, Iggman, D, Kullberg, J, et al. (2012) Effects of n-6 PUFAs compared with SFAs on liver fat, lipoproteins, and inflammation in abdominal obesity: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 95, 1003–1012.
24. Monfort-Pires, M, Delgado-Lista, J, Gomez-Delgado, F, et al. (2016) Impact of the content of fatty acids of oral fat tolerance tests on postprandial triglyceridemia: systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrients 8, E580.
25. World Health Organization (2008) Waist Circumference and Waist-Hip Ratio: Report of a WHO Expert Consultation. Geneva: WHO.
26. Carlsen, MH, Lillegaard, IT, Karlsen, A, et al. (2010) Evaluation of energy and dietary intake estimates from a food frequency questionnaire using independent energy expenditure measurement and weighed food records. Nutr J 9, 37.
27. Würtz, P, Kangas, AJ, Soininen, P, et al. (2017) Quantitative serum NMR metabolomics in large-scale epidemiology: a primer on -Omic technology. Am J Epidemiol 186, 1084–1096.
28. Matthews, JN, Altman, DG, Campbell, MJ, et al. (1990) Analysis of serial measurements in medical research. BMJ 300, 230–235.
29. Carstensen, M, Thomsen, C & Hermansen, K (2003) Incremental area under response curve more accurately describes the triglyceride response to an oral fat load in both healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects. Metabolism 52, 1034–1037.
30. Mustad, VA, Ellsworth, JL, Cooper, AD, et al. (1996) Dietary linoleic acid increases and palmitic acid decreases hepatic LDL receptor protein and mRNA abundance in young pigs. J Lipid Res 37, 2310–2323.
31. Dekker, MJ, Wright, AJ, Mazurak, VC, et al. (2007) New oral fat tolerance tests feature tailoring of the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio to elicit a specific postprandial response. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 32, 1073–1081.
32. Masson, CJ & Mensink, RP (2011) Exchanging saturated fatty acids for (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids in a mixed meal may decrease postprandial lipemia and markers of inflammation and endothelial activity in overweight men. J Nutr 141, 816–821.
33. Karupaiah, T, Tan, CH, Chinna, K, et al. (2011) The chain length of dietary saturated fatty acids affects human postprandial lipemia. J Am Coll Nutr 30, 511–521.
34. Jones, AE, Stolinski, M, Smith, RD, et al. (1999) Effect of fatty acid chain length and saturation on the gastrointestinal handling and metabolic disposal of dietary fatty acids in women. Br J Nutr 81, 37–43.
35. McKimmie, RL, Easter, L & Weinberg, RB (2013) Acyl chain length, saturation, and hydrophobicity modulate the efficiency of dietary fatty acid absorption in adult humans. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 305, G620–G627.
36. Tholstrup, T, Sandstrom, B, Bysted, A, et al. (2001) Effect of 6 dietary fatty acids on the postprandial lipid profile, plasma fatty acids, lipoprotein lipase, and cholesterol ester transfer activities in healthy young men. Am J Clin Nutr 73, 198–208.
37. van Greevenbroek, MM, van Meer, G, Erkelens, DW, et al. (1996) Effects of saturated, mono-, and polyunsaturated fatty acids on the secretion of apo B containing lipoproteins by Caco-2 cells. Atherosclerosis 121, 139–150.
38. Williams, CM, Bateman, PA, Jackson, KG, et al. (2004) Dietary fatty acids and chylomicron synthesis and secretion. Biochem Soc Trans 32, 55–58.
39. Sakr, SW, Attia, N, Haourigui, M, et al. (1997) Fatty acid composition of an oral load affects chylomicron size in human subjects. Br J Nutr 77, 19–31.
40. Sundaram, M & Yao, Z (2010) Recent progress in understanding protein and lipid factors affecting hepatic VLDL assembly and secretion. Nutr Metab (Lond) 7, 35.
41. Botham, KM, Avella, M, Cantafora, A, et al. (1997) The lipolysis of chylomicrons derived from different dietary fats by lipoprotein lipase in vitro
. Biochim Biophys Acta 1349, 257–263.
42. Weintraub, MS, Zechner, R, Brown, A, et al. (1988) Dietary polyunsaturated fats of the W-6 and W-3 series reduce postprandial lipoprotein levels. Chronic and acute effects of fat saturation on postprandial lipoprotein metabolism. J Clin Invest 82, 1884–1893.
43. Berry, SE, Miller, GJ & Sanders, TA (2007) The solid fat content of stearic acid-rich fats determines their postprandial effects. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 1486–1494.
44. Armand, M, Borel, P, Pasquier, B, et al. (1996) Physicochemical characteristics of emulsions during fat digestion in human stomach and duodenum. Am J Physiol 271, G172–G183.
45. Schwenk, RW, Holloway, GP, Luiken, JJ, et al. (2010) Fatty acid transport across the cell membrane: regulation by fatty acid transporters. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 82, 149–154.
46. Bennett, AJ, Billett, MA, Salter, AM, et al. (1995) Regulation of hamster hepatic microsomal triglyceride transfer protein mRNA levels by dietary fats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 212, 473–478.
47. Lopez-Soldado, I, Avella, M & Botham, KM (2009) Differential influence of different dietary fatty acids on very low-density lipoprotein secretion when delivered to hepatocytes in chylomicron remnants. Metabolism 58, 186–195.
48. Kersten, S (2014) Physiological regulation of lipoprotein lipase. Biochim Biophys Acta 1841, 919–933.
49. Jackson, KG, Wolstencroft, EJ, Bateman, PA, et al. (2005) Greater enrichment of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins with apolipoproteins E and C-III after meals rich in saturated fatty acids than after meals rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr 81, 25–34.
50. Eriksson, M, Angelin, B, Henriksson, P, et al. (1991) Metabolism of lipoprotein remnants in humans. Studies during intestinal infusion of fat and cholesterol in subjects with varying expression of the low density lipoprotein receptor. Arterioscler Thromb 11, 827–837.
51. Watts, GF, Barrett, PH, Marais, AD, et al. (2001) Chylomicron remnant metabolism in familial hypercholesterolaemia studied with a stable isotope breath test. Atherosclerosis 157, 519–523.
52. Dubuc, G, Chamberland, A, Wassef, H, et al. (2004) Statins upregulate PCSK9, the gene encoding the proprotein convertase neural apoptosis-regulated convertase-1 implicated in familial hypercholesterolemia. Arterioscler Thromb 24, 1454–1459.
53. Lambert, G, Sjouke, B, Choque, B, et al. (2012) The PCSK9 decade. J Lipid Res 53, 2515–2524.
54. Tremblay, AJ, Lamarche, B, Ruel, IL, et al. (2004) Increased production of VLDL apoB-100 in subjects with familial hypercholesterolemia carrying the same null LDL receptor gene mutation. J Lipid Res 45, 866–872.
55. Hyson, D, Rutledge, JC & Berglund, L (2003) Postprandial lipemia and cardiovascular disease. Curr Atheroscler Rep 5, 437–444.
56. Nordestgaard, BG & Zilversmit, DB (1988) Large lipoproteins are excluded from the arterial wall in diabetic cholesterol-fed rabbits. J Lipid Res 29, 1491–1500.
57. Christensen, JJ, Ulven, SM, Retterstol, K, et al. (2017) Comprehensive lipid and metabolite profiling of children with and without familial hypercholesterolemia: a cross-sectional study. Atherosclerosis 266, 48–57.
58. Ooi, EM, Barrett, PH & Watts, GF (2013) The extended abnormalities in lipoprotein metabolism in familial hypercholesterolemia: developing a new framework for future therapies. Int J Cardiol 168, 1811–1818.
59. Ottestad, IO, Halvorsen, B, Balstad, TR, et al. (2006) Triglyceride-rich HDL3 from patients with familial hypercholesterolemia are less able to inhibit cytokine release or to promote cholesterol efflux. J Nutr 136, 877–881.
60. Ganjali, S, Momtazi, AA, Banach, M, et al. (2017) HDL abnormalities in familial hypercholesterolemia: Focus on biological functions. Prog Lipid Res 67, 16–26.
61. Frenais, R, Ouguerram, K, Maugeais, C, et al. (1999) Apolipoprotein A-I kinetics in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: a stable isotope study. J Lipid Res 40, 1506–1511.
62. Williams, CM (1998) Dietary interventions affecting chylomicron and chylomicron remnant clearance. Atherosclerosis 141, Suppl. 1, S87–S92.
63. Petitt, DS & Cureton, KJ (2003) Effects of prior exercise on postprandial lipemia: a quantitative review. Metabolism 52, 418–424.