Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 69
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Madden, A. M. Mulrooney, H. M. and Shah, S. 2016. Estimation of energy expenditure using prediction equations in overweight and obese adults: a systematic review. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Vol. 29, Issue. 4, p. 458.

    Dixon, J. B. Lambert, E. A. Grima, M. Rice, T. Lambert, G. W. and Straznicky, N. E. 2015. Fat-free mass loss generated with weight loss in overweight and obese adults: what may we expect?. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, Vol. 17, Issue. 1, p. 91.

    Gac, L. Kanaly, V. Ramirez, V. Teske, J.A. Pinto, M.P. and Perez-Leighton, C.E. 2015. Behavioral characterization of a model of differential susceptibility to obesity induced by standard and personalized cafeteria diet feeding. Physiology & Behavior, Vol. 152, p. 315.

    Stubbs, R. James Morris, Liam Pallister, Carolyn Horgan, Graham and Lavin, Jacquie H. 2015. Weight outcomes audit in 1.3 million adults during their first 3 months’ attendance in a commercial weight management programme. BMC Public Health, Vol. 15, Issue. 1,

    Tipton, Kevin D. 2015. Nutritional Support for Exercise-Induced Injuries. Sports Medicine, Vol. 45, Issue. S1, p. 93.

    Bouchard, C Tchernof, A and Tremblay, A 2014. Predictors of body composition and body energy changes in response to chronic overfeeding. International Journal of Obesity, Vol. 38, Issue. 2, p. 236.

    Heymsfield, S. B. Gonzalez, M. C. C. Shen, W. Redman, L. and Thomas, D. 2014. Weight loss composition is one-fourth fat-free mass: a critical review and critique of this widely cited rule. Obesity Reviews, Vol. 15, Issue. 4, p. 310.

    Alemany, Marià 2013. Adjustment to dietary energy availability: from starvation to overnutrition. RSC Adv., Vol. 3, Issue. 6, p. 1636.

    Butterick, Tammy A. Billington, Charles J. Kotz, Catherine M. and Nixon, Joshua P. 2013. Orexin: Pathways to obesity resistance?. Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders, Vol. 14, Issue. 4, p. 357.

    Campbell, Bill La Bounty, Paul and Galvan, Elfego 2013. Sports Nutrition.

    Churchward-Venne, Tyler A. Murphy, Caoileann H. Longland, Thomas M. and Phillips, Stuart M. 2013. Role of protein and amino acids in promoting lean mass accretion with resistance exercise and attenuating lean mass loss during energy deficit in humans. Amino Acids, Vol. 45, Issue. 2, p. 231.

    Cornford, Andrea S. Hinko, Alexander Nelson, Rachael K. Barkan, Ariel L. and Horowitz, Jeffrey F. 2013. Rapid development of systemic insulin resistance with overeating is not accompanied by robust changes in skeletal muscle glucose and lipid metabolism. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Vol. 38, Issue. 5, p. 512.

    Edwards, Lindsay M. Kemp, Graham J. Dwyer, Renee M. Walls, Justin T. Fuller, Huddy Smith, Steven R. and Earnest, Conrad P. 2013. Integrating muscle cell biochemistry and whole-body physiology in humans:31P-MRS data from the InSight trial. Scientific Reports, Vol. 3,

    Garthe, Ina Raastad, Truls Refsnes, Per Egil and Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn 2013. Effect of nutritional intervention on body composition and performance in elite athletes. European Journal of Sport Science, Vol. 13, Issue. 3, p. 295.

    Glock, Barbara Breitenecker, Felix and Einzinger, Patrick 2013. 2013 8th EUROSIM Congress on Modelling and Simulation. p. 52.

    Perez-Leighton, Claudio E. Boland, Kelsey Billington, Charles J. and Kotz, Catherine M. 2013. High and low activity rats: Elevated intrinsic physical activity drives resistance to diet-induced obesity in non-bred rats. Obesity, Vol. 21, Issue. 2, p. 353.

    Tappy, Luc Egli, Leonie Lecoultre, Virgile and Schneider, Pascal 2013. Effects of fructose-containing caloric sweeteners on resting energy expenditure and energy efficiency: a review of human trials. Nutrition & Metabolism, Vol. 10, Issue. 1, p. 54.

    Dulloo, A. G. Jacquet, J. Montani, J-P. and Schutz, Y. 2012. Adaptive thermogenesis in human body weight regulation:more of a concept than a measurable entity?. Obesity Reviews, Vol. 13, p. 105.

    Kotz, Catherine Nixon, Joshua Butterick, Tammy Perez-Leighton, Claudio Teske, Jennifer and Billington, Charles 2012. Brain orexin promotes obesity resistance. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 1264, Issue. 1, p. 72.

    Martin, Corby K. Correa, John B. Han, Hongmei Allen, H. Raymond Rood, Jennifer C. Champagne, Catherine M. Gunturk, Bahadir K. and Bray, George A. 2012. Validity of the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM) for Estimating Energy and Nutrient Intake in Near Real-Time. Obesity, Vol. 20, Issue. 4, p. 891.


Deliberate overfeeding in women and men: energy cost and composition of the weight gain*

  • Gilbert B. Forbes (a1), Marilyn R. Brown (a2), Stephen L. Welle (a3) and Barbara A. Lipinski (a4)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 March 2007

1. Thirteen adult females and two males were overfed a total of 79–159 MJ (1900–38 000 kcal) during a 3-week period at the Clinical Research Center, Rochester. The average energy cost of the weight gain was 28 kJ (6.7 kcal)/g, and about half the gain consisted of lean body mass (LBM) as estimated by 40Kcounting.

2. A survey of the literature disclosed twenty-eight normal males and five females who had been overfed a total of 104–362 MJ (2500–87000 kcal) under controlled conditions: twenty-five of these had assays of body composition, and three had complete nitrogen balances.

3. When these values were combined with those from our subjects (total forty-eight), there was a significant correlation between weight gain and total excess energy consumed (r 0.77, P < 0.01) and between LBM gain and excess energy (r 0.49, P < 0.01). Based on means the energy cost was 33.7 kJ (8.05 kcal)/g gain and 43.6% of the gain was LBM; from regression analysis these values were 33.7 kJ (8.05 kcal)/g gain and 38.4% of gain as LBM.

4. Individual variations in the response could not be explained on the basis of sex, initial body-weight or fat content, duration of overfeeding, type of food eaten, amount of daily food consumption or, in a subset of subjects, on smoking behaviour.

5. The average energy cost of the weight gain was close to the theoretical value of 33.8 kJ (8.08 kcal)/g derived from the composition of the tissue gained.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Deliberate overfeeding in women and men: energy cost and composition of the weight gain*
      Your Kindle email address
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Deliberate overfeeding in women and men: energy cost and composition of the weight gain*
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Deliberate overfeeding in women and men: energy cost and composition of the weight gain*
      Available formats
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

D. P. Cuthbertson , A McCutcheon & H. N. Munro (1937). Biochemical Journal 31, 681705.

G. B. Forbes , F. Schultz , C Cafarelli & G.H. Amirhakimi (1968). Health Physics 15, 435442.

R. L Naeye & P. Roode (1970). American Journal of Clinical Pathology 54, 251253.

J. Olefsky , P. A. Crapo , H Ginsburg & G. M. Reaven (1975). Metabolism 24, 495503.

B. N Tager & H. W. Kirsch (1942). Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2, 696699.

F. H Wiley & L. H. Newburgh (1931). Journal of Clinical Investigation 10, 733744.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *