1Vaisey-Genser M & Morris DH (2003) Introduction: history of the cultivation and uses of flaxseed. In Flax, pp. 1–21 [Muir AD and Westcott ND, editors]. London and New York: Routledge.
2Bloedon LT, Philippe O & Szapary PO (2004) Flaxseed and cardiovascular risk. Nutr Rev 62, 18–27.
3Ghisalberti E (1997) Cardiovascular activity of naturally occurring lignans. Phytomedicine 4, 151–166.
4Stavro PM, Marchie AL, Kendall C, Vuksan V & Jenkins D (2003) Flaxseed, fiber and coronary disease: clinical studies. In Flaxseed in Human Nutrition, pp. 288–300 [Thompson LU and Cunnane S, editors]. Champaign, IL: AOCS Press.
5Eliasson C, Kamal-Eldin A, Andersson R & Aman P (2003) High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside and hydroxycinnamic acid glucosides in flaxseed by alkaline extraction. J Chromatography A 1012, 151–159.
6Westcott N, Muir A & Northrup S (1998) .
7Hutchins AM & Slavin JL (2003) Effect of flaxseed on sex hormone metabolism. In Flaxseed in Human Nutrition, pp. 127–149 [Thompson LU and Cunnane S, editors]. Champaign, IL: AOAC Press.
8Prasad K (2005) Hypocholesterolemic and antiatherosclerotic effect of flax lignan complex isolated from flaxseed. Atherosclerosis 179, 269–275.
9Prasad K (1999) Reduction of serum cholesterol and hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis in rabbits by secoisolariciresinol diglucoside isolated from flaxseed. Circulation 99, 1355–1362.
10Bhathena SJ, Ali AA, Haudenschild C, Latham P, Ranich T, Mohamed AI, Hansen CT & Velasquez MT (2003) Dietary flaxseed meal is more protective than soy protein concentrate against hypertriglyceridemia and steatosis of the liver in an animal model of obesity. J Am Coll Nutr 22, 157–164.
11Yamashita K, Ikeda S & Obayashi M (2003) Comparative effects of flaxseed and sesame seed on vitamin E and cholesterol levels in rats. Lipids 38, 1249–1255.
12Prasad K (1997) Dietary flax seed in prevention of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 132, 69–76.
13Lucas EA, Lightfoot SA, Hammond LJ, et al. (2004) Flaxseed reduces plasma cholesterol and atherosclerotic lesion formation in ovariectomized Golden Syrian hamsters. Atherosclerosis 173, 223–229.
14Sano T, Oda E, Yamashita T, Shiramasa H, Ijiri Y & Yamamoto J (2003) Antithrombic and anti-atherogenic effects of partially defatted flaxseed meal using a laser-induced thrombosis test in apolipoprotein E and low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient mice. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 14, 707–712.
15Duan JK, Barthet VJ, Chornick TL & Duguid S (2003) Structure, composition, and variety development of flaxseed. In Flaxseed in Human Nutrition, pp. 1–40 [Thompson LU and Cunnane S, editors]. Champaign, IL: AOAC Press.
16Cunnane SC (2003) Dietary sources and metabolism of α-linolenic acid. In Flaxseed in Human Nutrition, pp. 63–91 [Thompson LU and Cunnane S, editors]. Champaign, IL: AOAC Press.
17Harris WS (1997) n-3 Fatty acids and serum lipoproteins: human studies. Am J Clin Nutr 65, Suppl. 5, 1645S–1654S.
18Du Y, Zhang W, Zhang M, Ding CM & Lin SB (2006) Determination of secoisolariciresonol diglucoside, secoisolariciresonol, enterolactone and enterodiol in serum by LC/MS/MS. J Chin Mass Spectrom Soc 27, 168–172.
19Brzezinski A & Debi A (1999) Phytoestrogens: the “natural” selective estrogen receptor modulators? Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 85, 47–51.
20Insull W Jr, Davidson MH, Kulkarni PM, Siddhanti S, Ciaccia AV & Keech CA (2005) Effects of raloxifene and low-dose simvastatin coadministration on plasma lipids in postmenopausal women with primary hypercholesterolemia. Metabolism 54, 939–946.
21Lemieux C, Gelinas Y, Lalonde J, Labrie F, Cianflone K & Deshaies Y (2005) Hypolipidemic action of the SERM acolbifene is associated with decreased liver MTP and increased SR-BI and LDL receptors. J Lipid Res 46, 1285–1294.
22Demark-Wahnefried W, Robertson CN, Walther PJ, Polascik TJ, Paulson DF & Vollmer RT (2004) Pilot study to explore effects of low-fat, flaxseed-supplemented diet on proliferation of benign prostatic epithelium and prostate-specific antigen. Urology 63, 900–904.
23Demark-Wahnefried W, Price DT, Polascik TJ, Robertson CN, Anderson EE, Paulson DF, Walther PJ, Gannon M & Vollmer RT (2001) Pilot study of dietary fat restriction and flaxseed supplementation in men with prostate cancer before surgery: exploring the effects on hormonal levels, prostate-specific antigen, and histopathologic features. Urology 58, 47–52.
24Stuglin C & Prasad K (2005) Effect of flaxseed consumption on blood pressure, serum lipids, hemopoietic system and liver and kidney enzymes in healthy humans. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 10, 23–27.
25Dodin S, Lemay A, Jacques H, Legare F, Forest JC & Masse B (2005) Effect of flaxseed consumption on blood pressure, serum lipids, hemopoietic system, and symptoms in menopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, wheat germ placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90, 1390–1397.
26Hallund J, Ravn-Haren G, Bugel S, Tholstrup T & Tetens I (2006) A lignan complex isolated from flaxseed does not affect plasma lipid concentrations or antioxidant capacity in healthy postmenopausal women. J Nutr 136, 112–116.
27Chen ST, Ferng SH, Yang CS, Peng SJ, Lee HR & Chen JR (2005) Variable effects of soy protein on plasma lipids in hyperlipidemic and normolipidemic hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 46, 1099–1106.
28Henkin Y & Shai I (2003) Dietary treatment of hypercholesterolemia: can we predict long-term success? J Am Coll Nutr 22, 555–561.
29Prasad K, Mantha SV, Muir AD & Westcott ND (1998) Reduction of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis by CDC-flaxseed with very low α-linolenic acid. Atherosclerosis 136, 367–375.
30Lucas EA, Wild RD, Hammond LJ, Khalil DA, Juma S, Daggy BP, Stoecker BJ & Arjmandi BH (2002) Flaxseed improves lipid profile without altering biomarkers of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87, 1527–1532.
31Clandinin MT, Foxwell A, Goh YK, Layne K & Jumpsen JA (1997) Omega-3 fatty acid intake results in a relationship between the fatty acid composition of LDL cholesterol ester and LDL cholesterol content in humans. Biochim Biophys Acta 1346, 247–252.
32Nestel PJ, Pomeroy SE, Sasahara T, Yamashita T, Liang YL, Dart AM, Jennings GL, Abbey M & Cameron JD (1997) Arterial compliance in obese subjects is improved with dietary plant n-3 fatty acid from flaxseed oil despite increased LDL oxidizability. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 17, 1163–1170.
33Cunnane SC, Hamadeh MJ, Liede AC, Thompson LU, Wolever TM & Jenkins DJ (1995) Nutritional attributes of traditional flaxseed in healthy young adults. Am J Clin Nutr 61, 62–68.
34Lemay A, Dodin S, Kadri N, Jacques H & Forest JC (2002) Flaxseed dietary supplement versus hormone replacement therapy in hypercholesterolemic menopausal women. Obstet Gynecol 100, 495–504.
35Cunnane SC, Ganguli S, Menard C, Liede AC, Hamadeh MJ, Chen ZY, Wolever TM & Jenkins DJ (1993) High α-linolenic acid flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum): some nutritional properties in humans. Br J Nutr 69, 443–453.
36Vanharanta M, Voutilainen S, Lakka TA, van der Lee M, Adlercreutz H & Salonen JT (1999) Risk of acute coronary events according to serum concentrations of enterolactone: a prospective population-based case-control study. Lancet 354, 2112–2115.
37Mazur WM, Uehara M, Wahala K & Adlercreutz H (2000) Phyto-oestrogen content of berries, and plasma concentrations and urinary excretion of enterolactone after a single strawberry-meal in human subjects. Br J Nutr 83, 381–387.
38Juntunen KS, Mazur WM, Liukkonen KH, Uehara M, Poutanen KS, Adlercreutz HC & Mykkanen HM (2000) Consumption of wholemeal rye bread increases serum concentrations and urinary excretion of enterolactone compared with consumption of white wheat bread in healthy Finnish men and women. Br J Nutr 84, 839–846.
39Kilkkinen A, Stumpf K, Pietinen P, Valsta LM, Tapanainen H & Adlercreutz H (2001) Determinants of serum enterolactone concentration. Am J Clin Nutr 73, 1094–1100.
40Pietinen P, Stumpf K, Mannisto S, Kataja V, Uusitupa M & Adlercreutz H (2001) Serum enterolactone and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in eastern Finland. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 10, 339–344.
41Morton MS, Arisaka O, Miyake N, Morgan LD & Evans BA (2002) Phytoestrogen concentrations in serum from Japanese men and women over forty years of age. J Nutr 132, 3168–3171.
42Jacobs DR Jr, Pereira MA, Stumpf K, Pins JJ & Adlercreutz H (2002) Whole grain food intake elevates serum enterolactone. Br J Nutr 88, 111–116.
43Johnson NF, Hausner H, Olsen A, Tetens I, Christensen J, Knudsen KE, Overvad K & Tjønneland A (2004) Intake of whole grains and vegetables determines the plasma enterolactone concentration of Danish women. J Nutr 134, 2691–2697.
44Hausner H, Johnsen NF, Hallund J & Tetens I (2004) A single measurement is inadequate to estimate enterolactone levels in Danish postmenopausal women due to large intraindividual variation. J Nutr 134, 1197–1200.
45Nesbitt PD, Lam Y & Thompson LU (1999) Human metabolism of mammalian lignan precursors in raw and processed flaxseed. Am J Clin Nutr 69, 549–555.
46Morton MS, Wilcox G, Wahlqvist ML & Griffiths K (1994) Determination of lignans and isoflavonoids in human female plasma following dietary supplementation. J Endocrinol 142, 251–259.