Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-7mfl8 Total loading time: 0.217 Render date: 2021-12-04T03:09:47.946Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids alter avian metabolism: metabolism and abdominal fat deposition

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 March 2007

Ronald E. Newman*
Affiliation:
Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Camden, NSW, Australia Smart Food Centre, University of Wollongong, NSW, Australia
Wayne L. Bryden
Affiliation:
Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Camden, NSW, Australia Smart Food Centre, University of Wollongong, NSW, Australia
Eva Fleck
Affiliation:
CSIRO Livestock Industries, Prospect, NSW, Australia
John R. Ashes
Affiliation:
CSIRO Livestock Industries, Prospect, NSW, Australia
William A. Buttemer
Affiliation:
Departments of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, University of Wollongong, NSW, Australia
Leonard H. Storlien
Affiliation:
Departments of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, University of Wollongong, NSW, Australia Smart Food Centre, University of Wollongong, NSW, Australia
Jeffery A. Downing
Affiliation:
Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Camden, NSW, Australia Smart Food Centre, University of Wollongong, NSW, Australia
*
*Corresponding author: Dr Ron Newman, fax +61 2 4655 0693, email ronaldn@camden.usyd.edu.au
Rights & Permissions[Opens in a new window]

Abstract

HTML view is not available for this content. However, as you have access to this content, a full PDF is available via the ‘Save PDF’ action button.

The effects of dietary saturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of the n-3 and n-6 series on weight gain, body composition and substrate oxidation were investigated in broiler chickens. At 3 weeks of age three groups of chickens (n 30; ten birds per group) were fed the fat-enriched experimental diets for 5 weeks. These diets were isonitrogenous, isoenergetic and contained 208 g protein/kg and 80 g edible tallow, fish oil or sunflower oil/kg; the dietary fatty acid profiles were thus dominated by saturated fatty acids, n-3 PUFA or n-6 PUFA respectively. Resting RQ was measured in five birds from each treatment group during weeks 4 and 5 of the experiment. There were no significant differences between treatments in total feed intake or final body mass. Birds fed the PUFA diets had lower RQ and significantly reduced abdominal fat pad weights (P<0·01) compared with those fed tallow. The dietary lipid profile changes resulted in significantly greater partitioning of energy into lean tissue than into fat tissue (calculated as breast lean tissue weight:abdominal fat mass) in the PUFA groups compared with the saturated fat group (P<0·01; with no difference between the n-3 and n-6 PUFA groups). In addition, the PUFA-rich diets lowered plasma concentrations of serum triacylglycerols and cholesterol. The findings indicate that dietary fatty acid profile influences nutrient partitioning in broiler chickens.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Nutrition Society 2002

References

Akiba, Y, Murakami, H, Senkoylu, N, Kusanagi, M, Takahashi, K & Sato, K (1995) The effects of dietary lipid on poultry performance and composition. Proceedings of the Australian Poultry Science Symposium 7, 18.Google Scholar
Annison, EF (1974) Dietary sources of energy. In Energy Requirements of Poultry, pp. 135149 [Morris, TR and Freeman, BM, editors]. Edinburgh: British Poultry Science Ltd.Google Scholar
Annison, EF (1983) Lipid metabolism. In Physiology and Biochemistry of the Domestic Fowl pp. 165174 [Freeman, BM, editor]. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Ashes, JR, Siebert, BD, Gulati, SK, Cuthbertson, AZ & Scott, TW (1992) Incorporation of n-3 fatty acids of fish oil into tissue and serum lipids of ruminants. Lipids 27, 629631.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Becker, WA, Spencer, JV, Mirosh, LW & Verstrate, JA (1979) Prediction of fat and fat free live weight in broiler chickens using backskin fat, abdominal fat, and live body weight. Poultry Science 58, 835842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berge, RK, Nilsson, A & Husoy, AM (1988) Rapid stimulation of liver palmitoyl-CoA synthetase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase and glycerophosphate acyltransferase compared to peroxisomal β-oxidation and palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase in rats fed high-fat diet. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 960, 417426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Borgeson, CE, Pardini, L, Pardini, RS & Reitz, RC (1989) Effects of dietary fish oil on human mammary carcinoma and on lipid metabolising enzymes. Lipids 24, 290295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Buttemer, WA, Astheimer, LB & Wingfield, JC (1991) The effect of corticosterone on standard metabolic rates of small passerine birds. Journal of Comparative Physiology 161B, 427431.Google Scholar
Chait, A, Onitiri, A, Nicoll, A, Robaya, E, Davies, J & Lewis, B (1974) Reduction of serum triglyceride levels by polyunsaturated fat. Atherosclerosis 20, 347364.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chappell, MA, Bech, C & Buttemer, WA (1999) The relationship of central and peripheral organ masses to aerobic performance variation in house sparrows. Journal of Experimental Biology 202, 22692279.Google ScholarPubMed
Christie, WW (1989) Gas Chromatography and Lipids – A Practical Guide. Ayr, South Ayrshire: The Oily Press.Google Scholar
Couet, C, Delarue, J, Ritz, P, Antoine, J-M, & Lamisse, F (1997) Effect of dietary fish oil on body fat mass and basal oxidation in healthy adults. International Journal of Obesity 21, 637643.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Doucet, E, Alméras, N, White, MD, Despres, JP, Bouchard, C & Tremblay, A (1998) Dietary fat composition and human adiposity. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52, 26.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Else, PL & Hulbert, AJ (1987) Evolution of mammalian endothermic metabolism: ‘leaky’ membranes as a source of heat. American Journal of Physiology 253, R1R7.Google ScholarPubMed
Field, CJ, Edmond, AR, Thompson, ABR & Clandinin, MT (1990) Diet fat composition alters membrane phospholipid composition, insulin binding, and glucose metabolism in adipocytes from control and diabetic animals. Journal of Biological Chemistry 265, 1114311150.Google ScholarPubMed
Folch, J, Lees, M & Sloane-Stanley, GH (1957) A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. Journal of Biological Chemistry 226, 497509.Google ScholarPubMed
Griffin, HD (1993) Metabolic and endocrine control of genetic variation in fat deposition in growing chickens. In Avian Endocrinology, pp. 285296 [Sharp, PJ, editor]. Bristol: Burgess Science Press.Google Scholar
Halminski, MA, Marsh, JB & Harrison, EH (1991) Differential effects of fish oil, safflower oil and palm oil on fatty acid oxidation and glycerolipid synthesis in rat liver. Journal of Nutrition 121, 15541561.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hill, JO, Peters, JC, Lin, D, Yakubu, F, Greene, H & Swift, L (1993) Lipid accumulation and body fat distribution is influenced by type of dietary fat fed to rats. International Journal of Obesity 17, 223226.Google ScholarPubMed
Jen, JJ, Williams, WP Jr, Acton, JC & Paynter, VA (1971) Effect of dietary fats on the fatty acid contents of chicken adipose tissue. Journal of Food Science 36, 925929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klasing, KC (1998) Comparative Avian Nutrition. Wallingford, Oxon: CAB International.Google Scholar
Leskanich, CO & Noble, RC (1997) Manipulation of the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty composition of avian eggs and meat. World's Poultry Science Journal 53, 155183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lewis, D (1978) Protein-energy interactions in broiler and turkey rations. In Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition, pp. 1731 [Haresign, W and Lewis, D, editors]. London: Butterworths.Google Scholar
Leyton, J, Drury, PJ & Crawford, MA (1987) Differential oxidation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in vivo in the rat. British Journal of Nutrition 57, 383393.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Luo, J, Rizkalla, SW, Boillot, J, Alamowitch, C, Chaib, H, Bruzzo, F, Desplanque, N, Dalix, AM, Durand, G & Slama, G (1996) Dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids improve adipocyte insulin action and glucose metabolism in insulin-resistant rats: relation to membrane fatty acids. Journal of Nutrition 126, 19511958.Google ScholarPubMed
Mollah, Y, Bryden, WL, Willis, IR, Balnave, D & Annison, EF (1983) Studies on low metabolisable energy wheats for poultry using conventional and rapid assay procedures and the effects of processing. British Poultry Science 24, 8189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Newman, RE, McConnell, SJ, Weston, RH, Reeves, M, Bernasconi, C, Baker, PJ & Wynn, PC (1998) The relationship between plasma testosterone concentrations and the seasonal variation in voluntary feed intake in fallow bucks. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 130, 357366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Okuno, M, Kenta, K, Imai, S, Kobayashi, T, Hinma, N, Maki, T, Suruga, K, Goda, T, Takase, S, Muto, Y & Moriwaki, H (1997) Perilla oil prevents the excessive growth of visceral adipose tissue in rats by down-regulating adipocyte differentiation. Journal of Nutrition 127, 17521757.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
O'Neil, LM, Galvin, K, Morrissey, PA & Buckley, DJ (1998) Comparison of effects of dietary olive oil, and vitamin E on the quality of broiler meat and meat products. British Poultry Science 39, 365371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pan, DA, Hulbert, AJ & Storlien, LH (1994) Dietary fats, membrane phospholipids and obesity. Journal of Nutrition 124, 15551565.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pearce, J (1980) Comparative aspects of lipid metabolism in avian species. Biochemical Society Transactions 8, 295296.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Phetteplace, HW & Watkins, BJ (1989) Effects of various n-3 lipid sources on fatty acid compositions in chicken tissues. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 2, 104115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Phetteplace, HW & Watkins, BJ (1990) Lipid measurements in chickens fed different combinations of chicken fat and menhaden oil. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 38, 18481853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raclot, T & Groscolas, R (1993) Differential mobilisation of white adipose tissue fatty acids according to chain length, unsaturation and positional isomerism. Journal of Lipid Research 34, 15151526.Google ScholarPubMed
Sanz, M, Lopez-Bote, CJ, Menoyo, D & Baautista, M (2000) Abdominal fat deposition and fatty acid synthesis are lower and β-oxidation is higher in broiler chickens fed diets containing unsaturated rather than saturated fat. Journal of Nutrition 130, 30343037.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shimomura, Y, Tamura, T & Suzuki, M (1990) Less body fat accumulation in rats fed a sunflower oil diet than in rats fed a beef tallow diet. Journal of Nutrition 120, 12911296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Storlien, LH, Jenkins, AB, Chisholm, DJ, Pascoe, WS & Kraegen, EW (1991) Influence of dietary fat composition on development of insulin resistance in rats: relationship to muscle triglyceride and omega-3 fatty acids in muscle phospholipids. Diabetes 40, 280289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Su, W & Jones, PJH (1993) Dietary fatty acid composition influences energy accretion in rats. Journal of Nutrition 123, 21092114.Google ScholarPubMed
Surette, ME, Whelan, J, Broughton, KS & Kinsella, JE (1992) Evidence for mechanisms of the hypotriglyceridemic effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1126, 199205.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Toft, I, Bonaa, KH, Ingebretsen, OC, Nordoy, A & Jenssen, T (1995) Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on glucose homeostasis and blood pressure in essential hypertension. A randomised, controlled trial. Annals of International Medicine 123, 911918.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Watkins, BA (1995) Biochemical and physiological aspects of polyunsaturates. Poultry and Avian Reviews 6, 118.Google Scholar
Weintraub, M, Zechner, R, Brown, A, Eisenberg, S & Breslow, JL (1988) Dietary polyunsaturated fats of the ω6 and ω3 series reduce postprandial lipoprotein levels. Journal of Clinical Investigation 82, 18841893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Withers, PC (1977) Measurements of VO2 and VCO2 and evaporative water loss with a flow-through mask. Journal of Applied Physiology 42, 120123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wong, SH, Nestel, PJ, Trimble, RP, Storer, GP, Illman, RJ & Topping, DL (1984) The additive effects of dietary fish and sunflower oil on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in perfused rat liver. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 792, 103109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
You have Access
106
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids alter avian metabolism: metabolism and abdominal fat deposition
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids alter avian metabolism: metabolism and abdominal fat deposition
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids alter avian metabolism: metabolism and abdominal fat deposition
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *