Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 106
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Ax, Erika Warensjö Lemming, Eva Becker, Wulf Andersson, Agneta Lindroos, Anna Karin Cederholm, Tommy Sjögren, Per and Fung, Teresa T. 2016. Dietary patterns in Swedish adults; results from a national dietary survey. British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 115, Issue. 01, p. 95.

    Deng, Fang Emily Shivappa, Nitin Tang, YiFan Mann, Joshua R. and Hebert, James R. 2016. Association between diet-related inflammation, all-cause, all-cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality, with special focus on prediabetics: findings from NHANES III. European Journal of Nutrition,

    Meinilä, Jelena Valkama, Anita Koivusalo, Saila B. Stach-Lempinen, Beata Lindström, Jaana Kautiainen, Hannu Eriksson, Johan G. and Erkkola, Maijaliisa 2016. Healthy Food Intake Index (HFII) – Validity and reproducibility in a gestational-diabetes-risk population. BMC Public Health, Vol. 16, Issue. 1,

    Yang, Meng Ayuningtyas, Azalea Kenfield, Stacey A. Sesso, Howard D. Campos, Hannia Ma, Jing Stampfer, Meir J. and Chavarro, Jorge E. 2016. Blood fatty acid patterns are associated with prostate cancer risk in a prospective nested case–control study. Cancer Causes & Control,

    Alkerwi, Ala'a Vernier, Cédric Crichton, Georgina E. Sauvageot, Nicolas Shivappa, Nitin and Hébert, James R. 2015. Cross-comparison of diet quality indices for predicting chronic disease risk: findings from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) study. British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 113, Issue. 02, p. 259.

    Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus Siersma, Volkert Halldorsson, Thorhallur I de Fine Olivarius, Niels Henriksen, Jan E and Heitmann, Berit L 2015. Missing portion sizes in FFQ – alternatives to use of standard portions. Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 18, Issue. 11, p. 1914.

    Rodríguez-Monforte, Míriam Flores-Mateo, Gemma and Sánchez, Emília 2015. Dietary patterns and CVD: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 114, Issue. 09, p. 1341.

    Satija, Ambika Hu, Frank B Bowen, Liza Bharathi, Ankalmadugu V Vaz, Mario Prabhakaran, Dorairaj Reddy, K Srinath Ben-Shlomo, Yoav Davey Smith, George Kinra, Sanjay and Ebrahim, Shah 2015. Dietary patterns in India and their association with obesity and central obesity. Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 18, Issue. 16, p. 3031.

    Alkerwi, Ala'a 2014. Diet quality concept. Nutrition, Vol. 30, Issue. 6, p. 613.

    Huang, Lin-Yuan Wahlqvist, Mark L. Huang, Yi-Chen and Lee, Meei-Shyuan 2014. Optimal Dairy Intake Is Predicated on Total, Cardiovascular, and Stroke Mortalities in a Taiwanese Cohort. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 33, Issue. 6, p. 426.

    Husemoen, L L N Skaaby, T Martinussen, T Jørgensen, T Thuesen, B H Kistorp, C Jeppesen, J Thyssen, J P Meldgaard, M Szecsi, P B Fenger, M and Linneberg, A 2014. Investigating the causal effect of vitamin D on serum adiponectin using a mendelian randomization approach. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 68, Issue. 2, p. 189.

    Kehoe, Sarah H. Krishnaveni, Ghattu V. Veena, Sargoor R. Guntupalli, Aravinda M. Margetts, Barrie M. Fall, Caroline H.D. and Robinson, Sian M. 2014. Diet patterns are associated with demographic factors and nutritional status in South Indian children. Maternal & Child Nutrition, Vol. 10, Issue. 1, p. 145.

    Knudsen, V K Matthiessen, J Biltoft-Jensen, A Sørensen, M R Groth, M V Trolle, E Christensen, T and Fagt, S 2014. Identifying dietary patterns and associated health-related lifestyle factors in the adult Danish population. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 68, Issue. 6, p. 736.

    Kris-Etherton, P.M. Fleming, J. Kroat, A. Skulas-Ray, A. and Flock, M. 2014. Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences.

    McCourt, Hannah J. Draffin, Claire R. Woodside, Jayne V. Cardwell, Chris R. Young, Ian S. Hunter, Steven J. Murray, Liam J. Boreham, Colin A. Gallagher, Alison M. Neville, Charlotte E. and McKinley, Michelle C. 2014. Dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents and young adults: the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project. British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 112, Issue. 10, p. 1685.

    Selem, Soraya Sant'Ana de Castro Castro, Michelle Alessandra de César, Chester Luiz Galvão Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo and Fisberg, Regina Mara 2014. Associations between Dietary Patterns and Self-Reported Hypertension among Brazilian Adults: A Cross-Sectional Population-Based Study. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Vol. 114, Issue. 8, p. 1216.

    Streppel, M T Sluik, D van Yperen, J F Geelen, A Hofman, A Franco, O H Witteman, J C M and Feskens, E J M 2014. Nutrient-rich foods, cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality: the Rotterdam study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 68, Issue. 6, p. 741.

    Sun, Jing Buys, Nicholas and Hills, Andrew 2014. Dietary Pattern and Its Association with the Prevalence of Obesity, Hypertension and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Chinese Older Adults. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. 11, Issue. 4, p. 3956.

    Zazpe, Itziar Sánchez-Tainta, Ana Toledo, Estefanía Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena and Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel 2014. Dietary Patterns and Total Mortality in a Mediterranean Cohort: The SUN Project. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Vol. 114, Issue. 1, p. 37.

    Béchaux, Camille Zetlaoui, Mélanie Tressou, Jessica Leblanc, Jean-Charles Héraud, Fanny and Crépet, Amélie 2013. Identification of pesticide mixtures and connection between combined exposure and diet. Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol. 59, p. 191.


Dietary patterns and mortality in Danish men and women: a prospective observational study

  • Merete Osler (a1) (a2), Berit L. Heitmann (a2), Lars U. Gerdes (a2), Lillian M. Jørgensen (a2) and Marianne Schroll (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 March 2007

The analysis of dietary patterns emerged recently as a possible approach to examining diet–disease relation. We analysed the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality associated with dietary patterns in men and women, while taking a number of potential confounding variables into account. Data were from a prospective cohort study with follow-up of total and cause-specific mortality. A random sample of 3698 men and 3618 women aged 30–70 years and living in Copenhagen County, Denmark, were followed from 1982 to 1998 (median 15 years). Three dietary patterns were identified from a twenty-eight item food frequency questionnaire, collected at baseline: (1) a predefined healthy food index, which reflected daily intakes of fruits, vegetables and wholemeal bread, (2) a prudent and (3) a Western dietary pattern derived by principal component analysis. The prudent pattern was positively associated with frequent intake of wholemeal bread, fruits and vegetables, whereas the Western was characterized by frequent intakes of meat products, potatoes, white bread, butter and lard. Among participants with complete information on all variables, 398 men and 231 women died during follow-up. The healthy food index was associated with reduced all-cause mortality in both men and women, but the relations were attenuated after adjustment for smoking, physical activity, educational level, BMI, and alcohol intake. The prudent pattern was inversely associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality after controlling for confounding variables. The Western pattern was not significantly associated with mortality. This study partly supports the assumption that overall dietary patterns can predict mortality, and that the dietary pattern associated with the lowest risk is the one which is in accordance with the current recommendations for a prudent diet.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Dietary patterns and mortality in Danish men and women: a prospective observational study
      Your Kindle email address
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Dietary patterns and mortality in Danish men and women: a prospective observational study
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Dietary patterns and mortality in Danish men and women: a prospective observational study
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr Merete Osler, fax +453 535 1181, email:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

D Albanese , JM Conway , PR Taylor , PW Moe & J Judd (1990) Validation and comparison of eight physical activity questionnaires. Epidemiology 1, 6571.

ME Barker , SI McClean , JJ Strain & KA Thompson (1992) Dietary behaviour and health in Northern Ireland: an exploration of bichemical and haematological associations. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 46, 151156.

GE Fraser , J Sabate , WL Beeson & TM Stratan (1992) A possible protective effect of nut consumption on risk of coronary heart disease. The adventist health study. Archives Internal Medicine 152, 14161424.

LU Gerdes , H Brønnum-Hansen , M Madsen , K Borch-Johnsen , T Jørgensen , A Sjøl & M Schroll (2000) Trends in selected biological risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in the Danish MONICA population 1982–1992. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 53, 427434.

M Gex-Fabry , L Raymond & O Jeanneret (1988) Multivariate analysis of dietary patterns in 939 Swiss adults: sociodemographic and alcohol consumption profiles. International Journal of Epidemiology 17, 548555.

P Huijbregts , E Feskens , L Räsänen , K Fidanza , A Nissinen , A Menotti & D Kromhout (1997) Dietary pattern and 20 year mortality in elderly men in Finland, Italy and the Netherlands: longitudinal cohort study. British Medical Journal 315, 1317.

AK Kant (1996) Indexes of overall diet quality: a review. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 96, 785791.

AK Kant , A Schatzkin , BI Graubard & C Schairer (2000) A prospective study of diet quality and mortality in women. Journal of the American Medical Association 283, 21092115.

AR Ness & JW Powles (1997) Fruit and vegetables and cardiovascular disease: A review. International Journal of Epidemiology 26, 113.

M Osler & BL Heitmann (1996) The validity of a short food frequency questionnaire and its ability to measure changes in food intake. International Journal of Epidemiology 25, 10231030.

M Slattery , KM Boucher , BJ Caan , JD Potter & K Ma (1998) Eating patterns and risk of colon cancer. American Journal of Epidemiology 148, 416.

A Trichopoulou , A Kouris-Blazos , M Wahlqvist , C Gnardellis , P Laigon , P Poluchronopoulos , T Vassilakou , L Lipworth & D Trichopoulos (1995) Diet and overall survival in elderly people. British Medical Journal 311, 14571460.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *