Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 26
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Castro, Carolina Diógenes, Alexandre Firmino Coutinho, Filipe Panserat, Stéphane Corraze, Geneviève Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia Peres, Helena and Oliva-Teles, Aires 2016. Liver and intestine oxidative status of gilthead sea bream fed vegetable oil and carbohydrate rich diets. Aquaculture,

    Espe, M. Zerrahn, J.-E. Holen, E. Rønnestad, I. Veiseth-Kent, E. and Aksnes, A. 2016. Choline supplementation to low methionine diets increase phospholipids in Atlantic salmon, while taurine supplementation had no effects on phospholipid status, but improved taurine status. Aquaculture Nutrition, Vol. 22, Issue. 4, p. 776.

    Espe, M. Veiseth-Kent, E. Zerrahn, J.-E. Rønnestad, I. and Aksnes, A. 2016. Juvenile Atlantic salmon decrease white trunk muscle IGF-1 expression and reduce muscle and plasma free sulphur amino acids when methionine availability is low while liver sulphur metabolites mostly is unaffected by treatment. Aquaculture Nutrition, Vol. 22, Issue. 4, p. 801.

    Metochis, Christoforos Panicos Crampton, Vivian O Ruohonen, Kari El-Mowafi, Adel Bell, John Gordon Adams, Alexandra and Thompson, Kimberly D 2016. Effects of marine protein-, marine oil- and marine-free diets on the growth performance and innate immune responses of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L.) post-smolts. Aquaculture Research,

    Myrmel, Lene Secher Fjære, Even Midtbø, Lisa Kolden Bernhard, Annette Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed Sonne, Si Brask Mortensen, Alicja Hao, Qin Brattelid, Trond Liaset, Bjørn Kristiansen, Karsten and Madsen, Lise 2016. Macronutrient composition determines accumulation of persistent organic pollutants from dietary exposure in adipose tissue of mice. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, Vol. 27, p. 307.

    Sissener, N.H. Waagbø, R. Rosenlund, G. Tvenning, L. Susort, S. Lea, T.B. Oaland, Ø. Chen, L. and Breck, O. 2016. Reduced n-3 long chain fatty acid levels in feed for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) do not reduce growth, robustness or product quality through an entire full scale commercial production cycle in seawater. Aquaculture, Vol. 464, p. 236.

    Teves, Jonni Fay C. and Ragaza, Janice A. 2016. The quest for indigenous aquafeed ingredients: a review. Reviews in Aquaculture, Vol. 8, Issue. 2, p. 154.

    Wang, Tianjiao Zuo, Rantao Mai, Kangsen Xu, Wei and Ai, Qinghui 2016. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (Alox5), and its expression in response to the ratio of linolenic acid to linoleic acid in diets of large yellow croaker (Larmichthys crocea). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Vol. 201, p. 21.

    Andersen, S.M. Holen, E. Aksnes, A. Rønnestad, I. Zerrahn, J.-E. and Espe, M. 2015. Adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salarL.) adapts to long-term surplus dietary arginine supplementation. Aquaculture Nutrition, Vol. 21, Issue. 3, p. 355.

    Betancor, M. B. Sprague, M. Usher, S. Sayanova, O. Campbell, P. J. Napier, J. A. and Tocher, D. R. 2015. A nutritionally-enhanced oil from transgenic Camelina sativa effectively replaces fish oil as a source of eicosapentaenoic acid for fish. Scientific Reports, Vol. 5, p. 8104.

    Cheng, Yu-Chun and Chen, Houng-Yung 2015. Effects of different fatty acids on cell differentiation and lipid accumulation in preadipocytes of warm water fish cobia (Rachycentron canadumLinnaeus, 1766). Aquaculture Research, Vol. 46, Issue. 3, p. 590.

    Cho, Sung Hwoan Kim, Hee Sung Myung, Sung Hyo Jung, Won-Gwan Choi, Jin and Lee, Sang-Min 2015. Optimum dietary protein and lipid levels for juvenile rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli, Hilgendorf 1880). Aquaculture Research, Vol. 46, Issue. 12, p. 2954.

    Fink, Inge R. Benard, Erica L. Hermsen, Trudi Meijer, Annemarie H. Forlenza, Maria and Wiegertjes, Geert F. 2015. Molecular and functional characterization of the scavenger receptor CD36 in zebrafish and common carp. Molecular Immunology, Vol. 63, Issue. 2, p. 381.

    Liland, N.S. Hatlen, B. Takle, H. Venegas, C. Espe, M. Torstensen, B.E. and Waagbø, R. 2015. Including processed poultry and porcine by-products in diets high in plant ingredients reduced liver TAG in Atlantic salmon,Salmo salarL.. Aquaculture Nutrition, Vol. 21, Issue. 5, p. 655.

    Villasante, Alejandro Patro, Biswamitra Chew, Boon Becerra, Michael Wacyk, Jurij Overturf, Ken Powell, Madison S. and Hardy, Ronald W. 2015. Dietary Intake of Purple Corn Extract Reduces Fat Body Content and Improves Antioxidant Capacity and n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Profile in Plasma of Rainbow Trout,Oncorhynchus mykiss. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, Vol. 46, Issue. 4, p. 381.

    Andersen, Synne Marte Taylor, Richard Holen, Elisabeth Aksnes, Anders and Espe, Marit 2014. Arginine supplementation and exposure time affects polyamine and glucose metabolism in primary liver cells isolated from Atlantic salmon. Amino Acids, Vol. 46, Issue. 5, p. 1225.

    Borges, Pedro Reis, Bruno Fernandes, Telmo J.R. Palmas, Ângela Castro-Cunha, Manuela Médale, Françoise Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P.P. and Valente, Luísa M.P. 2014. Senegalese sole juveniles can cope with diets devoid of supplemental fish oil while preserving flesh nutritional value. Aquaculture, Vol. 418-419, p. 116.

    Burel, Christine and Médale, Françoise 2014. Quid de l’utilisation des protéines d’origine végétale en aquaculture ?. OCL, Vol. 21, Issue. 4, p. D406.

    Gormaz, Juan G. Fry, Jillian P. Erazo, Marcia and Love, David C. 2014. Public Health Perspectives on Aquaculture. Current Environmental Health Reports, Vol. 1, Issue. 3, p. 227.

    Gu, Min Kortner, Trond M. Penn, Michael Hansen, Anne Kristine and Krogdahl, Åshild 2014. Effects of dietary plant meal and soya-saponin supplementation on intestinal and hepatic lipid droplet accumulation and lipoprotein and sterol metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 111, Issue. 03, p. 432.


Dietary plant proteins and vegetable oil blends increase adiposity and plasma lipids in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

  • Bente E. Torstensen (a1), Marit Espe (a1), Ingunn Stubhaug (a1) (a2) and Øyvind Lie (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 03 May 2011

In order to study whether lipid metabolism may be affected by maximum replacement of dietary fish oil and fish meal with vegetable oils (VO) and plant proteins (PP), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolts were fed a control diet containing fish oil and fish meal or one of three plant-based diets through the seawater production phase for 12 months. Diets were formulated to meet all known nutrient requirements. The whole-body lipid storage pattern was measured after 12 months, as well as post-absorptive plasma, VLDL and liver TAG. To further understand the effects on lipid metabolism, expression of genes encoding for proteins involved in VLDL assembly (apoB100), fatty acid uptake (FATP1, cd36, LPL and FABP3, FABP10 and FABP11) were measured in liver and visceral adipose tissue. Maximum dietary VO and PP increased visceral lipid stores, liver TAG, and plasma VLDL and TAG concentrations. Increased plasma TAG correlated with an increased expression of apoB100, indicating increased VLDL assembly in the liver of fish fed the high-plant protein- and VO-based diet. Atlantic salmon fed intermediate replacement levels of VO or PP did not have increased body fat or visceral mass. Overall, the present results demonstrate an interaction between dietary lipids and protein on lipid metabolism, increasing overall adiposity and TAG in the body when fish meal and fish oil are replaced concomitantly at maximised levels of VO and PP.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Dietary plant proteins and vegetable oil blends increase adiposity and plasma lipids in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Dietary plant proteins and vegetable oil blends increase adiposity and plasma lipids in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Dietary plant proteins and vegetable oil blends increase adiposity and plasma lipids in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr Bente E. Torstensen, fax +47 55905299, email
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

3GM Turchini , BT Torstensen & WK Ng (2009) Fish oil replacement in finfish nutrition. Rev Aquacult 1, 1057.

4JW Hertrampf & F Piedad-Pascual (2000) Handbook on Ingredients for Aquaculture Feeds. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

5MJ Leaver , JM Bautista , BT Bjornsson , (2008) Towards fish lipid nutrigenomics: current state and prospects for fin-fish aquaculture. Rev Fish Sci 16, 7394.

6J Dias , MJ Alvarez , J Arzel , (2005) Dietary protein source affects lipid metabolism in the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Comp Biochem Physiol A 142, 1931.

7SJ Kaushik & I Seiliez (2010) Protein and amino acid nutrition and metabolism in fish: current knowledge and future needs. Aquacult Res 41, 322332.

10B Ruyter , C Moya-Falcón , G Rosenlund , (2006) Fat content and morphology of liver and intestine of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): effects of temperature and dietary soybean oil. Aquaculture 252, 441452.

11BE Torstensen , DA Nanton , PA Olsvik , (2009) Gene expression of fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs), fatty acid transport proteins (cd36 and FATP) and β-oxidation related genes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fed fish oil or vegetable oil. Aquacult Nutr 15, 440445.

12T Ranheim , A Gedde-Dahl , AC Rustan , (1994) Effect of chronic incubation of CaCo-2 cells with eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) and oleic acid (18:1n-9) on triacylglycerol production. Biochem J 303, 155161.

13A Vegusdal , T Gjøen , RK Berge , (2005) Effect of 18:1n-9, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 on lipid accumulation and secretion by Atlantic salmon hepatocytes. Lipids 40, 477486.

15RK Berge , L Madsen , H Vaagenes , (1999) In contrast with docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and hypolipidaemic derivatives decrease hepatic synthesis and secretion of triacylglycerol acyltransferase activity and stimulation of fatty acid oxidation. Biochem J 343, 191197.

17 Nossen , AC Rustan , SH Gloppestad , (1986) Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits synthesis and secretion of triacylglycerols by cultured rat hepatocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta 879, 5665.

18N Willumsen , H Vaagenes , D Asiedu , (1996) Eicosapentaenoic acid but not docosahexaenoic acid (both as ethyl esters) increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and upregulates 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase gene expression. A potential mechanism for the hypolipidemic action of fish oil in rats. Lipids 31, 579592.

20L Frøyland , H Vaagenes , DK Asiedu , (1996) Chronic administration of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid as ethyl esters reduced plasma cholesterol and changed the fatty acid composition in rat blood and organs. Lipids 31, 169178.

24WS Harris , WE Connor & MP McMurphy (1983) The comparative reductions of the plasma lipids and lipoproteins by dietary polyunsaturated fats: salmon oil versus vegetable oils. Metabolism 32, 179184.

27SL Seierstad , I Seljeflot , O Johansen , (2005) Dietary intake of differently fed salmon; the influence on markers of human atherosclerosis. Eur J Clin Invest 35, 5259.

29M Espe , A Lemme , A Petri , (2006) Can Atlantic salmon grow on diets devoid of fish meal? Aquaculture 255, 255262.

30M Espe , A Lemme , A Petri , (2007) Assessment of lysine requirement for maximal protein accretion in Atlantic salmon using plant protein diets. Aquaculture 263, 168178.

32SJ Kaushik , JP Cravedi , JP Lalles , (1995) Partial or total replacement of fish meal by soybean protein on growth, protein utilization, potential estrogenic or antigenic effects, cholesterolemia and flesh quality in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture 133, 257274.

33SJ Kaushik , D Covès , G Dutto , (2004) Almost total replacement of fish meal by plant protein sources in the diet of a marine teleost, the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. Aquaculture 230, 391404.

34M Espe , RM Rathore , Z-Y Du , (2010) Methionine limitation results in increased hepatic FAS activity, higher liver 18:1 to 18:0 fatty acid ratio and hepatic TAG accumulation in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Amino Acids 39, 449460.

37MMA Gaber (2005) The effect of different levels of krill meal supplementation of soybean-based diets on feed intake, digestibility, and chemical composition of juvenile Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, L. J World Aquacult Soc 36, 346353.

38RE Olsen , J Suontama , E Langmyhr , (2006) The replacement of fish meal with Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba in diets for Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Aquacult Nutr 12, 280290.

40Ø Lie & G Lambertsen (1991) Fatty acid composition of glycerophospholipids in seven tissues of cod (Gadus morhua), determined by combined high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography. J Chromatogr 565, 119129.

41BE Torstensen , L Frøyland & Ø Lie (2004) Replacing dietary fish oil with increasing levels of rapeseed oil and olive oil – effects on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) tissue and lipoprotein composition and lipogenic enzyme activities. Aquacult Nutr 10, 175192.

43JG Bell , JR Dick , AH McVicar , (1993) Dietary sunflower, linseed and fish oils affect phospholipid fatty acid composition, development of cardiac lesions, phospholipase activity and eicosanoid production in Atlantic salmon. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 49, 665673.

44F Vitello & J-P Zanetta (1978) Thin-layer chromatography of phospholipids. J Chromatogr 166, 637640.

47Ø Lie , A Sandvin & R Waagboe (1994) Transport of α-tocopherol in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) during vitellogenesis. Fish Physiol Biochem 13, 241247.

49P Simon (2003) Q-Gene: processing quantitative real-time RT-PCR data. Bioinformatics 19, 14391440.

50PA Olsvik , KK Lie , A-EO Jordal , (2005) Selection of normalizing genes in quantitative real time RT-PCR: a case study of Atlantic salmon. BMC Mol Biol 6, 21.

51J Vandesompele , KD Preter , F Pattyn , (2002) Accurate normalization of real-time quantitative RT-PCR data by geometric averaging of multiple internal control genes. Genome Biol 3, research0034.0031–research0034.0011.

57N Torres , I Torre-Villalvazo & AR Tovar (2006) Regulation of lipid metabolism by soy protein and its implication in diseases mediated by lipid disorders. J Nutr Biochem 17, 365373.

66M Carlotti , I Hainault , C Guichard , (1993) Beneficial-effects of a fishoil enriched high lard diet on obesity and hyperlipemia in Zucker rats. Ann N Y Acad Sci 683, 349350.

68S Ikemoto , M Takahashi , N Tsunoda , (1996) High-fat diet-induced hyperglycemia and obesity in mice: differential effects of dietary oils. Metab Clin Exp 45, 15391546.

69PJH Jones (1989) Effect of fatty-acid composition of dietary-fat on energy-balance and expenditure in hamsters. Can J Physiol Pharm 67, 994998.

70AJ Smith , MA Sanders , BE Juhlmann , (2008) Mapping of the hormone-sensitive lipase binding site on the adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (AFABP). Identification of the charge quartet on the AFABP/aP2 helix-turn-helix domain. J Biol Chem 283, 3353633543.

72MJ Agulleiro , M André , S Morais , (2007) High transcript level of fatty acid-binding protein 11 but not of very low-density lipoprotein receptor is correlated to ovarian follicle atresia in a teleost fish (Solea senegalensis). Biol Reprod 77, 504516.

73M Espe , EM Hevrøy , B Liaset , (2008) Methionine intake affects hepatic sulphur metabolism in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Aquaculture 274, 132141.

75AS Bogevik , DR Tocher , E Langmyhr , (2009) Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) postsmolts adapt lipid digestion according to elevated dietary wax esters from Calanus finmarchius. Aquacult Nutr 15, 94103.

76T Yamamoto , N Suzuki , H Furuita , (2007) Supplemental effect of bile salts to soybean meal-based diet on growth and feed utilization of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fish Sci 73, 123131.

77H Yokogoshi & H Oda (2002) Dietary taurine enhances cholesterol degradation and reduces serum and liver cholesterol concentrations in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Amino Acids 23, 433439.

79M Watanabe , SM Houten , L Wang , (2004) Bile acids lower triglyceride levels via a pathway involving FXR, SHP, and SREBP-1C. J Clin Invest 113, 14081418.

84QM Anstee & RD Goldin (2006) Mouse models in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis research. Int J Exp Path 87, 116.

88DR Tocher , EA Bendiksen , PJ Campbell , (2008) The role of phospholipids in nutrition and metabolism of teleost fish. Aquaculture 280, 2134.

89MA Kjær , A Vegusdal , T Gjøen , (2008) Effect of rapeseed oil and dietary n-3 fatty acids on triacylglycerol synthesis and secretion in Atlantic salmon hepatocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta 1781, 112122.

90HX Wang , XL Chen & EA Fisher (1993) n-3 Fatty-acids stimulate intracellular degradation of apoprotein B in rat hepatocytes. J Clin Invest 91, 13801389.

91SH Wong , EA Fisher & JB Marsh (1989) Effects of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on apoprotein-B messenger-RNA and secretion of very low-density lipoprotein in HepG2 cells. Arteriosclerosis 9, 836841.

93MJ Caballero , MS Izquierdo , E Kjørsvik , (2003) Morphological aspects of intestinal cells from gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) fed diets containing different lipid sources. Aquaculture 225, 325340.

94MJ Caballero , A Obach , G Rosenlund , (2002) Impact of different dietary lipid sources on growth, lipid digestibility, tissue fatty acid composition and histology of rainbow trout, Onchorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture 214, 253271.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *