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Dietary proteins improve endothelial function under fasting conditions but not in the postprandial state, with no effects on markers of low-grade inflammation

  • Karianna F. M. Teunissen-Beekman (a1) (a2), Janneke Dopheide (a1) (a2), Johanna M. Geleijnse (a1) (a3), Stephan J. L. Bakker (a1) (a4), Elizabeth J. Brink (a1), Peter W. de Leeuw (a5), Casper G. Schalkwijk (a5) and Marleen A. van Baak (a1) (a2)...
Abstract

Endothelial dysfunction (ED) and low-grade inflammation (LGI) have a role in the development of CVD. The two studies reported here explored the effects of dietary proteins and carbohydrates on markers of ED and LGI in overweight/obese individuals with untreated elevated blood pressure. In the first study, fifty-two participants consumed a protein mix or maltodextrin (3×20 g/d) for 4 weeks. Fasting levels and 12 h postprandial responses of markers of ED (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM), soluble endothelial selectin and von Willebrand factor) and markers of LGI (serum amyloid A, C-reactive protein and sICAM) were evaluated before and after intervention. Biomarkers were also combined into mean Z-scores of ED and LGI. The second study compared 4 h postprandial responses of ED and LGI markers in forty-eight participants after ingestion of 0·6 g/kg pea protein, milk protein and egg-white protein. In addition, postprandial responses after maltodextrin intake were compared with a protein mix and sucrose. The first study showed significantly lower fasting ED Z-scores and sICAM after 4 weeks on the high-protein diet (P≤0·02). The postprandial studies found no clear differences of ED and LGI between test meals. However, postprandial sVCAM decreased more after the protein mix compared with maltodextrin in both studies (P≤0·04). In conclusion, dietary protein is beneficial for fasting ED, but not for fasting LGI, after 4 weeks of supplementation. On the basis of Z-scores, postprandial ED and LGI were not differentially affected by protein sources or carbohydrates.

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Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: M. A. van Baak, fax +31 43 36 70 976, email m.vanbaak@maastrichtuniversity.nl
References
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British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
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