Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 57
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Haider, Junaid Majeed, Hamid Williams, P.A. Safdar, Waseem and Zhong, Fang 2017. Formation of chitosan nanoparticles to encapsulate krill oil (Euphausia superba) for application as a dietary supplement. Food Hydrocolloids, Vol. 63, p. 27.

    Betancor, M.B. Olsen, R.E. Solstorm, D. Skulstad, O.F. and Tocher, D.R. 2016. Assessment of a land-locked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) population as a potential genetic resource with a focus on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids, Vol. 1861, Issue. 3, p. 227.

    Costanzo, Manuela Cesi, Vincenzo Prete, Enrica Negroni, Anna Palone, Francesca Cucchiara, Salvatore Oliva, Salvatore Leter, Beatrice and Stronati, Laura 2016. Krill oil reduces intestinal inflammation by improving epithelial integrity and impairing adherent-invasive Escherichia coli pathogenicity. Digestive and Liver Disease, Vol. 48, Issue. 1, p. 34.

    Fialkow, Jonathan 2016. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Formulations in Cardiovascular Disease: Dietary Supplements are Not Substitutes for Prescription Products. American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs, Vol. 16, Issue. 4, p. 229.

    Hegde, Mahabaleshwar V. Zanwar, Anand Arvind and Ghorpade, Prakash B. 2016. Omega-3 Fatty Acids.

    Kaur, Khushwinder 2016. Emulsions.

    Nejadmansouri, Maryam Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Hashem Niakosari, Mehrdad Yousefi, Gholam Hossein and Golmakani, Mohammad Taghi 2016. Physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of fish oil nanoemulsions as affected by hydrophilic lipophilic balance, surfactant to oil ratio and storage temperature. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Vol. 506, p. 821.

    Pike, Ian H. and Tocher, Douglas R. 2016. Could an El Niño event put dietary supplies of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (EPA and DHA) in jeopardy. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology,

    Scaglia, Nóris Chatkin, José Chapman, Kenneth R. Ferreira, Ivone Wagner, Mario Selby, Peter Allard, Johane and Zamel, Noe 2016. The relationship between omega-3 and smoking habit: a cross-sectional study. Lipids in Health and Disease, Vol. 15, Issue. 1,

    Sibbritt, D. Lui, C. Kroll, T. and Adams, Jon 2016. Prevalence of glucosamine and omega-3 fatty acid use and characteristics of users among mid-age women: Analysis of a nationally representative sample of 10,638 women. The journal of nutrition, health & aging, Vol. 20, Issue. 6, p. 637.

    Sommakia, S and Baker, OJ 2016. Regulation of inflammation by lipid mediators in oral diseases. Oral Diseases,

    Trivedi, Ruchir and Salvo, Marissa C. 2016. Utilization and Safety of Common Over-the-Counter Dietary/Nutritional Supplements, Herbal Agents, and Homeopathic Compounds for Disease Prevention. Medical Clinics of North America, Vol. 100, Issue. 5, p. 1089.

    Tur, J.A. and Bibiloni, M.M. 2016. Encyclopedia of Food and Health.

    Venigalla, Madhuri Sonego, Sandra Gyengesi, Erika Sharman, Matthew J. and Münch, Gerald 2016. Novel promising therapeutics against chronic neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease. Neurochemistry International, Vol. 95, p. 63.

    Wang, Hao-Lun Chou, Chung-Hsi Yu, Yu-Shan Hsu, Chin-Lin Wang, Sheng-Yao Ko, Yi-Feng and Chen, Yi-Chen 2016. Chicken surimi fortified by omega-3 fatty acid addition: manufacturing and quality properties. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 96, Issue. 5, p. 1609.

    Betancor, M. B. Sprague, M. Usher, S. Sayanova, O. Campbell, P. J. Napier, J. A. and Tocher, D. R. 2015. A nutritionally-enhanced oil from transgenic Camelina sativa effectively replaces fish oil as a source of eicosapentaenoic acid for fish. Scientific Reports, Vol. 5, p. 8104.

    Bonafini, Sara Antoniazzi, Franco Maffeis, Claudio Minuz, Pietro and Fava, Cristiano 2015. Beneficial effects of ω-3 PUFA in children on cardiovascular risk factors during childhood and adolescence. Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators, Vol. 120, p. 72.

    Capó, Xavier Martorell, Miquel Sureda, Antoni Llompart, Isabel Tur, Josep A. and Pons, Antoni 2015. Diet supplementation with DHA-enriched food in football players during training season enhances the mitochondrial antioxidant capabilities in blood mononuclear cells. European Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 54, Issue. 1, p. 35.

    Crowe-White, Kristi and Francis, Coni 2015. Integrative Nutrition Therapy.

    Gil, Angel and Gil, Fernando 2015. Fish, a Mediterranean source of n-3 PUFA: benefits do not justify limiting consumption. British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 113, Issue. S2, p. S58.


Dietary sources of omega 3 fatty acids: public health risks and benefits

  • J. A. Tur (a1), M. M. Bibiloni (a1), A. Sureda (a1) and A. Pons (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 17 May 2012

Omega 3 fatty acids can be obtained from several sources, and should be added to the daily diet to enjoy a good health and to prevent many diseases. Worldwide, general population use omega-3 fatty acid supplements and enriched foods to get and maintain adequate amounts of these fatty acids. The aim of this paper was to review main scientific evidence regarding the public health risks and benefits of the dietary sources of omega-3 fatty acids. A systematic literature search was performed, and one hundred and forty-five articles were included in the results for their methodological quality. The literature described benefits and risks of algal, fish oil, plant, enriched dairy products, animal-derived food, krill oil, and seal oil omega-3 fatty acids.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Dietary sources of omega 3 fatty acids: public health risks and benefits
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Dietary sources of omega 3 fatty acids: public health risks and benefits
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Dietary sources of omega 3 fatty acids: public health risks and benefits
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr J. A. Tur, fax +34 971 173184, email
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1EFSA (2009) Opinion of the scientific panel on dietetic products, nutrition and allergies on a request from the Commission related to labeling reference intake values for n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. EFSA J 1176, 111.

2PM Kris-Etherton , WS Harris , LJ Appel , (2002) Nutrition Committee, Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease. Circulation 106, 27472757.

3PM Kris-Etherton , WS Harris , LJ Appel , (2003) Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: new recommendations from the American Heart Association. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 23, 1, 51152.

6LM Arterburn , EB Hall & H Oken (2006) Distribution, interconversion, and dose response of n-3 fatty acids in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 1467S1476S.

7E Lopez-Huertas (2010) Health effects of oleic acid and long chain omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA) enriched milks. A review of intervention studies. Pharmacol Res 61, 200207.

8LM Neff , J Culiner , S Cunningham-Rundles , (2011) Algal docosahexaenoic acid affects plasma lipoprotein particle size distribution in overweight and obese adults. J Nutr 141, 207213.

12CM Milte , AM Coates , JD Buckley , (2008) Dose-dependent effects of docosahexaenoic acid-rich fish oil on erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid and blood lipid levels. Br J Nutr 99, 10831088.

13GE Peoples , PL McLennan , PR Howe , (2008) Fish oil reduces heart rate and oxygen consumption during exercise. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 52, 540547.

14RA Harrison , M Sagara , A Rajpura , (2004) Can foods with added soya-protein or fish-oil reduce risk factors for coronary disease? A factorial randomised controlled trial. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 14, 344350.

15P Singer , S Melzer , M Goschel , (1990) Fish oil amplifies the effect of propranolol in mild essential hypertension. Hypertension 16, 682691.

16JN Din , SA Harding , CJ Valerio , (2008) Dietary intervention with oil rich fish reduces platelet–monocyte aggregation in man. Atherosclerosis 197, 290296.

17C Pirich , A Gaszo , S Granegger , (1999) Effects of fish oil supplementation on platelet survival and ex vivo platelet function in hypercholesterolemic patients. Thromb Res 96, 219227.

19MR Mehra , CJ Lavie , HO Ventura , (2006) Fish oils produce anti-inflammatory effects and improve body weight in severe heart failure. J Heart Lung Transplant 25, 834838.

20U Kaul , S Sanghvi , VK Bahl , (1992) Fish oil supplements for prevention of restenosis after coronary angioplasty. Int J Cardiol 35, 8793.

22SL Seierstad , I Seljeflot , O Johansen , (2005) Dietary intake of differently fed salmon; the influence on markers of human atherosclerosis. Eur J Clin Invest 35, 5259.

23H Ueshima , J Stamler , P Elliott , (2007) Food omega-3 fatty acid intake of individuals (total, linolenic acid, long-chain) and their blood pressure: INTERMAP study. Hypertension 50, 313319.

24JD Berry , RJ Prineas , L van Horn , (2010) Dietary fish intake and incident atrial fibrillation (from the Women's Health Initiative). Am J Cardiol 105, 844848.

25IA Brouwer , PL Zock , AJ Camm , (2006) Effect of fish oil on ventricular tachyarrhythmia and death in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators: the Study on Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Ventricular Arrhythmia (SOFA) randomized trial. JAMA 295, 26132619.

26CA Fahs , H Yan , S Ranadive , (2010) The effect of acute fish-oil supplementation on endothelial function and arterial stiffness following a high-fat meal. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 35, 294302.

27SD Poppitt , CA Howe , FE Lithander , (2009) Effects of moderate-dose omega-3 fish oil on cardiovascular risk factors and mood after ischemic stroke: a randomized, controlled trial. Stroke 40, 34853492.

28CM DeGiorgio , P Miller , S Meymandi , (2008) n-3 fatty acids (fish oil) for epilepsy, cardiac risk factors, and risk of SUDEP: clues from a pilot, double-blind, exploratory study. Epilepsy Behav 13, 681684.

29N Watanabe , Y Watanabe , M Kumagai , (2009) Administration of dietary fish oil capsules in healthy middle-aged Japanese men with a high level of fish consumption. Int J Food Sci Nutr 60, Suppl 5, 136142.

30A Piolot , D Blache , L Boulet , (2003) Effect of fish oil on LDL oxidation and plasma homocysteine concentrations in health. J Lab Clin Med 141, 4149.

31IL Mostad , KS Bjerve , S Lydersen , (2008) Effects of marine n-3 fatty acid supplementation on lipoprotein subclasses measured by nuclear magnetic resonance in subjects with type II diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr 62, 419429.

33EJ Feskens , SM Virtanen , L Rasanen , (1995) Dietary factors determining diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance. A 20-year follow-up of the Finnish and Dutch cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. Diabetes Care 18, 11041112.

34PS Patel , SJ Sharp , RN Luben , (2009) Association between type of dietary fish and seafood intake and the risk of incident type 2 diabetes: the European prospective investigation of cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort study. Diabetes Care 32, 18571863.

35EJ Feskens , CH Bowles & D Kromhout (1991) Inverse association between fish intake and risk of glucose intolerance in normoglycemic elderly men and women. Diabetes Care 14, 935941.

36M Kaushik , D Mozaffarian , D Spiegelman , (2009) Long chain omega-3 fatty acids, fish intake, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 613620.

37KE Friday , MT Childs , CH Tsunehara , (1989) Elevated plasma glucose and lowered triglyceride levels from omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in type II diabetes. Diabetes Care 12, 276281.

38AA Rivellese , A Maffettone , C Iovine , (1996) Long-term effects of fish oil on insulin resistance and plasma lipoproteins in NIDDM patients with hypertriglyceridemia. Diabetes Care 19, 12071213.

39J Luo , SW Rizkalla , H Vidal , (1998) Moderate intake of n-3 fatty acids for 2 months has no detrimental effect on glucose metabolism and could ameliorate the lipid profile in type 2 diabetic men. Results of a controlled study. Diabetes Care 21, 717724.

40M Borkman , DJ Chisholm , SM Furler , (1989) Effects of fish oil supplementation on glucose and lipid metabolism in NIDDM. Diabetes 38, 13141319.

41L Djoussé , JM Gaziano , JE Buring , (2011) Dietary omega-3 fatty acids and fish consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 93, 143150.

42LM Belalcazar , DM Reboussin , SM Haffner , (2010) Marine omega-3 fatty acid intake: associations with cardiometabolic risk and response to weight loss intervention in the Look AHEAD Study. Diabetes Care 33, 197199.

43R Giacco , V Cuomo , B Vessby , (2007) Fish oil, insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and glucose tolerance in healthy people: is there any effect of fish oil supplementation in relation to the type of background diet and habitual dietary intake of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids? Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 17, 572580.

44IL Mostad , KS Bjerve , S Basu , (2009) Addition of n-3 fatty acids to a 4-hour lipid infusion does not affect insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, or markers of oxidative stress in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 58, 17531761.

47A Ramel , JA Martinez , M Kiely , (2010) Effects of weight loss and seafood consumption on inflammation parameters in young, overweight and obese European men and women during 8 weeks of energy restriction. Eur J Clin Nutr 64, 987993.

48A Ramel , JA Martinez , M Kiely , (2010) Moderate consumption of fatty fish reduces diastolic blood pressure in overweight and obese European young adults during energy restriction. Nutrition 26, 168174.

49J Zhang , C Wang , L Li , (2010) Inclusion of Atlantic salmon in the Chinese diet reduces cardiovascular disease risk markers in dyslipidemic adult men. Nutr Res 30, 447454.

50TD Mickleborough , RL Murray , AA Ionescu , (2003) Fish oil supplementation reduces severity of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 168, 11811189.

51RG Bowden , RL Wilson , E Deike , (2009) Fish oil supplementation lowers C-reactive protein levels independent of triglyceride reduction in patients with end-stage renal disease. Nutr Clin Prac 24, 508512.

52M Lankinen , U Schwab , A Erkkilä , (2009) Fatty fish intake decreases lipids related to inflammation and insulin signalling: a lipidomics approach. PLoS One 4, e5258.

54J Xiong , S Zhu , Y Zhou , (2009) Regulation of omega-3 fish oil emulsion on the SIRS during the initial stage of severe acute pancreatitis. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci 29, 3538.

55CS Lau , KD Morley & JJ Belch (1993) Effects of fish oil supplementation on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug requirement in patients with mild rheumatoid arthritis – a double-blind placebo controlled study. Br J Rheumatol 32, 982989.

56JC Maroon & JW Bost (2006) Omega-3 fatty acids (fish oil) as an anti-inflammatory: an alternative to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for discogenic pain. Surg Neurol 65, 326331.

57B Galarraga , M Ho , HM Youssef , (2008) Cod liver oil (n-3 fatty acids) as an non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug sparing agent in rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 47, 665669.

58GE Caughey , MJ James , SM Proudman , (2010) Fish oil supplementation increases the cyclooxygenase inhibitory activity of paracetamol in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Complement Ther Med 18, 171174.

59J Dry & D Vincent (1991) Effect of a fish oil diet on asthma: results of a 1-year double-blind study. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 95, 156157.

60GK Pot , IA Brouwer , A Enneman , (2009) No effect of fish oil supplementation on serum inflammatory markers and their interrelationships: a randomized controlled trial in healthy, middle-aged individuals. Eur J Clin Nutr 63, 13531359.

61B Michaeli , MM Berger , JP Revelly , (2007) Effects of fish oil on the neuro-endocrine responses to an endotoxin challenge in healthy volunteers. Clin Nutr 26, 7077.

62M Bouwens , O van de Rest , N Dellschaft , (2009) Fish-oil supplementation induces antiinflammatory gene expression profiles in human blood mononuclear cells. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 415424.

65JA Dunstan , K Simmer , G Dixon , (2008) Cognitive assessment of children at age 2(1/2) years after maternal fish oil supplementation in pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 93, F45F50.

66M Schnappinger , S Sausenthaler , J Linseisen , (2009) Fish consumption, allergic sensitization and allergic diseases in adults. Ann Nutr Metab 54, 6774.

67SL Prescott , AE Barden , TA Mori , (2007) Maternal fish oil supplementation in pregnancy modifies neonatal leukotriene production by cord-blood-derived neutrophils. Clin Sci (Lond) 113, 409416.

68LG Smithers , M Markrides & RA Gibson (2010) Human milk fatty acids from lactating mothers of preterm infants: a study revealing wide intra- and inter-individual variation. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 83, 913.

69C Furuhjelm , K Warstedt , J Larsson , (2009) Fish oil supplementation in pregnancy and lactation may decrease the risk of infant allergy. Acta Paediatr 98, 14611467.

70L Lauritzen , JH Christensen , CT Damsgaard , (2008) The effect of fish oil supplementation on heart rate in healthy Danish infants. Pediatr Res 64, 610614.

71M Fortier , J Tremblay-Mercier , M Plourde , (2010) Higher plasma n-3 fatty acid status in the moderately healthy elderly in southern Québec: higher fish intake or aging-related change in n-3 fatty acid metabolism? Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 82, 277280.

72O van de Rest , JM Geleijnse , FJ Kok , (2008) Effect of fish oil on cognitive performance in older subjects: a randomized, controlled trial. Neurology 71, 430438.

73O van de Rest , JM Geleijnse , FJ Kok , (2009) Effect of fish oil supplementation on quality of life in a general population of older Dutch subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 57, 14811486.

74P Astorg , A Couthouis , S Bertrais , (2008) Association of fish and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intakes with the occurrence of depressive episodes in middle-aged French men and women. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 78, 171182.

75A Ramel , D Parra , JA Martinez , (2009) Effects of seafood consumption and weight loss on fasting leptin and ghrelin concentrations in overweight and obese European young adults. Eur J Nutr 48, 107114.

78TA Mori , DQ Bao , V Burke , (1999) Dietary fish as a major component of a weight-loss diet: effect on serum lipids, glucose, and insulin metabolism in overweight hypertensive subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 70, 817825.

79I Gunnarsdottir , H Tomasson , M Kiely , (2008) Inclusion of fish or fish oil in weight-loss diets for young adults: effects on blood lipids. Int J Obes (Lond) 32, 11051112.

80D Parra , A Ramel , N Bandarra , (2008) A diet rich in long chain omega-3 fatty acids modulates satiety in overweight and obese volunteers during weight loss. Appetite 51, 676680.

81M Kratz , HS Callahan , PY Yang , (2009) Dietary n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids and energy balance in overweight or moderately obese men and women: a randomized controlled trial. Nutr Metabol 6, 7.

82LE Rhodes , BH Durham , WD Fraser , (1995) Dietary fish oil reduces basal and ultraviolet B-generated PGE2 levels in skin and increases the threshold to provocation of polymorphic light eruption. J Invest Dermatol 105, 532535.

83M Thusgaard , JH Christensen , B Mørn , (2009) Effect of fish oil (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and inflammatory markers in HIV-infected patients treated with antiretroviral therapy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Scand J Infect Dis 41, 760766.

84D Engeset , E Alsaker , E Lund , (2006) Fish consumption and breast cancer risk. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Int J Cancer 119, 175182.

85BS van der Meij , JA Langius , EF Smit , (2010) Oral nutritional supplements containing (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the nutritional status of patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer during multimodality treatment. J Nutr 140, 17741780.

86LC Cerchietti , AH Navigante & MA Castro (2007) Effects of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic n-3 fatty acids from fish oil and preferential Cox-2 inhibition on systemic syndromes in patients with advanced lung cancer. Nutr Cancer 59, 1420.

87MD Barber , JA Ross , AC Voss , (1999) The effect of an oral nutritional supplement enriched with fish oil on weight-loss in patients with pancreatic cancer. Br J Cancer 81, 8086.

89D Mozaffarian (2006) Fish Intake, Contaminants, and Human Health: Evaluating the Risks and the Benefits Part 2 – Health Risks and Optimal Intakes. Cardiol Rounds 10, 16.

94M Gochfeld (2003) Cases of mercury exposure, bioavailability, and absorption. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 56, 174179.

96GL Ginsberg & BF Toal (2009) Quantitative approach for incorporating methylmercury risks and omega-3 fatty acid benefits in developing species-specific fish consumption advice. Environ Health Persp 117, 267275.

97MA McDowell , CF Dillon , J Osterloh , (2004) Hair mercury levels in U.S. children and women of childbearing age: reference range data from NHANES 1999–2000. Environ Health Perspect 112, 11651171.

98P Grandjean , P Weihe , RF White , (1997) Cognitive deficit in 7-year-old children with prenatal exposure to methylmercury. Neurotoxicol Teratol 19, 417428.

99P Grandjean , P Weihe , RF White & F Debes (1998) Cognitive performance of children prenatally exposed to “safe” levels of methylmercury. Environ Res 77, 165172.

101KS Crump , T Kjellstrom , AM Shipp , (1998) Influence of prenatal mercury exposure upon scholastic and psychological test performance: benchmark analysis of a New Zealand cohort. Risk Anal 18, 701713.

102W Jedrychowski , J Jankowski , E Flak , (2006) Effects of prenatal exposure to mercury on cognitive and psychomotor function in one-year-old infants: Epidemiologic Cohort Study in Poland. Ann Epidemiol 16, 439447.

103PW Davidson , D Palumbo , GJ Myers , (2000) Neurodevelopmental outcomes of Seychellois children from the pilot cohort at 108 months following prenatal exposure to methylmercury from a maternal fish diet. Environ Res 84, 111.

104DR Palumbo , C Cox , PW Davidson , (2000) Association between prenatal exposure to methylmercury and cognitive functioning in Seychellois children: a reanalysis of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Ability from the main cohort study. Environ Res 84, 8188.

105E Oken , RO Wright , KP Kleinman , (2005) Maternal fish consumption, hair mercury, and infant cognition in a U.S. Cohort. Environ Health Perspect 113, 13761380.

106JL Daniels , MP Longnecker , AS Rowland , (2004) Fish intake during pregnancy and early cognitive development of offspring. Epidemiology 15, 394402.

108FDA (2005) Letter Regarding Eggs with Enhanced Omega-3 Fatty Acid Content and a Balanced Ratio of Omega-3/Omega-6 Fatty Acids and Reduced Risk of Heart Disease and Sudden Fatal Heart Attack (Docket No. 2004Q-0072). Available: (accessed May 2011).

111U.S. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) (1995) IRIS file for Mercuric Chloride. Available: (accessed May 2011).

113DC Rice (2004) The US EPA reference dose for methylmercury: sources of uncertainty. Environ Res 95, 406413.

114T Rissanen , S Voutilainen , K Nyyssonen , (2000) Fish oil-derived fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid, and the risk of acute coronary events: the Kuopio ischaemic heart disease risk factor study. Circulation 102, 26772679.

115E Guallar , MI Sanz-Gallardo , P van't Veer , (2002) Mercury, fish oils, and the risk of myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 347, 17471754.

117JF Risher , HE Murray & GR Prince (2002) Organic mercury compounds: human exposure and its relevance to public health. Toxicol Ind Health 18, 109160.

118K He , Y Song , ML Daviglus , (2004) Fish consumption and incidence of stroke: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Stroke 35, 15381542.

119MC Morris , DA Evans , CC Tangney , (2005) Fish consumption and cognitive decline with age in a large community study. Arch Neurol 62, 18491853.

120M Peet & C Stokes (2005) Omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Drugs 65, 10511059.

121G Young & J Conquer (2005) Omega-3 fatty acids and neuropsychiatric disorders. Reprod Nutr Dev 45, 128.

122D Mozaffarian & EB Rimm (2006) Fish intake, contaminants, and human health evaluating the risks and the benefits. JAMA 296, 18851899.

123N Kaul , R Kreml , JA Austria , (2008) A comparison of fish oil, flaxseed oil and hempseed oil supplementation on selected parameters of cardiovascular health in healthy volunteers. J Am Coll Nutr 27, 5158.

124S Egert , F Kannenberg , V Somoza , (2009) Dietary alpha-linolenic acid, EPA, and DHA have differential effects on LDL fatty acid composition but similar effects on serum lipid profiles in normolipidemic humans. J Nutr 139, 861868.

125G Barceló-Coblijn , EJ Murphy , R Othman , (2008) Flaxseed oil and fish-oil capsule consumption alters human red blood cell n-3 fatty acid composition: a multiple-dosing trial comparing 2 sources of n-3 fatty acid. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 801809.

126I Sioen , M Hacquebard , G Hick , (2009) Effect of ALA-enriched food supply on cardiovascular risk factors in males. Lipids 44, 603611.

127LT Bloedon , S Balikai , J Chittams , (2008) Flaxseed and cardiovascular risk factors: results from a double blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial. J Am Coll Nutr 27, 6574.

128S Dodin , SC Cunnane , B Mâsse , (2008) Flaxseed on cardiovascular disease markers in healthy menopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Nutrition 24, 2330.

129H Campos , A Baylin & WC Willett (2008) Alpha-linolenic acid and risk of nonfatal acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 118, 339345.

130K Yamagishi , JA Nettleton , AR Folsom & ARIC Study Investigators (2008) Plasma fatty acid composition and incident heart failure in middle-aged adults: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Am Heart J 156, 965974.

132Y Park , S Park , H Yi , (2009) Low level of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in erythrocytes is a risk factor for both acute ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in Koreans. Nutr Res 29, 825830.

133JK Virtanen , J Mursu , S Voutilainen , (2009) Serum long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of hospital diagnosis of atrial fibrillation in men. Circulation 120, 23152321.

134RN Lemaitre , IB King , N Sotoodehnia , (2009) Red blood cell membrane alpha-linolenic acid and the risk of sudden cardiac arrest. Metabolism 58, 534540.

137AE Griel , PM Kris-Etherton , KF Hilpert , (2007) An increase in dietary n-3 fatty acids decreases a marker of bone resorption in humans. Nutr J 6, 2.

138CG Taylor , AD Noto , DM Stringer , (2010) Dietary milled flaxseed and flaxseed oil improve N-3 fatty acid status and do not affect glycemic control in individuals with well-controlled type 2 diabetes. J Am Coll Nutr 29, 7280.

139GK Paschos , F Magkos , DB Panagiotakos , (2007) Dietary supplementation with flaxseed oil lowers blood pressure in dyslipidaemic patients. Eur J Clin Nutr 61, 12011206.

140GK Paschos , A Zampelas , DB Panagiotakos , (2007) Effects of flaxseed oil supplementation on plasma adiponectin levels in dyslipidemic men. Eur J Clin Nutr 46, 315320.

141CR Harper , MC Edwards & TA Jacobson (2007) Flaxseed oil supplementation does not affect plasma lipoprotein concentration or particle size in human subjects. J Nutr 136, 28442848.

144D Hoffman , E Ziegler , SH Mitmesser , (2008) Soy-based infant formula supplemented with DHA and ARA supports growth and increases circulating levels of these fatty acids in infants. Lipids 43, 2935.

145S Egert , V Somoza , F Kannenberg , (2007) Influence of three rapeseed oil-rich diets, fortified with alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahexaenoic acid on the composition and oxidizability of low-density lipoproteins: results of a controlled study in healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Nutr 61, 314325.

146F Visioli , P Rise , E Plasmati , (2000) Very low intakes of n-3 fatty acids incorporated into bovine milk reduce plasma triacylglycerols and increase HDL-cholesterol concentrations in healthy subjects. Pharmacol Res 41, 571576.

147L Baró , J Fonollá , JL Peña , (2003) n-3 fatty acids plus oleic acid supplemented milk reduces total and LDL cholesterol, homocysteine and levels of endothelial adhesion molecules in healthy humans. Clin Nutr 22, 175182.

148JJ Carrero , L Baró , J Fonollá , (2004) Cardiovascular effects of milk enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid folic acid and vitamins E, B6 and B12 in volunteers with mild hyperlipidaemia. Nutrition 20, 521527.

149C Dawczynski , L Martin , A Wagner , (2010) n-3 LC-PUFAs-enriched dairy products are able to reduce cardiovascular risk factors: a double-blind, cross-over study. Clin Nutr 29, 592599.

150MF Chong , S Lockyer , CJ Saunders , (2010) Long chain n-3 PUFA-rich meal reduced postprandial measures of arterial stiffness. Clin Nutr 29, 678681.

151MD Estévez-González , P Saavedra-Santana & P Betancor-León (1998) Reduction of serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in a juvenile population after isocaloric substitution of whole milk with a milk preparation (skimmed milk enriched with oleic acid). J Pediatr 132, 8589.

152L Cobiac , PM Clifton , M Abbey , (1991) Lipid, lipoprotein, and hemostatic effects of fish vs fish-oil n-3 fatty acids in mildly hyperlipidemic males. Am J Clin Nutr 53, 12101216.

153J Fonollá , E López-Huertas , FJ Machado , (2009) Milk enriched with “healthy fatty acids” improves cardiovascular risk markers and nutritional status in human volunteers. Nutrition 25, 408414.

154JJ Carrero , E López-Huertas , LM Salmerón , (2005) Daily supplementation with (n-3) PUFAs, oleic acid, folic acid, and vitamins B-6 and E increases pain free walking distance and improves risk factors in men with peripheral vascular disease. J Nutr 135, 13931399.

156P Benito , J Caballero , J Moreno , (2006) Effects of milk enriched with omega-3 fatty acid, oleic acid and folic acid in patients with metabolic syndrome. Clin Nutr 25, 581587.

157DI Givens & RA Gibbs (2008) Current intakes of EPA and DHA in European populations and the potential of animal-derived foods to increase them. Proc Nutr Soc 67, 273280.

158SL Kronberg , G Barcelo-Coblijn , J Shin , (2006) Bovine muscle n-3 fatty acid content is increased with flaxseed feeding. Lipids 41, 10591068.

159NP Kjos , A Skrede & M Overland (1999) Effects of dietary fish silage and fish fat on growth performance and sensory quality of growing-finishing pigs. Can J Anim Sci 79, 139147.

160S Jaturasitha , R Khiaosa-ard , P Pongpiachan , (2009) Early deposition of n-3 fatty acids from tuna oil in lean and adipose tissue of fattening pigs is mainly permanent. J Anim Sci 87, 693703.

162P Cachaldora , P Garcia-Rebollar & C Alvarez (2009) Double enrichment of chicken eggs with conjugated linoleic acid and n-3 fatty acids through dietary fat supplementation. Animal Feed Sci Tech 144, 315326.

163P Bovet , D Faeh , G Madeleine , (2007) Decrease in blood triglycerides associated with the consumption of eggs of hens fed with food supplemented with fish oil. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 17, 280287.

164L Rizzi , D Bochicchio & A Bargellini (2009) Effects of dietary microalgae, other lipid sources, inorganic selenium and iodine on yolk n-3 fatty acid composition, selenium content and quality of eggs in laying hens. J Sci Food Agric 89, 17751781.

166JC Tou , J Jaczynski & YC Chen (2007) Krill for human consumption: nutritional value and potential health benefits. Nutr Rev 65, 6377.

167KC Maki , MS Reeves , M Farmer , (2009) Krill oil supplementation increases plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in overweight and obese men and women. Nutr Res 29, 609615.

168R Bunea , K El Farrah & L Deutsch (2004) Evaluation of the effects of Neptune Krill Oil on the clinical course of hyperlipidemia. Altern Med Rev 9, 420428.

170JA Conquer , LA Cheryk , E Chan , (1999) Effect of supplementation with dietary seal oil on selected cardiovascular risk factors and hemostatic variables in healthy male subjects. Thromb Res 96, 239250.

171FS Zhu , S Liu , XM Chen , (2008) Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from seal oils on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease associated with hyperlipidemia. World J Gastroenterol 14, 63956400.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *