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Dietary sources of vitamin C, vitamin E and specific carotenoids in Spain

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 March 2007

Reina García-Closas*
Affiliation:
Institut Català d'Oncologia, 08907 Barcelona, Spain
Antonio Berenguer
Affiliation:
Institut Català d'Oncologia, 08907 Barcelona, Spain
María José Tormo
Affiliation:
Consejería de Sanidad y Consumo, 30008 Murcia, Spain
María José Sánchez
Affiliation:
Escuela Andaluza de Salud Pública, 18080 Granada, Spain
José R. Quirós
Affiliation:
Consejería de Sanidad y Servicios Sociales de Asturias, 33001 Oviedo, Spain
Carmen Navarro
Affiliation:
Consejería de Sanidad y Consumo, 30008 Murcia, Spain
Rosario Arnaud
Affiliation:
Escuela Andaluza de Salud Pública, 18080 Granada, Spain
Miren Dorronsoro
Affiliation:
Dirección de Salud de Guipúzkoa, 20013 San Sebastián, Spain
María Dolores Chirlaque
Affiliation:
Consejería de Sanidad y Consumo, 30008 Murcia, Spain
Aurelio Barricarte
Affiliation:
Departamento de Salud de Navarra, 31003 Pamplona, Spain
Eva Ardanaz
Affiliation:
Departamento de Salud de Navarra, 31003 Pamplona, Spain
Pillar Amiano
Affiliation:
Dirección de Salud de Guipúzkoa, 20013 San Sebastián, Spain
Carmen Martinez
Affiliation:
Escuela Andaluza de Salud Pública, 18080 Granada, Spain
Antonio Agudo
Affiliation:
Institut Català d'Oncologia, 08907 Barcelona, Spain
Carlos A. González
Affiliation:
Institut Català d'Oncologia, 08907 Barcelona, Spain
*
*Corresponding author: Dr Reina García-Closas, fax +34 93 260 77 87, email rgarcia@ico.scs.es
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Abstract

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A cross-sectional study was conducted within the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation in Cancer and Nutrition to assess the principal food sources of vitamin C, vitamin E, α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein, β-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin in an adult Spanish population. The study included 41 446 healthy volunteers (25 812 women and 15 634 men), aged 29–69 years, from three Spanish regions in the north (Asturias, Navarra and Guipúzcoa) and two in the south (Murcia and Granada). Usual food intake was estimated by personal interview through a computerized version of a dietary history questionnaire. Foods that provided at least two-thirds of the studied nutrients were: fruits (mainly oranges) (51 %) and fruiting vegetables (mainly tomato and sweet pepper) (20 %) for vitamin C; vegetable oils (sunflower and olive) (40 %), non-citrus fruits (10 %), and nuts and seeds (8 %) for vitamin E; root vegetables (carrots) (82 %) for α-carotene; green leafy (28 %), root (24 %) and fruiting vegetables (22 %) for β-carotene; fruiting vegetables (fresh tomato) (72 %) for lycopene; green leafy vegetables (64 %) for lutein; citrus fruits (68 %) for β-cryptoxanthin; citrus fruits (43 %) and green leafy vegetables (20 %) for zeaxanthin. In conclusion, the main food sources of nutrients with redox properties have been identified in a Mediterranean country. This could provide an insight into the interpretation of epidemiological studies investigating the role of diet in health and disease.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Nutrition Society 2004

References

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