Skip to main content
×
Home

Dissociation of the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to whole and skimmed milk

  • Garrett Hoyt (a1), Matthew S. Hickey (a1) and Loren Cordain (a1)
Abstract

In most carbohydrate-containing foods, the blood insulin response is predictable and is closely linked to the food's glycaemic index (GI). A single study, examining whole milk and fermented milk products made from whole milk, recently reported a large dissociation between the GI and insulinaemic index (II) in healthy normal adults. Because the fat component of a food may influence the GI and II, it is unclear if a similar dissociation may exist for skimmed milk in normal adults. We determined the GI and II of both skimmed and whole milk in nine healthy, male (n 6) and female (n 3) subjects (23·6 (sd 1·4) years). No significant (P>0·05) differences existed between GI and II for skimmed and whole milks. Significant (P<0·05) differences were observed between the actual and predicted areas under the insulin curves for both skimmed milk (predicted 1405 (sd 289) pmol×min/l; actual 6152 (sd 1177) pmol×min/l) and whole milk (predicted 1564 (sd 339) pmol×min/l; actual 5939 (sd 1095) pmol×min/l). Consequently, a large and similar dissociation of the GI and II existed for both whole milk (42 (sd 5) and 148 (sd 14)) and skimmed milk (37 (sd 9) and 140 (sd 13)). It is concluded that the dissociation of the GI and II in milk is not related to its fat content.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Dissociation of the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to whole and skimmed milk
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Dissociation of the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to whole and skimmed milk
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Dissociation of the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to whole and skimmed milk
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr Loren Cordain, email, lcordain@CAHS.colostate.edu
References
Hide All
Aro A, Pelkonen R & Leino U (1987) Glucose and insulin responses to meals containing milk, lactose, glucose or fructose in subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Diabetes Metab 13, 603606.
Björck I, Liljeberg H, Östman E (2000) Low glycaemic-index foods. Br J Nutr 83, Suppl. 1, S149S155.
Collier GR, O'Dea K (1983) The effect of coingestion of fat on the glucose, insulin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses to carbohydrate and protein. Am J Clin Nutr 37, 941944.
Gannon MC, Nuttall FQ, Krezowski PA, Billington CJ & Parker S (1986) The serum insulin and plasma glucose responses to milk and fruit in Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. Diabetologia 29, 784791.
Gannon MC, Nuttall FQ, Neil BJ & Westphal SA (1988) The insulin and glucose responses to meals of glucose plus various proteins in type II diabetic subjects. Metabolism 37, 10811088.
Hollenbeck CB, Coulston AM & Reaven GM (1986) Glycemic effects of carbohydrates: a different perspective. Diabetes 9, 641647.
Holt S, Brand Miller J & Petocz P (1997) An insulin index of foods: the insulin demand generated by 1000-kJ portions of common foods. Am J Clin Nutr 66, 12641276.
Jenkins D, Wolever T, Taylor R, Barker H, Fielden H, Baldwin J, Bowling A, Newman H, Jenkins A & Goff D (1981) Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. Am J Clin Nutr 34, 362366.
Koldovský O (1995) Hormones in milk. In Vitamins and Hormones, vol. 50, pp.77149 [Litwack G, editor]. New York: Academic Press.
Krezowski PA, Nuttall FQ, Gannon MC & Bartosh NH (1986) The effect of protein ingestion on the metabolic response to oral glucose in normal individuals. Am J Clin Nutr 44, 847856.
Krezowski PA, Nuttall FQ, Gannon MC, Billington CJ & Parker S (1987) Insulin and glucose responses to various starch-containing foods in type II diabetic subjects. Diabetes Care 10, 205212.
Liljeberg Elmstahl, H Bjorck I (2001) Milk as a supplement to mixed meals may elevate postprandial insulinaemia. Eur J Clin Nutr 55, 994999.
Ludwig D (2002) The glycemic index: physiological mechanisms relating to obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. JAMA 287, 24142423.
Östman E, Liljeberg H, Björck I (2001) Inconsistency between glycemic and insulinemic responses to regular and fermented milk products. Am J Clin Nutr 74, 96100.
Pereira MA, Jacobs DR, van Horn L, Slattery ML, Kartashov AI & Ludwig DS (2002) Dairy consumption, obesity, and the insulin resistance syndrome in young adults: the CARDIA study. JAMA 287, 20812089.
Schmid R, Schusdziarra V, Schulte-Frohlinde E, Maier V & Classen M (1989) Role of amino acids in stimulation of postprandial insulin, glucagons, and pancreatic polypeptide in humans. Pancreas 4, 305314.
Wolever T, Bentum-Williams A & Jenkins D (1995) Physiological modulation of plasma free fatty acid concentrations on diet. Diabetes Care 18, 962970.
Wolever T, Jenkins D, Jenkins A & Josse R (1991) The glycemic index: methodology and clinical implications. Am J Clin Nutr 54, 846854.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 3
Total number of PDF views: 292 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 860 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 15th December 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.