1Yoneshiro T, Aita S, Kawai Y, et al. (2012) Nonpungent capsaicin analogs (capsinoids) increase energy expenditure through the activation of brown adipose tissue in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 95, 845–850.
2Morrison SF & Nakamura K (2011) Central neural pathways for thermoregulation. Front Biosci 16, 74–104.
3van Marken Lichtenbelt WD, Vanhommerig JW, Smulders NM, et al. (2009) Cold-activated brown adipose tissue in healthy men. New Engl J Med 360, 1500–1508.
4Virtanen KA, Lidell ME, Orava J, et al. (2009) Functional brown adipose tissue in healthy adults. New Engl J Med 360, 1518–1525.
5Cypess AM, Lehman S, Williams G, et al. (2009) Identification and importance of brown adipose tissue in adult humans. New Engl J Med 360, 1509–1517.
6Ouellet V, Labbe SM, Blondin DP, et al. (2012) Brown adipose tissue oxidative metabolism contributes to energy expenditure during acute cold exposure in humans. J Clin Invest 122, 545–552.
7Berube-Parent S, Pelletier C, Dore J, et al. (2005) Effects of encapsulated green tea and Guarana extracts containing a mixture of epigallocatechin-3-gallate and caffeine on 24 h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in men. Brit J Nutr 94, 432–436.
8Dulloo AG, Duret C, Rohrer D, et al. (1999) Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 70, 1040–1045.
9Rudelle S, Ferruzzi MG, Cristiani I, et al. (2007) Effect of a thermogenic beverage on 24-hour energy metabolism in humans. Obesity (Silver Spring) 15, 349–355.
10MacNaughton KW, Sathasivam P, Vallerand AL, et al. (1990) Influence of caffeine on metabolic responses of men at rest in 28 and 5 degrees C. J Appl Physiol 68, 1889–1895.
11Haman F, Legault SR, Rakobowchuk M, et al. (2004) Effects of carbohydrate availability on sustained shivering II. Relating muscle recruitment to fuel selection. J Appl Physiol 96, 41–49.
12Bell DG, Tikuisis P & Jacobs I (1992) Relative intensity of muscular contraction during shivering. J Appl Physiol 72, 2336–2342.
13Blondin DP, Depault I, Imbeault P, et al. (2010) Effects of two glucose ingestion rates on substrate utilization during moderate-intensity shivering. Eur J Appl Physiol 108, 289–300.
14Haman F, Peronnet F, Kenny GP, et al. (2004) Effects of carbohydrate availability on sustained shivering I. Oxidation of plasma glucose, muscle glycogen, and proteins. J Appl Physiol 96, 32–40.
15Haman F, Péronnet F, Kenny GP, et al. (2002) Effect of cold exposure on fuel utilization in humans: plasma glucose, muscle glycogen, and lipids. J Appl Physiol 93, 77–84.
16Haman F, Peronnet F, Kenny GP, et al. (2005) Partitioning oxidative fuels during cold exposure in humans: muscle glycogen becomes dominant as shivering intensifies. J Physiol 566, 247–256.
17Blondin DP, Maneshi A, Imbeault MA, et al. (2011) Effects of the menstrual cycle on muscle recruitment and oxidative fuel selection during cold exposure. J Appl Physiol 111, 1014–1020.
18Blondin DP, Peronnet F & Haman F (2010) Effects of ingesting [13C]glucose early or late into cold exposure on substrate utilization. J Appl Physiol 109, 654–662.
19Blondin DP, Peronnet F & Haman F (2012) Coingesting glucose and fructose in the cold potentiates exogenous CHO oxidation. Med Sci Sports Exer 44, 1706–1714.
20Hardy JD & Dubois EF (1938) The technic of measuring radiation and convection. J Nutr 15, 461–475.
21Blondin DP, Depault I, Imbeault P, et al. (2010) Effects of two glucose ingestion rates on substrate utilization during moderate-intensity shivering. Eur J Appl Physiol 108, 289–300.
22Haman F, Legault SR & Weber JM (2004) Fuel selection during intense shivering in humans: EMG pattern reflects carbohydrate oxidation. J Physiol 556, 305–313.
23Elia M (1991) Energy equivalents of CO2 and their importance in assessing energy expenditure when using tracer techniques. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 260, E75–E88.
24Péronnet F & Massicotte D (1991) Table of nonprotein respiratory quotient: an update. Can J Sport Sci 16, 23–29.
25Haman F (2006) Shivering in the cold: from mechanisms of fuel selection to survival. J Appl Physiol 100, 1702–1708.
26Jansky L (1973) Non-shivering thermogenesis and its thermoregulatory significance. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 48, 85–132.
27Cannon B & Nedergaard J (2011) Nonshivering thermogenesis and its adequate measurement in metabolic studies. J Exp Biol 214, 242–253.
28Borchardt RT & Huber JA (1975) Catechol O-methyltransferase. 5. Structure–activity relationships for inhibition by flavonoids. J Med Chem 18, 120–122.
29Dulloo AG, Seydoux J & Girardier L (1992) Potentiation of the thermogenic antiobesity effects of ephedrine by dietary methylxanthines: adenosine antagonism or phosphodiesterase inhibition? Metab Clin Experimen 41, 1233–1241.
30Dulloo AG, Seydoux J, Girardier L, et al. (2000) Green tea and thermogenesis: interactions between catechin–polyphenols, caffeine and sympathetic activity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 24, 252–258.
31Gregersen NT, Bitz C, Krog-Mikkelsen I, et al. (2009) Effect of moderate intakes of different tea catechins and caffeine on acute measures of energy metabolism under sedentary conditions. Brit J Nutr 102, 1187–1194.
32Bartness TJ, Vaughan CH & Song CK (2010) Sympathetic and sensory innervation of brown adipose tissue. Int J Obes (Lond) 34, Suppl. 1, S36–S42.
33Bartness TJ, Kay Song C, Shi H, et al. (2005) Brain–adipose tissue cross talk. Proc Nutr Soc 64, 53–64.
34van Marken Lichtenbelt WD & Daanen HA (2003) Cold-induced metabolism. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 6, 469–475.
35Block BA (1994) Thermogenesis in muscle. Annu Rev Physiol 56, 535–577.
36Rolfe DF & Brown GC (1997) Cellular energy utilization and molecular origin of standard metabolic rate in mammals. Physiol Rev 77, 731–758.
37Astrup A, Bulow J, Madsen J, et al. (1985) Contribution of BAT and skeletal muscle to thermogenesis induced by ephedrine in man. Am J Physiol 248, E507–E515.
38Dulloo AG & Miller DS (1984) Thermogenic drugs for the treatment of obesity: sympathetic stimulants in animal models. Brit J Nutr 52, 179–196.
39Vallerand AL, Jacobs I & Kavanagh MF (1989) Mechanism of enhanced cold tolerance by an ephedrine–caffeine mixture in humans. J Appl Physiol 67, 438–444.
40Hetzler RK, Knowlton RG, Somani SM, et al. (1990) Effect of paraxanthine on FFA mobilization after intravenous caffeine administration in humans. J Appl Physiol 68, 44–47.
41Acheson KJ, Gremaud G, Meirim I, et al. (2004) Metabolic effects of caffeine in humans: lipid oxidation or futile cycling? Am J Clin Nutr 79, 40–46.
42Vallerand AL, Zamecnik J, Jones PJ, et al. (1999) Cold stress increases lipolysis, FFA Ra and TG/FFA cycling in humans. Aviat Space Environ Med 70, 42–50.
43Garofalo MA, Kettelhut IC, Roselino JE, et al. (1996) Effect of acute cold exposure on norepinephrine turnover rates in rat white adipose tissue. J Auton Nerv Syst 60, 206–208.
44Kim J, Saidel GM & Kalhan SC (2008) A computational model of adipose tissue metabolism: evidence for intracellular compartmentation and differential activation of lipases. J Theor Biol 251, 523–540.
0Brozek J, Grande F & Anderson JT, et al. (1963) Densitometric analysis of body composition: revision of some quantitative assumptions. Ann NY Acad Sci 110, 113–140.