Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

The acute effects of four protein meals on insulin, glucose, appetite and energy intake in lean men

  • Sebely Pal (a1) and Vanessa Ellis (a1)
Abstract

Different dietary proteins vary in their ability to influence satiety and reduce food intake. The present study compared the effects of four protein meals, whey, tuna, turkey and egg albumin, on postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations as well as on appetite measures and energy intake in twenty-two lean, healthy men. This was a randomised, cross-over design study where participants consumed four liquid test meals on separate occasions followed by the collection of regular blood samples (fasting, +30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 min). They were then offered a buffet meal 4 h later. The blood glucose response after the consumption of the test meal, as an incremental area under the curve (AUC), was significantly lower with the whey meal than with the turkey (P < 0·023) and egg (P < 0·001) meals, but it was not lower than with the tuna meal (P < 0·34). The AUC blood insulin after the consumption of the test meal was significantly higher with the whey meal than with the tuna, turkey and egg meals (all P < 0·001). The AUC rating of hunger was significantly lower with the whey meal than with the tuna (P < 0·033), turkey (P < 0·001) and egg (P < 0·001) meals. Mean energy intake at the ad libitum meal was significantly lower (P < 0·001) with the whey meal than with the tuna, egg and turkey meals. There was a strong relationship between self-rated appetite, postprandial insulin response and energy intake at lunch. Whey protein meal produced a greater insulin response, reduced appetite and decreased ad libitum energy intake at a subsequent meal compared with the other protein meals, indicating a potential for appetite suppression and weight loss in overweight or obese individuals.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The acute effects of four protein meals on insulin, glucose, appetite and energy intake in lean men
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The acute effects of four protein meals on insulin, glucose, appetite and energy intake in lean men
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The acute effects of four protein meals on insulin, glucose, appetite and energy intake in lean men
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Sebely Pal, fax +61 8 9266 2258, email s.pal@curtin.edu.au
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

3J Bowen , M Noakes & P Clifton (2006) Appetite regulatory hormone responses to various dietary proteins differ by body mass index status despite similar reductions in ad libitum energy intake. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91, 29132919.

4J Bowen , M Noakes , C Trenerry , (2006) Energy intake, ghrelin and cholecystokinin after different carbohydrate and protein preloads in overweight men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91, 14771483.

6S Woods (2003) Gastrointestinal satiety signals I. An overview of gastrointestinal signals that influence food intake. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 286, 713.

8M von Post-Skagegård , B Vessby & B Karlström (2006) Glucose and insulin responses in healthy women after intake of composite meals containing cod-, milk-, and soy protein. Eur J Clin Nutr 60, 949954.

10J Bowen , M Noakes & P Clifton (2007) Appetite hormones and energy intake in obese men after consumption of fructose, glucose and whey protein beverages. Int J Obes 31, 16961703.


14A Frid , M Nilsson , J Holst , (2005) Effect of whey on blood glucose and insulin responses to composite breakfast and lunch meals in type 2 diabetic subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 82, 6975.

17EM Ostman , HG Liljeberg Elmstahl & IM Bjorck (2001) Inconsistency between glycemic and insulinemic responses to regular and fermented milk products. Am J Clin Nutr 74, 96100.

18Y Boirie , M Dangin , P Gachon , (1997) Slow and fast dietary proteins differently modulate postprandial protein accretion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94, 1493014935.

19V Ouellet , SJ Weisnagel , J Marois , (2008) Dietary cod protein reduces plasma C-reactive protein in insulin-resistant men and women. J Nutr 138, 23862391.

20A Uhe , G Collier & K O'Dea (1992) A comparison of the effects of beef, chicken and fish protein on satiety and amino acid profiles in lean male subjects. J Nutr 122, 467472.

21M Claessens , W Calame , A Siemensma , (2009) The effect of different protein hydrolysate/carbohydrate mixtures on postprandial glucagon and insulin responses in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 63, 4856.

22V Lang , F Bellisle , J-M Oppert , (1998) Satiating effect of proteins in healthy subjects: a comparison of egg, albumin, casein, gelatin, soy protein, pea protein and wheat gluten. Am J Clin Nutr 67, 11971204.

23A Flint , A Raben , J Blundell , (2000) Reproducibility, power and validity of visual analogue scales in assessment of appetite sensations in single test meal studies. Int J Obes 24, 3848.

24A Ballinger & M Clark (1994) l-Phenylalanine releases cholecystokinin (CCK) and is associated with reduced food intake in humans: evidence for a physiological role of CCK in control of eating. Metabolism 43, 735738.

26B Petersen , L Ward , E Bastian , (2009) A whey protein supplement decreases post-prandial glycemia. Nutr J 8, 47. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-8-47.

27K Zawadzki , B Yaspelkis & J Ivy (1992) Carbohydrate–protein complex increases the rate of muscle glycogen storage after exercise. J Appl Physiol 72, 18541859.

28R Samra , T Wolever & G Anderson (2007) Enhanced food intake regulatory responses after a glucose drink in hyperinsulinemic men. Int J Obes 31, 12221231.

29B Swinburn , B Nyomba , M Saad , (1991) Insulin resistance associated with lower rates of weight gain in Pima Indians. J Clin Invest 88, 168173.

30R Schmid , E Schulte-Frohlinde , V Schusdziarra , (1992) Contribution of postprandial amino acid levels to stimulation of insulin, glucagon, and pancreatic polypeptide in humans. Pancreas 7, 698704.

31P Newsholme , L Brennan & K Bender (2006) Amino acid metabolism, [beta]-cell function, and diabetes. Diabetes 55, S39S47.

32S Pal , V Ellis & S Dhaliwal (2010) Effects of whey protein isolate on body composition, lipids, insulin and glucose in overweight and obese individuals. Br J Nutr (epublication ahead of print version 9 April 2010).


Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: