This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
1.E Birben , UM Sahiner , C Sackesen , et al. (2012) Oxidative stress and antioxidant defense. World Allergy Organ J 5, 9–19.
2.E Niki (2014) Role of vitamin E as a lipid-soluble peroxyl radical scavenger: in vitro and in vivo evidence. Free Radic Biol Med 66, 3–12.
5.B Troesch , B Hoeft , M McBurney , et al. (2012) Dietary surveys indicate vitamin intakes below recommendations are common in representative Western countries. Br J Nutr 108, 692–698.
6.MG Traber & J Atkinson (2007) Vitamin E, antioxidant and nothing more. Free Radic Biol Med 43, 4–15.
7.MG Traber & JF Stevens (2011) Vitamins C and E: beneficial effects from a mechanistic perspective. Free Radic Biol Med 51, 1000–1013.
8.P Pfluger , D Kluth , N Landes , et al. (2004) Vitamin E: underestimated as an antioxidant. Redox Rep 9, 249–254.
10.RV Cooney , AA Franke , PJ Harwood , et al. (1993) Gamma-tocopherol detoxification of nitrogen dioxide: superiority to alpha-tocopherol. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90, 1771–1775.
12.N Grebenstein , M Schumacher , L Graeve , et al. (2014) α-Tocopherol transfer protein is not required for the discrimination against γ-tocopherol in vivo but protects it from side-chain degradation in vitro. Mol Nutr Food Res 58, 1052–1060.
13.TJ Sontag & RS Parker (2007) Influence of major structural features of tocopherols and tocotrienols on their omega-oxidation by tocopherol-omega-hydroxylase. J Lipid Res 48, 1090–1098.
14.RS Parker , TJ Sontag , JE Swanson , et al. (2004) Discovery, characterization, and significance of the cytochrome P450 omega-hydroxylase pathway of vitamin E catabolism. Ann NY Acad Sci 1031, 13–21.
15.TJ Sontag & RS Parker (2002) Cytochrome P450 omega-hydroxylase pathway of tocopherol catabolism. Novel mechanism of regulation of vitamin E status. J Biol Chem 277, 25290–25296.
17.JK Kramer , RC Fouchard & KM Kallury (1999) Determination of vitamin E forms in tissues and diets by high-performance liquid chromatography using normal-phase diol column. Methods Enzymol 299, 318–329.
19.EA Serbinova & L Packer (1994) Antioxidant properties of alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocotrienol. Methods Enzymol 234, 354–366.
20.YJ Suzuki , M Tsuchiya , SR Wassall , et al. (1993) Structural and dynamic membrane properties of alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocotrienol: implication to the molecular mechanism of their antioxidant potency. Biochemistry 32, 10692–10699.
21.Y Yoshida , E Niki & N Noguchi (2003) Comparative study on the action of tocopherols and tocotrienols as antioxidant: chemical and physical effects. Chem Phys Lipids 123, 63–75.
22.L Muller , K Theile & V Bohm (2010) In vitro antioxidant activity of tocopherols and tocotrienols and comparison of vitamin E concentration and lipophilic antioxidant capacity in human plasma. Mol Nutr Food Res 54, 731–742.
23.P Sookwong , K Nakagawa , Y Yamaguchi , et al. (2010) Tocotrienol distribution in foods: estimation of daily tocotrienol intake of Japanese population. J Agric Food Chem 58, 3350–3355.
26.EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products NaAN (2010) Scientific opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to vitamin E and protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage. EFSA J 8, 1816.
27.GW Burton & KU Ingold (1989) Vitamin E as an in vitro and in vivo antioxidant. Ann NY Acad Sci 570, 7–22.
28.MG Traber (2014) Vitamin E inadequacy in humans: causes and consequences. Adv Nutr 5, 503–514.
29.RJ Sokol (1988) Vitamin E deficiency and neurologic disease. Annu Rev Nutr 8, 351–373.
30.K Gohil , VT Vasu & CE Cross (2010) Dietary alpha-tocopherol and neuromuscular health: search for optimal dose and molecular mechanisms continues! Mol Nutr Food Res 54, 693–709.
31.AA Shamim , K Schulze , RD Merrill , et al. (2015) First-trimester plasma tocopherols are associated with risk of miscarriage in rural Bangladesh. Am J Clin Nutr 101, 294–301.
32.G Bjelakovic , D Nikolova & C Gluud (2013) Meta-regression analyses, meta-analyses, and trial sequential analyses of the effects of supplementation with beta-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E singly or in different combinations on all-cause mortality: do we have evidence for lack of harm? PLOS ONE 8, e74558.
33.AJ Curtis , M Bullen , L Piccenna , et al. (2014) Vitamin E supplementation and mortality in healthy people: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 28, 563–573.
34.S Jiang , Z Pan , H Li , et al. (2014) Meta-analysis: low-dose intake of vitamin E combined with other vitamins or minerals may decrease all-cause mortality. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 60, 194–205.
35.L Loffredo , L Perri , A Di Castelnuovo , et al. (2015) Supplementation with vitamin E alone is associated with reduced myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 25, 354–363.
37.KF Gey (1993) Prospects for the prevention of free radical disease, regarding cancer and cardiovascular disease. Br Med Bull 49, 679–699.
39.S Peter , U Moser , S Pilz , et al. (2013) The challenge of setting appropriate intake recommendations for vitamin E: considerations on status and functionality to define nutrient requirements. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 83, 129–136.
40.J Atkinson , T Harroun , SR Wassall , et al. (2010) The location and behavior of alpha-tocopherol in membranes. Mol Nutr Food Res 54, 641–651.
41.J Atkinson , RF Epand & RM Epand (2008) Tocopherols and tocotrienols in membranes: a critical review. Free Radic Biol Med 44, 739–764.
42.D Marquardt , JA Williams , N Kucerka , et al. (2013) Tocopherol activity correlates with its location in a membrane: a new perspective on the antioxidant vitamin E. J Am Chem Soc 135, 7523–7533.
43.M Tanito , Y Yoshida , S Kaidzu , et al. (2007) Acceleration of age-related changes in the retina in alpha-tocopherol transfer protein null mice fed a vitamin E-deficient diet. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 48, 396–404.
44.KM Lebold , DB Jump , GW Miller , et al. (2011) Vitamin E deficiency decreases long-chain PUFA in zebrafish (Danio rerio). J Nutr 141, 2113–2118.
45.GW Miller , EM Labut , KM Lebold , et al. (2012) Zebrafish (Danio rerio) fed vitamin E-deficient diets produce embryos with increased morphologic abnormalities and mortality. J Nutr Biochem 23, 478–486.
46.KM Lebold , JS Kirkwood , AW Taylor , et al. (2014) Novel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method shows that vitamin E deficiency depletes arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Redox Biol 2, 105–113.
47.J Choi , SW Leonard , K Kasper , et al. (2015) Novel function of vitamin E in regulation of zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain lysophospholipids discovered using lipidomics. J Lipid Res 56, 1182–1190.
48.AC Howard , AK McNeil & PL McNeil (2011) Promotion of plasma membrane repair by vitamin E. Nat Commun 2, article number 597.
49.M Labazi , AK McNeil , T Kurtz , et al. (2015) The antioxidant requirement for plasma membrane repair in skeletal muscle. Free Radic Biol Med 84, 246–253.
50.D Mozaffarian & JH Wu (2011) Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: effects on risk factors, molecular pathways, and clinical events. J Am Coll Cardiol 58, 2047–2067.
52.S Kotwal , M Jun , D Sullivan , et al. (2012) Omega 3 fatty acids and cardiovascular outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 5, 808–818.
53.EC Rizos , EE Ntzani , E Bika , et al. (2012) Association between omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and risk of major cardiovascular disease events: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 308, 1024–1033.
55.YT Wen , JH Dai & Q Gao (2014) Effects of Omega-3 fatty acid on major cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 24, 470–475.
56.PE Miller , M Van Elswyk & DD Alexander (2014) Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Hypertens 27, 885–896.
57.C von Schacky (2015) Omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease--an uphill battle. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 92, 41–47.
58.PC Calder (2014) Very long chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and human health. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 116, 1280–1300.
59.JJ DiNicolantonio , AK Niazi , MF McCarty , et al. (2014) Omega-3s and cardiovascular health. Ochsner J 14, 399–412.
61.WS Harris (2013) Are n-3 fatty acids still cardioprotective? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 16, 141–149.
62.CM Skeaff & J Miller (2009) Dietary fat and coronary heart disease: summary of evidence from prospective cohort and randomised controlled trials. Ann Nutr Metab 55, 173–201.
63.SC Smith Jr, EJ Benjamin , RO Bonow , et al. (2011) AHA/ACCF secondary prevention and risk reduction therapy for patients with coronary and other atherosclerotic vascular disease: 2011 update: a guideline from the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology Foundation. Circulation 124, 2458–2473.
64.J Perk , G De Backer , H Gohlke , et al. (2012) European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice (version 2012). The fifth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice (constituted by representatives of nine societies and by invited experts). Atherosclerosis 223, 1–68.
65.M Miller , NJ Stone , C Ballantyne , et al. (2011) Triglycerides and cardiovascular disease: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation 123, 2292–2333.
66.PM Kris-Etherton & S Innis , American Dietician Associationet al. (2007) Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: dietary fatty acids. J Am Diet Assoc 107, 1599–1611.
67.EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) (2010) Scientific opinion on dietary reference values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol. EFSA J 8(3), 1461.
68.S Nodari , M Triggiani , U Campia , et al. (2011) n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the prevention of atrial fibrillation recurrences after electrical cardioversion: a prospective, randomized study. Circulation 124, 1100–1106.
69.S Nodari , M Triggiani , A Manerba , et al. (2011) Effects of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with heart failure. Intern Emerg Med 6, 37–44.
70.D Moertl , A Hammer , S Steiner , et al. (2011) Dose-dependent effects of omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids on systolic left ventricular function, endothelial function, and markers of inflammation in chronic heart failure of nonischemic origin: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-arm study. Am Heart J 161, 915.e911–919.
72.B Koletzko , I Cetin & JT Brenna (2007) Dietary fat intakes for pregnant and lactating women. Br J Nutr 98, 873–877.
73.DJ Palmer , T Sullivan , MS Gold , et al. (2012) Effect of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in pregnancy on infants’ allergies in first year of life: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 344, e184.
74.N Harvey , D Dhanwal , S Robinson , et al. (2012) Does maternal long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status in pregnancy influence the bone health of children? The Southampton Women’s Survey. Osteoporos Int 23, 2359–2367.
75.KM Appleton , PJ Rogers & AR Ness (2010) Updated systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on depressed mood. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 757–770.
76.CD Williams , BM Whitley , C Hoyo , et al. (2011) A high ratio of dietary n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. Nutr Res 31, 1–8.
77.E Patterson , R Wall , GF Fitzgerald , et al. (2012) Health implications of high dietary omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Nutr Metab 2012, 539426.
79.JG Bieri & RH Poukka Evarts (1972) Vitamin E nutrition in the Rhesus monkey. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 140, 1162–1165.
82.MK Horwitt (1960) Vitamin E and lipid metabolism in man. Am J Clin Nutr 8, 451–461.
85.EE Valk & G Hornstra (2000) Relationship between vitamin E requirement and polyunsaturated fatty acid intake in man: a review. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 70, 31–42.
87.S Dayton , S Hashimoto , D Rosenblum , et al. (1965) Vitamin E status of humans during prolonged feeding of unsaturated fats. J Lab Clin Med 65, 739–747.
88.JS Lewis & R Alfin-Slater (1969) An E/PUFA ratio of 0.4 maintains normal plasma tocopherol levels in growing children. Fed Proc 28, 758.
90.JP Allard , R Kurian , E Aghdassi , et al. (1997) Lipid peroxidation during n-3 fatty acid and vitamin E supplementation in humans. Lipids 32, 535–541.
91.JE Brown & KW Wahle (1990) Effect of fish-oil and vitamin E supplementation on lipid peroxidation and whole-blood aggregation in man. Clin Chim Acta 193, 147–156.
92.RC Wander , SH Du , SO Ketchum et al. (1996) Effects of interaction of RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate and fish oil on low-density-lipoprotein oxidation in postmenopausal women with and without hormone-replacement therapy. Am J Clin Nutr 63, 184–193.
94.PP Nair , JT Judd , E Berlin , et al. (1993) Dietary fish oil-induced changes in the distribution of alpha-tocopherol, retinol, and beta-carotene in plasma, red blood cells, and platelets: modulation by vitamin E. Am J Clin Nutr 58, 98–102.
95.C Julia , M Touvier , N Meunier , et al. (2013) Intakes of PUFAs were inversely associated with plasma C-reactive protein 12 years later in a middle-aged population with vitamin E intake as an effect modifier. J Nutr 143, 1760–1766.
96.S Saboori , S Shab-Bidar , JR Speakman , et al. (2015) Effect of vitamin E supplementation on serum C-reactive protein level: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Eur J Clin Nutr 69, 867–873.
97.N Guillot , E Caillet , M Laville , et al. (2009) Increasing intakes of the long-chain omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid: effects on platelet functions and redox status in healthy men. FASEB J 23, 2909–2916.
98.E Vericel , R Colas , C Calzada , et al. (2015) Moderate oral supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid improves platelet function and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic patients. Thromb Haemost 114, 283–296.
99.R Muggli (1994) Physiological requirements of vitamin E as a function of the amount and type of polyunsaturated fatty acid. World Rev Nutr Diet 75, 166–168.
100.I Elmadfa & M Kornsteiner (2009) Dietary fat intake--a global perspective. Ann Nutr Metab 54, Suppl. 1, 8–14.
101.R Micha , S Khatibzadeh , P Shi , et al. (2014) Global, regional, and national consumption levels of dietary fats and oils in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis including 266 country-specific nutrition surveys. BMJ 348, g2272.
102.J Linseisen , MB Schulze , M Saadatian-Elahi , et al. (2003) Quantity and quality of dietary fat, carbohydrate, and fiber intake in the German EPIC cohorts. Ann Nutr Metab 47, 37–46.