Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Early nutrition and immunity – progress and perspectives

  • Philip C. Calder (a1), Susanne Krauss-Etschmann (a2) (a3), Esther C. de Jong (a4), Christophe Dupont (a5), Julia-Stefanie Frick (a6), Hanne Frokiaer (a7), Joachim Heinrich (a8), Holger Garn (a9), Sibylle Koletzko (a10), Gideon Lack (a11), Gianluca Mattelio (a12), Harald Renz (a9), Per T. Sangild (a13), Jürgen Schrezenmeir (a14), Thomas M. Stulnig (a15), Thomas Thymann (a13), Agnes E. Wold (a16) and Berthold Koletzko (a17)...

The immune system exists to protect the host against pathogenic organisms and highly complex pathways of recognition, response, elimination and memory have evolved in order to fulfil this role. The immune system also acts to ensure tolerance to ‘self’, to food and other environmental components, and to commensal bacteria. A breakdown in the tolerogenic pathways can also lead to inflammatory diseases. The prevalence of inflammatory diseases, including atopic disorders, has increased over the last 60 years. The development of tolerance is the result of active immune mechanisms and both development and maintenance of tolerance are lifelong processes which start very early in life, even prenatally. Profound immunologic changes occur during pregnancy, involving a polarization of T helper (Th) cells towards a dominance of Th2 and regulatory T cell effector responses in both mother and fetus. This situation is important to maintain pregnancy through avoidance of the rejection of the immunologically incompatible fetus. During the third trimester of human pregnancy, fetal T cells are able to mount antigen-specific responses to environmental and food-derived antigens and antigen-specific T cells are detectable in cord blood in virtually all newborns indicating in utero sensitization. If the neonatal immune system is not able to down-regulate the pre-existing Th2 dominance effectively then an allergic phenotype may develop. Changes occur at, and soon after, birth in order that the immune system of the neonate becomes competent and functional and that the gut becomes colonized with bacteria. Exposure to bacteria during birth and from the mother's skin and the provision of immunologic factors in breast milk are amongst the key events that promote maturation of the infant's gut and gut-associated and systemic immune systems. The introduction of formula and of solid foods exposes the infant to novel food antigens and also affects the gut flora. Nutrition may be the source of antigens to which the immune system must become tolerant, provide factors, including nutrients, that themselves might modulate immune maturation and responses, and provide factors that influence intestinal flora, which in turn will affect antigen exposure, immune maturation and immune responses. Through these mechanisms it is possible that nutrition early in life might affect later immune competence, the ability to mount an appropriate immune response upon infection, the ability to develop a tolerogenic response to ‘self’ and to benign environmental antigens, and the development of immunologic disorders. A Workshop held in February 2006 considered recent findings in the areas of oral tolerance, routes of sensitization to allergens and factors affecting the development of atopic disease; factors influencing the maturation of dendritic cells and the development of regulatory T cells; the influence of gut microflora on immunity, allergic sensitization and infectious disease; the role of nutrition in preventing necrotizing enterocolitis in an animal model of preterm birth; and the role of PUFA of different classes in influencing immune responses and in shaping the development of atopic disease. This report summarizes the content of the lectures and the subsequent discussions.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Early nutrition and immunity – progress and perspectives
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Early nutrition and immunity – progress and perspectives
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Early nutrition and immunity – progress and perspectives
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr Philip C. Calder, fax +44 (0)2380 594379, email
Authors made an equal contribution to the writing of this report.
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

FT Black , PI Anderson , J Orskov , K Gaarsler & S Lauland (1989) Prophylactic efficacy of lactobacilli on traveller's diarrhea. Travel Med 7, 333335.

FCK Thien , R Woods , S De Luca & MJ Abramson (2002) Dietary marine fatty acids (fish oil) for asthma in adults and children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2 CD, 001283.

I Adlerberth , E Lindberg , N Aberg , B Hesselmar , R Saalman , IL Strannegard & AE Wold (2005) Reduced enterobacterial and increased staphylococcal colonization of the infantile bowel: an effect of hygienic lifestyle?. Pediatr Res 59, 96101.

T Alfven , C Braun-Fahrlander & B Brunekreef (2006) Allergic diseases and atopic sensitization in children related to farming and anthroposophic lifestyle – the PARSIFAL study. Allergy 61, 414421.

IB Autenrieth , N Bucheler , E Bohn , G Heinze & I Horak (1997) Cytokine mRNA expression in intestinal tissue of interleukin-2 deficient mice with bowel inflammation. Gut 41, 793800.

J-F Bach (2002) The effect of infections on susceptibility to autoimmune and allergic disease. N Engl J Med 347, 911920.

D Bagga , L Wang , R Farias-Eisner , JA Glaspy & ST Reddy (2003) Differential effects of prostaglandin derived from ω-6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on COX-2 expression and IL-6 secretion. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100, 17511756.

KC Barnes (2006) Genetic epidemiology of health disparities in allergy and clinical immunology. J Allergy Clin Immunol 117, 243254.

GE Bergonzelli , S Blum , H Brussow , I Corthesy-Theulaz (2005) Probiotics as a treatment strategy for gastrointestinal diseases?. Digestion 72, 5768.

T Bjerke , M Hedegaard , TB Henriksen , BW Nielsen & PO Schiotz (1994) Several genetic and environmental factors influence cord blood IgE concentration. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 5, 8894.

PN Black & S Sharpe (1997) Dietary fat and asthma: is there a connection?. Eur Respir J 10, 612.

JA Bluestone & AK Abbas (2003) Natural versus adaptive regulatory T cells. Nat Rev Immunol 3, 253257.

G Bolte , G Winkler , B Holscher , W Thefeld , SK Weiland & J Heinrich (2005) Margarine consumption, asthma, and allergy in young adults: results of the German National Health Survey 1998. Ann Epidemiol 15, 207213.

AT Borchers , CL Keen & ME Gershwin (2005) Hope for the hygiene hypothesis: when the dirt hits the fan. J Asthma 42, 225247.

L Braback , NI Kjellman , A Sandin & B Bjorksten (2001) Atopy among schoolchildren in northern and southern Sweden in relation to pet ownership and early life events. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 12, 412.

C Braun-Fahrlander (2000) Allergic diseases in farmers' children. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 11, Suppl. 13 1922.

PC Calder (2001) N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation and immunity: pouring oil on troubled waters or another fishy tale?. Nutr Res 21, 309341.

PC Calder (2003 a) Polyunsaturated fatty acids and cytokine profiles: a clue to the changing prevalence of atopy?. Clin Exp Allergy 33, 412415.

PC Calder , JA Bond , SJ Bevan , SV Hunt & EA Newsholme (1991) Effect of fatty acids on the proliferation of concanavalin A-stimulated rat lymph node lymphocytes. Int J Biochem 23, 579588.

PC Calder & EA Miles (2000) Fatty acids and atopic disease. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 11 Suppl. 2936.

PC Calder & EA Newsholme (1992 a) Polyunsaturated fatty acids suppress human peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin-2 production. Clin Sci 82, 695700.

PC Calder & EA Newsholme (1992 b) Unsaturated fatty acids suppress interleukin-2 production and transferrin receptor expression by concanavalin A-stimulated rat lymphocytes. Mediators Inflamm 1, 107115.

PC Calder , P Yaqoob , DJ Harvey , A Watts & EA Newsholme (1994) The incorporation of fatty acids by lymphocytes and the effect on fatty acid composition and membrane fluidity. Biochem J 300, 509518.

PC Calder , P Yaqoob , F Thies , FA Wallace & EA Miles (2002) Fatty acids and lymphocyte functions. Br J Nutr 87, S31S48.

R Cunard , M Ricote , D DiCamplu , DC Archer , DA Kahn , CK Glass & CJ Kelly (2002) Regulation of cytokine expression by ligands of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors. J Immunol 168, 27952802.

M de Vrese , P Winkler , P Rautenberg , T Harder , C Noah , C Laue , S Ott , J Hampe , S Schreiber , K Heller & J Schrezenmeir (2005) Effect of Lactobacillus gasseri PA 16/8, Bifidobacterium longum SP 07/3, B. bifidum MF 20/5 on common cold episodes: a double blind, randomized, controlled trial. Clin Nutr 24, 481491.

T Decsi , C Campoy & B Koletzko (2005) Effect of n -3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in pregnancy: the Nuheal trial. Adv Exp Med Biol 569, 109113.

K Duchen , G Yu & B Bjorksten (1998) Atopic sensitization during the first year of life in relation to long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in human milk. Pediatr Res 44, 478484.

JA Dunstan , TA Mori , A Barden , LJ Beilin , AL Taylor , PG Holt & SL Prescott (2003 a) Maternal fish oil supplementation in pregnancy reduces interleukin-13 levels in cord blood of infants at high risk of atopy. Clin Exp Allergy 33, 442448.

JA Dunstan , TA Mori , A Barden , LJ Beilin , AL Taylor , PG Holt & SL Prescott (2003 b) Fish oil supplementation in pregnancy modifies neonatal allergen-specific immune responses and clinical outcomes in infants at high risk of atopy: a randomized, controlled trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol 112, 11781184.

E Enrique , F Pineda & T Malek (2005) Sublingual immunotherapy for hazelnut food allergy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with a standardized hazelnut extract. J Allergy Clin Immunol 116, 10731079.

YY Fan , LH Ly , R Barhoumi , DN McMurray & RS Chapkin (2004) Dietary docosahexaenoic acid suppresses T cell protein kinase C theta lipid raft recruitment and IL-2 production. J Immunol 173, 61516160.

AM Faria & HL Weiner (2005) Oral tolerance. Immunol Rev 206, 232259.

V Gallai , P Sarchielli , A Trequattrini , M Franceschini , A Floridi , C Firenze , A Alberti , Benedetto Di , Stragliotto E D (1993) Cytokine secretion and eicosanoid production in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of MS patients undergoing dietary supplementation with n -3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Neuroimmunol 56, 143153.

P Gionchetti , F Rizzello , A Venturi , P Brigidi , D Matteuzzi , G Bazzocchi , G Poggioli , M Miglioli & M Campieri (2000) Oral bacteriotherapy as maintenance treatment in patients with chronic pouchitis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Gastroenterology 119, 305309.

DW Goldman , WC Pickett & EJ Goetzl (1983) Human neutrophil chemotactic and degranulating activities of leukotriene B 5 (LTB 5 ) derived from eicosapentaenoic acid. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 117, 282288.

K Hatakka , E Savilahti , A Ponka , JH Meurman , T Poussa , L Nase , M Saxelin & R Korpela (2001) Effect of long term consumption of probiotic milk on infections in children attending day care centres: double blind, randomised trial. BMJ 322, 1327.

U Herz , J Ricarda , B Ahrens , A Scheffold , A Radbruch & H Renz (2001) Allergic sensitization and allergen exposure during pregnancy favor the development of atopy in the neonate. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 124, 193196.

E Hilton , P Kolakowski , C Singer & M Smith (1997) Efficacy of Lactobacillus GG as a diarrheal preventive in travelers. J Travel Med 4, 4143.

L Hodge , J Peat & C Salome (1994) Increased consumption of polyunsaturated oils may be a cause of increased prevalence of childhood asthma. Aust N Z J Med 24, 727.

S Shah & MM Bapat (2006) Parental history of allergy, maternal serum IgE & cord serum IgE. Indian J Med Sci 60, 1318.

LH Sigal (2005) Basic science for the clinician 26: tolerance – mechanisms and manifestations. J Clin Rheumatol 11, 113117.

DP Strachan (1989) Hay fever, hygiene, and household size. BMJ 299, 12591260.

TM Stulnig (2003) Immunomodulation by polyunsaturated fatty acids: mechanisms and effects. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 132, 310321.

TM Stulnig , M Berger , T Sigmund , D Raederstorff , H Stockinger & W Waldhausl (1998) Polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibit T cell signal transduction by modification of detergent-insoluble membrane domains. J Cell Biol 143, 637644.

TM Stulnig , J Huber , N Leitinger , EM Imre , P Angelisova , P Nowotny & W Waldhausl (2001) Polyunsaturated eicosapentaenoic acid displaces proteins from membrane rafts by altering raft lipid composition. J Biol Chem 276, 3733537340.

TM Stulnig & M Zeyda (2004) Immunomodulation by polyunsaturated fatty acids: impact on T-cell signaling. Lipids 39, 11711175.

H Szajewska & JZ Mrukowicz (2001) Probiotics in the treatment and prevention of acute infectious diarrhea in infants and children: a systematic review of published randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 33, Suppl. 2 S17S25.

Z Szepfalusi , C Loibichler , J Pichler , K Reisenberger , C Ebner & R Urbanek (2000) Direct evidence for transplacental allergen transfer. Pediatr Res 48, 404407.

SM Tariq , M Stevens , S Matthews , S Ridout , R Twiselton & DW Hide (1996) Cohort study of peanut and tree nut sensitisation by age of 4 years. BMJ 313, 514517.

B Thilaganathan , CA Mansur , G Morgan & KH Nicolaides (1992) Fetal T-lymphocyte subpopulations in normal pregnancies. Fetal Diagn Ther 7, 5361.

MA Trak-Fellermeier , S Brasche , G Winkler , B Koletzko & J Heinrich (2004) Food and fatty acid intake and atopic disease in adults. Eur Respir J 23, 575582.

AF Valledor & M Ricote (2004) Nuclear receptor signaling in macrophages. Biochem Pharmacol 67, 201212.

E Von Mutius , SK Weiland , C Fritzsch , H Duhme & U Keil (1998) Increasing prevalence of hay fever and atopy among children in Leipzig, East Germany. Lancet 351, 862866.

M Waidmann , O Bechtold , JS Frick , HA Lehr , S Schubert , U Dobrindt , J Loeffler , E Bohn & IB Autenrieth (2003) Bacteroides vulgatus protects against Escherichia coli-induced colitis in gnotobiotic interleukin-2-deficient mice. Gastroenterology 125, 162177.

JA Warner , AC Jones , EA Miles & JO Warner (1996) Prenatal sensitisation. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 7, Suppl. 98101.

JA Warner , CA Jones , AC Jones & JO Warner (2000) Prenatal origins of allergic disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol 105, S493S498.

M Wegmann , H Fehrenbach , A Fehrenbach , T Held , C Schramm , H Garn & H Renz (2005) Involvement of distal airways in a chronic model of experimental asthma. Clin Exp Allergy 35, 12631271.

A Yabuhara , C Macaubas , SL Prescott , TJ Venaille , BJ Holt , W Habre , PD Sly & PG Holt (1997) TH2-polarized immunological memory to inhalant allergens in atopics is established during infancy and early childhood. Clin Exp Allergy 27, 12611269.

P Yaqoob , HS Pala , M Cortina-Borja , EA Newsholme & PC Calder (2000) Encapsulated fish oil enriched in α-tocopherol alters plasma phospholipid and mononuclear cell fatty acid compositions but not mononuclear cell functions. Eur J Clin Invest 30, 260274.

G Yu & B Bjorksten (1998) Serum levels of phospholipid fatty acids in mothers and their babies in relation to allergic disease. Eur J Pediatr 157, 298303.

G Yu , NI Kjellman & B Bjorksten (1996) Phospholipid fatty acids in cord blood: family history and development of allergy. Acta Paediatr 85, 679683.

M Zeyda & TM Stulnig (2006) Lipid rafts & co.: an integrated model of membrane organization in T cell activation. Progr Lipid Res 45, 187202.

M Zeyda , AB Szekeres , MD Saemann , R Geyeregger , H Stockinger , GJ Zlabinger , W Waldhausl & TM Stulnig (2003) Suppression of T cell signaling by polyunsaturated fatty acids: selectivity in inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor activation. J Immunol 170, 60336039.

A Zirngibl , K Franke , U Gehring , A von Berg , D Berdel , CP Bauer , D Reinhardt , HE Wichmann & J Heinrich (2002) Exposure to pets and atopic dermatitis during the first two years of life. A cohort study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 13, 394401.

E Isolauri (2004) Dietary modification of atopic disease: use of probiotics in the prevention of atopic dermatitis. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 4, 270275.

AC Jones , EA Miles , JO Warner , BM Colwell , TN Bryant & JA Warner (1996) Fetal peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferative responses to mitogenic and allergenic stimuli during gestation. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 7, 109116.

CA Jones , JA Holloway & JO Warner (2000) Does atopic disease start in foetal life?. Allergy 55, 210.

CA Jones , JA Holloway & JO Warner (2002) Fetal immune responsiveness and routes of allergic sensitization. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 13, Suppl. 15, 1922.

CA Jones , SA Kilburn , JA Warner & JO Warner (1998) Intrauterine environment and fetal allergic sensitization. Clin Exp Allergy 28, 655659.

M Kabesch , W Schaal , T Nicolai , E von Mutius (1999) Lower prevalence of asthma and atopy in Turkish children living in Germany. Eur Respir J 13, 577582.

M Kalliomaki , S Salminen , T Poussa , H Arvilommi & E Isolauri (2003) Probiotics and prevention of atopic disease: 4-year follow-up of a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 361, 18691871.

ML Kapsenberg (2003) Dendritic-cell control of pathogen-driven T-cell polarization. Nature Rev Immunol 3, 984993.

N Kondo , Y Kobayashi & S Shinoda (1992) Cord blood lymphocyte responses to food antigens for the prediction of allergic disorders. Arch Dis Child 67, 10031007.

G Lack , D Fox , K Northstone & J Golding (2003) Factors associated with the development of peanut allergy in childhood. N Engl J Med 348, 977985.

B Laubereau , I Brockow , A Zirngibl , S Koletzko , A Gruebl , A von Berg , B Filipiak-Pittroff , D Berdel , CP Bauer , D Reinhardt , J Heinrich & HE Wichmann (2004) Effect of breast-feeding on the development of atopic dermatitis during the first 3 years of life – results from the GINI-birth cohort study. J Pediatr 144, 602607.

P Meglio , E Bartone , M Plantamura , E Arabito & PG Giampietro (2004) A protocol for oral desensitization in children with IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy. Allergy 59, 980987.

J Michaelsson , JE Mold , JM McCune & DF Nixon (2006) Regulation of T cell responses in the developing human fetus. J Immunol 176, 57415748.

S Mihrshahi , JK Peat , K Webb , W Oddy , GB Marks , CM Mellis , the for & Team CAPS (2004) Effect of omega-3 fatty acid concentrations in plasma on symptoms of asthma at 18 months of age. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 15, 517522.

T Nagakura , S Matsuda , K Shichijyo , H Sugimoto & K Hata (2000) Dietary supplementation with fish oil rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in children with bronchial asthma. Eur Respir J 16, 861865.

NS Ogden & L Bielory (2005) Probiotics: a complementary approach in the treatment and prevention of pediatric atopic disease. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 5, 179184.

PJ Oksanen , S Salminen , M Saxelin , P Hamalainen , A Ihantola-Vormisto , L Muurasniemi-Isoviita , S Nikkari , T Oksanen , I Porsti & E Salminen (1990) Prevention of travellers' diarrhoea by Lactobacillus GG. Ann Med 22, 5356.

JK Peat , S Mihrshahi , AS Kemp , GB Marks , ER Tovey , K Webb , CM Mellis , SR Leeder , the for , Asthma Childhood & Team Prevention (2004) Three-year outcomes of dietary fatty acid modification and house dust mite reduction in the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study. J Allergy Clin Immunol 114, 807813.

LJ Pike (2003) Lipid rafts: bringing order to chaos. J Lipid Res 44, 655667.

L Poysa , M Korppi , M Pietikainen , K Remes , K Juntunen-Backman (1991) Asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic eczema in Finnish children and adolescents. Allergy 46, 161165.

SL Prescott & PC Calder (2004) N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and allergic disease. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 7, 123129.

SL Prescott , C Macaubas , J Holt , T Smallacombe , D Sly & PG Holt (1999) Development of allergen-specific T-cell memory in atopic and normal children. Lancet 353, 196200.

R Raghupathy (2001) Pregnancy: success and failure within the Th1/Th2/Th3 paradigm. Semin Immunol 13, 219227.

G Reinhard , A Noll , H Schlebusch , P Mallmann & AV Ruecker (1998) Shifts in the TH1/TH2 balance during human pregnancy correlate with apoptotic changes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 245, 933938.

M Rescigno , G Rotta , B Valzasina , P Ricciardi-Castagnoli (2001 b) Dendritic cells shuttle microbes across gut epithelial monolayers. Immunobiology 204, 572581.

M Rescigno , M Urbano , B Valzasina , M Francolini , G Rotta , R Bonasio , F Granucci , JP Kraehenbuhl , P Ricciardi-Castagnoli (2001 a) Dendritic cells express tight junction proteins and penetrate gut epithelial monolayers to sample bacteria. Nat Immunol 2, 361367.

M Rimoldi , M Chieppa , P Larghi , M Vulcano , P Allavena & M Rescigno (2005 a) Monocyte-derived dendritic cells activated by bacteria or by bacteria-stimulated epithelial cells are functionally different. Blood 106, 28182826.

M Rimoldi , M Chieppa , V Salucci , F Avogadri , A Sonzogni , GM Sampietro , A Nespoli , G Viale , P Allavena & M Rescigno (2005 b) Intestinal immune homeostasis is regulated by the crosstalk between epithelial cells and dendritic cells. Nat Immunol 6, 507514.

P Sanderson & PC Calder (1998) Dietary fish oil appears to inhibit the activation of phospholipase C-γ in lymphocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta 1392, 300308.

P Sanderson , P Yaqoob & PC Calder (1995) Effects of dietary lipid manipulation upon rat spleen lymphocyte functions and the expression of lymphocyte surface molecules. J Nutr Environ Med 5, 119132.

PT Sangild , RH Siggers & M Schmidt (2006) Diet- and colonization-dependent intestinal dysfunction predisposes to necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs. Gastroenterology 130, 27762792.

S Sausenthaler , I Kompauer , M Borte , O Herbarth , B Schaaf , A Von Berg , A Zutavern & J Heinrich (2006) Margarine and butter consumption, eczema and allegic sensitisation in children. The LISA birth cohort study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 17, 8593.

L Schäffer , H Gohlke , M Müller , IM Heid , LJ Palmer , I Kompauer , H Demmelmair , T Illig , B Koletzko & J Heinrich (2006) Common genetic variants of the FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster and their reconstructed haplotypes are associated with the fatty acid composition in phospholipids. Hum Mol Genet 15, 17451756.

CN Serhan (2005) Novel eicosanoid and docosanoid mediators: resolvins, docosatrienes, and neuroprotrectins. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 8, 115121.

CN Serhan , M Arita , S Hong & K Gotlinger (2004) Resolvins, docosatrienes, and neuroprotectins, novel omega-3-derived mediators, and their endogenous aspirin-triggered epimers. Lipids 39, 11251132.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 303 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 345 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 26th June 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.