Skip to main content
×
Home

Effect of dietary water intake on urinary output, specific gravity and relative supersaturation for calcium oxalate and struvite in the cat

  • Catherine M. F. Buckley (a1), Amanda Hawthorne (a1), Alison Colyer (a1) and Abigail E. Stevenson (a1)
Abstract

It has been reported that daily fluid intake influences urinary dilution, and consequently the risk of urolithiasis in human subjects and dogs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of dietary moisture on urinary parameters in healthy adult cats by comparing nutritionally standardised diets, varying only in moisture content. A total of six cats were fed a complete dry food (6·3 % moisture) hydrated to 25·4, 53·2 and 73·3 % moisture for 3 weeks in a randomised block cross-over design. Urinary specific gravity (SG), urine volume, water drunk and total fluid intake were measured daily; relative supersaturation (RSS) for calcium oxalate (CaOx) and struvite was calculated using the SUPERSAT computer program. Cats fed the 73·3 % moisture diet produced urine with a significantly lower SG (P < 0·001) compared with diets containing 53·2 % moisture or lower. Mean RSS for CaOx was approaching the undersaturated zone (1·14 (sem 0·21); P = 0·001) for cats fed the diet with 73·3 % moisture and significantly lower than the 6·3 % moisture diet (CaOx RSS 2·29 (sem 0·21)). The effect of diet on struvite RSS was less clear, with no significant difference between treatment groups. Total fluid intake was significantly increased (P < 0·001) in the 73·3 % moisture diet (144·7 (sem 5·2) ml, or 30 ml/kg body weight per d) compared with the 6·3 % (103·4 (sem 5·3) ml), 25·4 % (98·6 (sem 5·3) ml) and 53·3 % (104·7 (sem 5·3) ml) moisture diets, despite voluntary water intake decreasing as dietary moisture intake increased. Cats fed the 73·3 % moisture diet had a higher total daily fluid intake resulting in a more dilute urine with a lower risk of CaOx when compared with the lower-moisture diets.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Effect of dietary water intake on urinary output, specific gravity and relative supersaturation for calcium oxalate and struvite in the cat
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Effect of dietary water intake on urinary output, specific gravity and relative supersaturation for calcium oxalate and struvite in the cat
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Effect of dietary water intake on urinary output, specific gravity and relative supersaturation for calcium oxalate and struvite in the cat
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: A. E. Stevenson, fax +44 1664 415440, email abigail.stevenson@effem.com
References
Hide All
1Thrall BE & Miller LG (1976) Water turnover in cats fed dry rations. Fel Pract 6, 1017.
2Burger IH, Anderson RS & Holme DW (1980) Nutritional factors affecting water balance in the dog and cat. In Nutrition of the Dog and Cat, pp. 145156 [Anderson RS, editor]. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
3Buffington CAT, Chew DJ, Kendall MS, et al. (1997) Clinical evaluation of cats with non-obstructive urinary tract diseases. J Am Vet Med Assoc 210, 4650.
4Markwell PJ, Buffington CAT, Chew DJ, et al. (1999) Clinical evaluation of commercially available urinary acidification diets in the management of idiopathic cystitis in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 214, 361365.
5Gaskell CJ (1985) Nutrition in diseases of the urinary tract in the dog and cat. Vet Annual 25, 383390.
6Robertson WG, Jones JS, Heaton MA, et al. (2002) Predicting the crystallisation potential of urine from cats and dogs with respect to calcium oxalate and magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite). J Nutr 132, 1637S1641S.
7Borghi L, Meschi T, Amato F, et al. (1996) Urinary volume, water and recurrences in idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis: a 5-year randomised prospective study. J Urol 155, 839843.
8Sakhaee K, Zerweke JE, Pak CYC, et al. (1981) Objective evidence for the beneficial effect of a high fluid intake in the management of nephrolithiasis. In Urolithiasis: Clinical and Basic Research, pp. 227233 [Smith LH, Robertson WG and Finlayson B, editors]. New York: Plenum Press.
9Pak CYC, Sakhaee K, Crowther C, et al. (1980) Evidence justifying a high fluid intake in treatment of nephrolithiasis. Ann Int Med 93, 3639.
10Borghi L, Meschi T, Schianchi T, et al. (1999) Urine volume: stone risk factor and preventive measure. Nephron 8, 131137.
11Hurley K, Stevenson A & Watson H (2003) Managing struvite and calcium oxalate risk – what does relative super saturation (RSS) evaluation mean in practical terms? Waltham Focus 13, 3033.
12Osborne CA, Kruger JM, Lulich JP, et al. (2000) Feline lower urinary tract diseases. In Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine, pp. 17101746 [Ettinger S and Feldman E, editors]. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 202
Total number of PDF views: 295 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1012 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 19th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.