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The effect of different dietary fatty acids on lipoprotein metabolism: concentration-dependent effects of diets enriched in oleic, myristic, palmitic and stearic acids

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 March 2007

Andrew M. Salter*
Affiliation:
Department of Applied Biochemistry and Food Science, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough LE12 5RD, UK
E. Heather Mangiapane
Affiliation:
Department of Applied Biochemistry and Food Science, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough LE12 5RD, UK
Andrew J. Bennett
Affiliation:
Department of Biochemistry, University of Nottingham Medical School, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK
Jennifer S. Bruce
Affiliation:
Department of Applied Biochemistry and Food Science, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough LE12 5RD, UK
Michael A. Billett
Affiliation:
Department of Biochemistry, University of Nottingham Medical School, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK
Kay L. Anderton
Affiliation:
Department of Biochemistry, University of Nottingham Medical School, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK
Christine B. Marenah
Affiliation:
Department of Clinical Chemistry, City Hospital, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK
Nigel Lawson
Affiliation:
Department of Clinical Chemistry, City Hospital, Nottingham NG5 1PB, UK
David A. White
Affiliation:
Department of Biochemistry, University of Nottingham Medical School, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK
*
*Corresponding author:Dr A. M. Salter, fax + 44 (0)115 951 6122, email Andrew.Salter@Nottingham.ac.uk
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Abstract

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While it is well established that the fatty acid composition of dietary fat is important in determining plasma lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, the effects of changing the absolute quantities of the individual fatty acids are less clear. In the present study Golden Syrian hamsters were fed on isoenergetic, low cholesterol (0·05 g/kg) diets containing 100, 150 or 200 g added fat/kg. This consisted of triolein (TO) alone, or equal proportions of TO and either trimyristin (TM), tripalmitin (TP) or tristearin (TS). Each trial also included a control group fed on a diet containing 50g TO/kg. As the mass of TO in the diet increased, plasma VLDL-cholesterol concentrations rose. The TM-rich diets produced a concentration-dependent increase in total plasma cholesterol which was a result of significant increases in both VLDL and HDL levels. The TP-rich diets increased plasma LDL- and HDL-cholesterol levels in a concentration-dependent manner. TS-containing diets did not increase the cholesterol content of any of the major lipoprotein fractions. Hepatic LDL-receptor mRNA concentrations were significantly decreased in animals fed on TP, while apolipoprotein B mRNA concentrations were significantly increased. Thus, on a low-cholesterol diet, increasing the absolute amount of dietary palmitic acid increases LDL-cholesterol more than either myristic or stearic acid. These effects on lipoprotein metabolism may be exerted through specific modulation of the expression of the LDL receptor and apolipoprotein B genes.

Type
General Nutrition
Copyright
Copyright © The Nutrition Society 1998

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