Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG® and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12® on health-related quality of life in college students affected by upper respiratory infections

  • Tracey J. Smith (a1), Diane Rigassio-Radler (a1), Robert Denmark (a2), Timothy Haley (a3) (a4) and Riva Touger-Decker (a1)...
Abstract

College students are susceptible to upper respiratory infections (URI) due to inadequate sleep, stress and close living quarters. Certain probiotic strains modulate immune function and may improve health-related quality of life (HRQL) during URI. The present study recruited apparently healthy college students and assessed the effect of probiotics on HRQL outcomes (i.e. self-reported duration, symptom severity and functional impairment of URI) in those who developed URI. Missed school and work days due to URI were also considered. Subjects (n 231) were apparently healthy college students living on campus in residence halls at the Framingham State University (Framingham, MA, USA), and were randomised to receive placebo (n 117) or probiotic-containing powder (daily dose of minimum 1 billion colony-forming units of each Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG® (LGG®) and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12® (BB-12®); n 114) for 12 weeks. Subjects completed The Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21 to assess HRQL during URI. The final analyses included 198 subjects (placebo, n 97 and probiotics, n 101). The median duration of URI was significantly shorter by 2 d and median severity score was significantly lower by 34 % with probiotics v. placebo (P< 0·001), indicating a higher HRQL during URI. Number of missed work days was not different between groups (P= 0·429); however, the probiotics group missed significantly fewer school days (mean difference = 0·2 d) compared to the placebo group (P= 0·002). LGG® and BB-12® may be beneficial among college students with URI for mitigating decrements in HRQL. More research is warranted regarding mechanisms of action associated with these findings and the cost–benefit of prophylactic supplementation.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG® and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12® on health-related quality of life in college students affected by upper respiratory infections
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG® and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12® on health-related quality of life in college students affected by upper respiratory infections
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG® and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12® on health-related quality of life in college students affected by upper respiratory infections
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr T. J. Smith, email smitht9@umdnj.edu
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1 S Cohen , WJ Doyle , CM Alper , et al. (2009) Sleep habits and susceptibility to the common cold. Arch Intern Med 169, 6267.

3 TB Adams , CM Wharton , L Quilter , et al. (2008) The association between mental health and acute infectious illness among a national sample of 18- to 24-year-old college students. J Am Coll Health 56, 657663.

4 SC Segerstrom & GE Miller (2004) Psychological stress and the human immune system: a meta-analytic study of 30 years of inquiry. Psychol Bull 130, 601630.

5 C White , R Kolble , R Carlson , et al. (2005) The impact of a health campaign on hand hygiene and upper respiratory illness among college students living in residence halls. J Am Coll Health 53, 175181.

6 KL Nichol , S D'Heilly & E Ehlinger (2005) Colds and influenza-like illnesses in university students: impact on health, academic and work performance, and health care use. Clin Infect Dis 40, 12631270.

7 KL Nichol , S D'Heilly & E Ehlinger (2006) Burden of upper respiratory illnesses among college and university students: 2002–2003 and 2003–2004 cohorts. Vaccine 24, 67246725.

8American College Health Association (2009) American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment Spring 2008 Reference Group Data Report (Abridged). J Am Coll Health 57, 477488.

9 DC Bolser (2006) Cough suppressant and pharmacologic protussive therapy: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest 129, 238S249S.

10 SM Smith , K Schroeder & T Fahey (2008) Over-the-counter medications for acute cough in children and adults in ambulatory settings. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CD001831.

11 AI Sutter , M Lemiengre , H Campbell , et al. (2003) Antihistamines for the common cold. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CD001267.

12 D Taverner & J Latte (2007) Nasal decongestants for the common cold. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CD001953 .

13 IB Wilson & PD Cleary (1995) Linking clinical variables with health-related quality of life. A conceptual model of patient outcomes. JAMA 273, 5965.

15 EF Juniper (1997) Measuring health-related quality of life in rhinitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 99, S742S749.

16 JA Linder & DE Singer (2003) Health-related quality of life of adults with upper respiratory tract infections. J Gen Intern Med 18, 802807.

18 G Rizzardini , D Eskesen , P Calder , et al. (2011) ) Evaluation of the immune benefits of two probiotic strains Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis, BB-12® and Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, L. casei 431® in an influenza vaccination model: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Br J Nutr 107, 876884.

19 H Link-Amster , F Rochat , KY Saudan , et al. (1994) Modulation of a specific humoral immune response and changes in intestinal flora mediated through fermented milk intake. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 10, 5563.

20 EJ Schiffrin , F Rochat , H Link-Amster , et al. (1995) Immunomodulation of human blood cells following the ingestion of lactic acid bacteria. J Dairy Sci 78, 491497.

22 M de Vrese , P Rautenberg , C Laue , et al. (2005) Probiotic bacteria stimulate virus-specific neutralizing antibodies following a booster polio vaccination. Eur J Nutr 44, 406413.

23 HR Christensen , CN Larsen , P Kaestel , et al. (2006) Immunomodulating potential of supplementation with probiotics: a dose–response study in healthy young adults. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 47, 380390.

24 A Berggren , I Lazou Ahrén , N Larsson , et al. (2011) Randomised, double-blind and placebo-controlled study using new probiotic lactobacilli for strengthening the body immune defence against viral infections. Eur J Nutr 50, 203210.

25 M Gleeson , NC Bishop , M Oliveira , et al. (2011) Daily probiotic's (Lactobacillus casei Shirota) reduction of infection incidence in athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 21, 5564.

26 S Kirchberger , O Majdic & J Stockl (2007) Modulation of the immune system by human rhinoviruses. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 142, 110.

27 K Hatakka , E Savilahti , A Ponka , et al. (2001) Effect of long term consumption of probiotic milk on infections in children attending day care centres: double blind, randomised trial. Br Med J 322, 1327.

30 B Barrett , RL Brown , MP Mundt , et al. (2009) Validation of a short form Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS-21). Health Qual Life Outcomes 7, 7696.

32 B Barrett , R Brown , M Mundt , et al. (2005) Using benefit harm tradeoffs to estimate sufficiently important difference: the case of the common cold. Med Decis Making 25, 4755.

33 M de Vrese , P Winkler , P Rautenberg , et al. (2005) Effect of Lactobacillus gasseri PA 16/8, Bifidobacterium longum SP 07/3, B. bifidum MF 20/5 on common cold episodes: a double blind, randomized, controlled trial. Clin Nutr 24, 481491.

34 F Pregliasco , G Anselmi , L Fonte , et al. (2008) A new chance of preventing winter diseases by the administration of synbiotic formulations. J Clin Gastroenterol 42, Suppl. 3, Pt 2, S224S233.

36 P Winkler , VM de , C Laue , et al. (2005) Effect of a dietary supplement containing probiotic bacteria plus vitamins and minerals on common cold infections and cellular immune parameters. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 43, 318326.

37 AJ Cox , DB Pyne , PU Saunders , et al. (2010) Oral administration of the probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum VRI-003 and mucosal immunity in endurance athletes. Br J Sports Med 44, 222226.

38 E Tiollier , M Chennaoui , D Gomez-Merino , et al. (2007) Effect of a probiotics supplementation on respiratory infections and immune and hormonal parameters during intense military training. Mil Med 172, 10061011.

39 S Lavasani , B Dzhambazov , M Nouri , et al. (2010) A novel probiotic mixture exerts a therapeutic effect on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mediated by IL-10 producing regulatory T cells. PLoS One 5, e9009.

40 P Tubelius , V Stan & A Zachrisson (2005) Increasing work-place healthiness with the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri: a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled study. Environ Health 4, 25.

41 H Bruunsgaard , A Hartkopp , T Mohr , et al. (1997) In vivo cell-mediated immunity and vaccination response following prolonged, intense exercise. Med Sci Sports and Exer 29, 11761181.

42 DC Nieman (2000) Is infection risk linked to exercise workload? Med Sci Sports and Exer 32, S406S411.

43 DC Nieman (1994) Exercise, infection, and immunity. Inter J Sports Med 15, Suppl. 3, S131S141.

44 RN Husni , SM Gordon , JA Washington , et al. (1997) Lactobacillus bacteremia and endocarditis: review of 45 cases. Clin Infect Dis 25, 10481055.

45 SP Borriello , WP Hammes , W Holzapfel , et al. (2003) Safety of probiotics that contain lactobacilli or bifidobacteria. Clin Infect Dis 36, 775780.

46 SJ Antony , CW Stratton & JS Dummer (1996) Lactobacillus bacteremia: description of the clinical course in adult patients without endocarditis. Clin Infect Dis 23, 773778.

47 M Rautio , H Jousimies-Somer , H Kauma , et al. (1999) Liver abscess due to a Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain indistinguishable from L. rhamnosus strain GG. Clin Infect Dis 28, 11591160.

48 MK Salminen , S Tynkkynen , H Rautelin , et al. (2002) Lactobacillus bacteremia during a rapid increase in probiotic use of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in Finland. Clin Infect Dis 35, 11551160.

49 MG Besselink , HC van Santvoort , E Buskens , et al. (2008) Probiotic prophylaxis in predicted severe acute pancreatitis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 371, 651659.

50 S Bengmark (2008) Is probiotic prophylaxis worthwhile in patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis? Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol 5, 602603.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 33
Total number of PDF views: 255 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 549 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 24th June 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.