Skip to main content
×
×
Home

The effect of oral contraceptive agents on the basal metabolic rate of young women

  • Bronwyn Diffey (a1), Leonard S. Piers (a1), Mario J. Soares (a1) (a2) and Kerin O'dea (a2)
Abstract
Abstract

The use of oral contraceptive agents by women may be a factor that contributes to the observed inter-individual variability in the BMR. We, therefore, measured the BMR, body build and composition in two groups of young women and also assessed their self-reported level of physical activity. One group had been using oral contraceptive agents for a period of 6 months or more (OCA, n 24), while the other group had never used oral contraceptives (NOCA, n 22). There were no significant differences in age, body build or composition. The absolute BMR in the two groups were not significantly different when compared using an unpaired t test (OCA: 5841 (SD 471) v. NOCA: 5633 (SD 615)kJ/d). However, using an analysis of covariance, with either body weight or a combination of fat and fat free mass as covariates, the OCA group had a BMR almost 5% higher than that of the NOCA group (OCA: 5871 v. NOCA: 5601 kJ/d; P=0·002). When those subjects with high self-reported levels of physical activity were excluded, the difference in BMR between the two groups persisted (P = 0·001). An ANOVA of oral contraceptives use and phase of menstrual cycle showed significant differences in BMR with use of oral contraceptives (P=0·004) but no difference in BMR between phases of the menstrual cycle. In conclusion, the ose of oral contraceptive agents deserves consideration when conducting and analysing data from studies on energy metabolism in young women, as it results in a significantly higher BMR.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The effect of oral contraceptive agents on the basal metabolic rate of young women
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The effect of oral contraceptive agents on the basal metabolic rate of young women
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The effect of oral contraceptive agents on the basal metabolic rate of young women
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
References
Hide All
Barton M. & Wiesner B. P. (1945). Thermogenic effect of progesterone. Lancet ii, 671672.
Benedict F. G. (1935). Degree of constancy in human basal metabolism. American Journal Of Physiology 110, 521530.
Benedict F. G. & Cathcart E. P. (1913). Muscular Work. Carnegie Institute Publication no. 187. Washington, DC: Carnegie Institute.
Berkson J. & Boothby W. M. (1938). Studies on the energy metabolism of normal individuals. American Journal of Physiology 121, 669683.
Bisdee J. T., James W. P. T. & Shaw M. A. (1989). Changes in energy expenditure during the menstrual cycle. British Journal of Nutrition 61, 187199.
Callaway C. W., Chumlea W. C., Bouchard C., Himes J. H., Lohman T. G., Martin A. D., Mitchell C. D., Mueller W. H., Roche A. F. & Seefeldt V. D. (1988). Circumferences. In Anthropometric Standardization Reference Manual, pp. 3954 [Lohman T. G, Roche A. F. and Martorell R., editors]. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Books.
Curtis V., Henry C. J. K. & Ghusain-Choueiri A. (1996). Basal metabolic rate of women on the contraceptive pill. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50, 319322.
Davidson L., Rouse I. L., Vandongen R. R. & Beilin L. J. (1985). Plasma noradrenaline and its relationship to plasma oestradiol in normal women during the menstrual cycle. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 12, 489493.
Durnin J. V. G. A. (1996). Energy requirements: general principles. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50, (Suppl. 1), S2–S10.
Durnin J. V. G. A. & Womersley J. (1974). Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skinfold thickness: measurements on 481 men and women aged from 16 to 72 years. British Journal of Nutrition 32, 7797.
Ferraro R., Lillioja S., Fontvieille A. M., Rising R., Bogardus C. & Ravussin E. (1992). Lower sedentary metabolic rate in women compared with men. Journal of Clinical Investigation 90, 780784.
Godsland I. F., Crook D., Devenport M. & Wynn V. (1995). Relationship between blood pressure, oral contraceptive use and metabolic risk markers for cardiovascular disease. Contraception 52, 143149.
Guillebaud J. (1991). The Pill and Other Hormones for Contraception. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Harrison G. G., Buskirk E. R., Lindsay Carter J. E., Johnston F. E., Lohman T. G., Pollock M. L., Roche A. F. & Wilmore J. (1988). Skinfold thicknesses and measurement technique. In Anthropometric Standardization Reference Manual, pp. 5570 [Lohman T. G., Roche A. F. and Martorell R., editors]. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Books.
Henry C. J. K., Hayter J. & Rees D. G. (1989). The constancy of basal metabolic rate in free-living male subjects. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 43, 727731.
Kappas A. & Palmer R. H. (1965). Thermogenic properties of steroids. In Methods in Hormone Research, vol. 4, pp. 119129 [Dorfman R. I., editor] New York: Academic Press.
Landau R. L., Bergenstal D. M., Lugibihl K. & Kascht M. E. (1955). The metabolic effects of progesterone in man. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology 15, 1194.
Lukaski H. C. (1987). Methods for the assessment of human body composition: traditional and new. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 46, 537556.
Lukaski H. C., Bolonchuk W. W., Hall C. B. & Siders W. A. (1986). Validation of tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance method to assess human body composition. Journal of Applied Physiology 60, 13271332.
Lusk G. & Dubois E. F. (1924). On the constancy of basal metabolism. Journal of Physiology 59, 213216.
McNeill G., Bruce A. C., Ross E. & James W. P. T. (1988). Energy balance in women using oral contraceptives. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 47, 58A.
Meijer G. A. L., Westerterp K. R., Saris W. H. M. & ten Hoor F. (1992). Sleeping metabolic rate in relation to body composition and the menstrual cycle. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 55, 637640.
National Heart Foundation (1990). Risk Factor Prevalence Study Survey no. 3, pp. 103109. Canberra: National Heart Foundation of Australia and Australian Institute of Health.
Piers L. S., Diggavi S. N., Rijskamp J.van Raaij J. M. A., Shetty P. S. & Hautvast J. G. A. J. (1995). Resting metabolic rate and thermic effect of a meal in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in well-nourished Indian women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 61, 296302.
Poehlman E. T., Melby C. L., Badylak S. F. & Calles J. (1989). Aerobic fitness and resting energy expenditure in young adult males. Metubolism 38, 8590.
Schutz Y. (1984). Terminology, factors and constants in studies on energy metabolism of humans. Glossary of energy terms and factors used for calculations of energy metabolism in human studies. In Human Energy Metabolism: Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure Measurements in Epidemiological Research Based upon Direct and Indirect Calorimetry, pp. 153181 [Van Es J. H., editor]. Wageningen: EURONUT Report 5.
Sims E. A. H. & Danforth E. (1987). Expenditure and storage of energy in man. Journal of Clinical Investigation 79, 10191025.
Soares M. J., Piers L. S., Kraai L. & Shetty P. S. (1989a). Day-to-day variations in basal metabolic rates and energy intakes of human subjects. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 43, 465472.
Soares M. J., Piers L. S. & Shetty P. S. (1989b). Resting metabolic rate (RMR) and fat free mass (FFM). Metabolism 38, 1251.
Soares M. J. & Shetty P. S. (1987). Long-term stability of metabolic rates in young adult males. Human Nutrition: Clinical Nutrition 41C, 287290.
Solomon S. J., Kurzer M. S. & Calloway D. H. (1982). Menstrual cycle and basal metabolic rate in. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 36, 611616.
Task Force on Oral Contraceptives (1989 a). The WHO multicentre trial of the vasopressor effects of combined oral contraceptives: 1. Comparison with IUD. WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction. Contraception 40, 129145.
Task Force on Oral Contraceptives (1989 b). The WHO multicentre trial of the vasopressor effects of combined oral contraceptives: 2. Lack of effect of oestrogen. WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction. Contraception 40, 147156.
Webb P. (1986). 24-hour energy expenditure and the menstrual cycle. American Jouml of Clinical Nutrition 44, 614619.
Weststrate J. A. (1993). Resting metabolic rate and diet-induced thermogenesis: a methodological reappraisal. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 58, 592601.
Whitworth J. A., Scoggins B. A., Andrews J., Williamson P. M. & Brown M. A. (1992). Haemodynamic and metabolic effects of short term administration of synthetic sex steroids in humans. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension A 14, 905922.
Woods J. W. (1988). Oral contraceptives and hypertension. Hypertension 11, 15.
Yamashita J. & Hayashi S. (1989). Changes in the basal metabolic rate of a normal woman induced by short-term and long-term alterations of energy intake. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 35, 371381.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 77 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 181 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd January 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.