1Nisizawa, K, Noda, H, Kikuchi, R, et al. (1987) The main seaweed foods in Japan. Hydrobiology , 5–29.
2Mabeau, S, Vallat, O & Brault, D (1990) De L'Orient à L'Occident: les principaux marchés, le charme discret des macro-algues. Biofutur 3, 24–29.
3Jiménez-Escrig, A & Goñi, I (1999) Evaluación nutricional y efectos fisiológicos de macroalgas marinas comestibles. Arch Latinoam Nutr 49, 114–120.
4McHuhh, D (1991) Worldwide distribution of commercial resources of seaweeds including Gelidium. Hydrobiology 221, 19–29.
5Bocanegra, A, Bastida, S, Benedí, J, et al. (2009) Review. Characteristics and nutritional and cardiovascular-health properties of seaweeds. J Med Food 12, 236–258.
6Jiménez-Escrig, A & Sánchez-Muniz, FJ (2000) Dietary fibre from edible seaweeds: chemical structure physicochemical properties and effects on cholesterol metabolism. Nutr Res 20, 585–598.
7Bocanegra, A, Benedí, J & Sánchez-Muniz, FJ (2006) Differential effects of konbu and nori seaweed dietary supplementation on liver glutathione status in normo- and hypercholesterolaemic growing rats. Br J Nutr 95, 696–702.
8Castelli, WP (1996) Lipids, risk factors and ischaemic heart disease. Atherosclerosis 124, 1–9.
9Barter, PJ & Rye, KA (1996) High density lipoproteins and coronary heart disease. Atherosclerosis 121, 1–12.
10Alipour, A, Elte, JW, van Zaanen, HC, et al. (2008) Novel aspects of postprandial lipaemia in relation to atherosclerosis. Atheroscler Suppl 9, 39–44.
11Olson, B & Schneeman, BO (1998) Alimentary lipaemia is enhanced in fiber-fed rats. J Nutr 128, 1031–1036.
12Lairon, D, Play, B & Jourdheuil-Rahmani, D (2007) Digestible and indigestible carbohydrates: interactions with postprandial lipid metabolism. J Nutr Biochem 18, 217–227.
13Ebihara, K & Schneeman, BO (1989) Interaction of bile acids, phospholipids, cholesterol and triglyceride with dietary fibers in the small intestine of rats. J Nutr 119, 1100–1106.
14Redard, CL, Davis, PA, Middleton, SJ, et al. (1992) Postprandial lipid response following a high fat meal in rats adapted to dietary fiber. J Nutr 122, 219–228.
15Nus, M, Sánchez-Muniz, FJ, Sinisterra Gago, JV, et al. (2008) Determination of rat and mice arylesterase activity using serum mimetics. Enzyme Microb Tech 43, 252–256.
16Canales, A & Sánchez-Muniz, FJ (2003) Paraoxonase, something more than an enzyme? Med Clin (Barc) 121, 537–548.
17Gur, M, Aslan, M, Yildiz, A, et al. (2006) Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in coronary artery disease. Eur J Clin Invest 36, 779–787.
18López-Oliva, E, Nus, M, Agis-Torres, A, et al. (2009) Growth hormone improves lipoprotein concentration and arylesterase activity in mice with an atherogenic lipid profile induced by lactalbumin. Br J Nutr 101, 518–526.
19Rock, W, Rosenblat, M, Miller-Lotan, R, et al. (2008) Consumption of wonderful variety pomegranate juice and extract by diabetic patients increases paraoxonase 1 association with high-density lipoprotein and stimulates its catalytic activities. J Agric Food Chem 56, 8704–8713.
20Rupérez, P & Saura-Calixto, F (2001) Dietary fiber and physicochemical properties of edible Spanish seaweeds. Eur Food Res Technol 212, 349–354.
21Colombo, ML, Risè, P, Giavarini, F, et al. (2006) Marine macroalgae as sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 61, 67–72.
22Jeong, BY, Cho, DM, Moon, SK, et al. (1993) Quality factors and functional components in the edible seaweeds. I. Distribution on n-3 fatty acids in 10 species of seaweeds by their habitats. J Korean Soc Food Nutr 22, 612–628.
23Yoshie, Y, Wang, W, Petillo, D, et al. (2000) Distribution of catechins in Japanese seaweeds. Fish Sci 66, 998–1000.
24Nakamura, T (1996) Antioxidant activity of phlorotannins isolated from the brown alga Eisenia bicyclis. Fish Sci 62, 923–926.
25Pavia, H & Aberg, P (1996) Spatial variation in polyphenolic content of Ascophyllum nodosum (Fucales, Phaeophyta). Hydrobiology , 199–203.
26National Research Council (NRC) (1996) Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources. Commission on Life Sciences. National Academy Press: Washington, DC.
27Sánchez-Muniz, FJ, García-Linares, MC, García-Arias, MT, et al. (2003) Fat and protein from olive oil-fried sardines interact to normalize serum lipoproteins and reduce liver lipids in hypercholesterolaemic rats. J Nutr 133, 2302–2308.
28Terpstra, AH, Woodward, CJ & Sanchez-Muniz, FJ (1981) Improved techniques for the separation of serum lipoproteins by density gradient ultracentrifugation: visualization by prestaining and rapid separation of serum lipoproteins from small volumes of serum. Anal Biochem 111, 149–157.
29Daher, CF, Slaiby, R, Haddad, N, et al. (2006) Effect of acute and chronic moderate red or white wine consumption on fasted and postprandial lipemia in the rat. Toxicol Environ Health A 69, 1117–1131.
30Terpstra, AH (1985) Isolation of serum chylomicrons prior to density gradient ultracentrifugation of other serum lipoprotein classes. Anal Biochem 150, 221–227.
31Lowry, OH, Rosebrough, NJ, Farr, AL, et al. (1951) Protein measurement with the Folin-Phenol reagents. J Biol Chem 193, 265–275.
32Nus, M, Sánchez-Muniz, FJ & Sánchez-Montero, JM (2006) A new method for the determination of arylesterase activity in human serum using simulated body fluid. Atherosclerosis 188, 155–159.
33Wong, KH, Sam, SW, Cheung, PCK, et al. (1999) Changes in lipid profiles of rats fed with seaweed-based diets. Nutr Res 19, 1519–1527.
34Vázquez, J & Sánchez-Muniz, FJ (1994) Revisión: Proteínas de pescado y metabolismo del colesterol. Rev Esp Cien Tecnol Alim 34, 589–608.
35Sanchez-Muniz, FJ & Bastida, S (2008) Do not use the Friedewald formula to calculate LDL-cholesterol in hypercholesterolaemic rats. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 110, 295–301.
36Garrido-Polonio, C, García-Linares, MC, García-Arias, MT, et al. (2004) Thermally oxidised sunflower-seed oil increases liver and serum peroxidation and modifies lipoprotein composition in rats. Br J Nutr 92, 257–265.
37Hogarth, CA, Roy, A & Ebert, DL (2003) Genomic evidence for the absence of a functional cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene in mice and rats. Comparative Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 135, 219–229.
38Sigurdsson, G, Nicoli, A & Lewis, B (1975) Conversion of very low desnsity lipoprotein to low density lipoprotein. A metabolic study of apolipoprotein B kinetics in human subjects. J Clin Invest 56, 1481–1490.
39Gueux, E, Mazur, A, Rayssiguier, Y, et al. (1996) Lipid fluidity of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins insolated from copper-deficient rats. Br J Nutr 75, 767–773.
40Bocanegra, A, Nieto, A, Blas, B, et al. (2003) Diets containing a high percentage of Nori or Konbu algae are well-accepted and efficiently utilised by growing rats but induce different degrees of histological changes in the liver and bowel. Food Chem Toxicol 41, 1473–1480.
41Gatti, E, Catenazzo, G, Camisasca, E, et al. (1984) Effects of guar-enriched pasta in the treatment of diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Ann Nutr Metab 28, 1–10.
42Cara, L, Dubois, C, Borel, P, et al. (1992) Effects of oat bran, rice bran, wheat fiber, and wheat germ on postprandial lipaemia in healthy adults. Am J Clin Nutr 55, 81–88.
43Dubois, C, Armand, M, Senft, M, et al. (1996) Chronic oat bran intake alters postprandial lipaemia and lipoproteins in healthy adults. Am J Clin Nutr 61, 325–333.
44Schneeman, BO, Kotite, L, Todd, KM, et al. (1993) Relationships between the responses of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in blood plasma containing apolipoproteins B-48 and B-100 to a fat-containing meal in normolipidemic humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90, 2069–2073.
45States, JC, Srivastava, S, Chen, Y, et al. (2009) Arsenic and cardiovascular disease. Toxicol Sci 107, 312–323.
46Klevay, LM (1975) Coronary heart disease: the zinc/copper hypothesis. Am J Clin Nutr 28, 764–770.
47Jacques, H (1990) . Dietary Proteins, Cholesterol Metabolism and Atherosclerosis, pp. 59–70 [Sugano, M and Beynen, AC, editors]. Switzerland: Karger Basel.
48Chiang, MT, Chen, YC & Huang, AL (1998) Plasma lipoprotein cholesterol levels in rats fed a diet enriched in cholesterol and cholic acid. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 68, 328–334.
49Bocanegra, A, Nieto, A, Bastida, S, et al. (2008) A Nori but not a Konbu, dietary supplement decreases the cholesterolaemia, liver fat infiltration and mineral bioavailability in hypercholesterolaemic growing Wistar rats. Br J Nutr 99, 272–280.
50Terpstra, AH & Beynen, AC (1984) Density profile and cholesterol concentration of serum lipoproteins in experimental animals and human subjects on hypercholesterolaemic diets. Comp Biochem Physiol B 77, 523–528.
51Loison, C, Mendy, F, Serougne, C, et al. (2002) Dietary myristic acid modifies the HDL-cholesterol concentration and liver scavenger receptor BI expression in the hamster. Br J Nutr 87, 199–210.
52Bothan, KM & Bravo, E (1995) The role of lipoprotein in biliary steroid secretion. Studies with in vivo experimental models. Prog Lipid Res 34, 71–97.
53Havel, RJ (1984) The formation of LDL: mechanisms and regulation. J Lipid Res 25, 1570–1576, www.jlr.org (accessed 20 May 2009).
54Aviram, M (2004) Serial review: paraoxonases. Introduction to the serial review on Paraoxonases, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular diseases. Free Radic Biol Med 37, 1301–1303.
55Fuhrman, B, Volkova, N & Aviram, M (2005) Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is present in postprandial chylomicrons. Atherosclerosis 180, 55–61.
56Reilly, MP, Pratico, D, Delanty, N, et al. (1998) Increased formation of distinct F2 isoprostanes in hypercholesterolaemia. Circulation 98, 2785–2787.
57Bhattacharyya, T, Nicholls, SJ, Topol, EJ, et al. (2008) Relationship of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) gene polymorphisms and functional activity with systemic oxidative stress and cardiovascular risk. JAMA 299, 1265–1276.