1 Kearney PM, Whelton M, Reynolds K, et al. (2005) Global burden of hypertension: analysis of worldwide data. Lancet 365, 217–223.
2 Wolf-Maier K, Cooper RS, Banegas JR, et al. (2003) Hypertension prevalence and blood pressure levels in 6 European countries, Canada, and the United States. JAMA 289, 2363–2369.
3 Rivas M, Garay RP, Escanero JF, et al. (2002) Soy milk lowers blood pressure in men and women with mild to moderate essential hypertension. J Nutr 132, 1900–1902.
4 Teede HJ, Giannopoulos D, Dalais FS, et al. (2006) Randomised, controlled, cross-over trial of soy protein with isoflavones on blood pressure and arterial function in hypertensive subjects. J Am Coll Nutr 25, 533–540.
5 Welty FK, Lee KS, Lew NS, et al. (2007) Effect of soy nuts on blood pressure and lipid levels in hypertensive, prehypertensive, and normotensive postmenopausal women. Arch Intern Med 167, 1060–1067.
6 Hooper L, Kroon PA, Rimm EB, et al. (2008) Flavonoids, flavonoid-rich foods, and cardiovascular risk: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 38–50.
7 Llaneza P, Gonzalez C, Fernandez-Inarrea J, et al. (2010) Soy isoflavones, Mediterranean diet, and physical exercise in postmenopausal women with insulin resistance. Menopause 17, 372–378.
8 Chan YH, Lau KK, Yiu KH, et al. (2008) Reduction of C-reactive protein with isoflavone supplement reverses endothelial dysfunction in patients with ischaemic stroke. Eur Heart J 29, 2800–2807.
9 Khaodhiar L, Ricciotti H, Li L, et al. (2008) Daidzein-rich isoflavone aglycones are potentially effective in reducing hot flashes in menopausal women. Menopause 15, 125–132.
10 Nagata C, Shimizu H, Takami R, et al. (2003) Association of blood pressure with intake of soy products and other food groups in Japanese men and women. Prev Med 36, 692–697.
11 Yang G, Shu XO, Jin F, et al. (2005) Longitudinal study of soy food intake and blood pressure among middle-aged and elderly Chinese women. Am J Clin Nutr 81, 1012–1017.
12 Pan A, Franco OH, Ye J, et al. (2008) Soy protein intake has sex-specific effects on the risk of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. J Nutr 138, 2413–2421.
13 Teede HJ, Dalais FS, Kotsopoulos D, et al. (2001) Dietary soy has both beneficial and potentially adverse cardiovascular effects: a placebo-controlled study in men and postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86, 3053–3060.
14 He J, Gu D, Wu X, et al. (2005) Effect of soybean protein on blood pressure: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 143, 1–9.
15 Jadad AR, Moore RA, Carroll D, et al. (1996) Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is blinding necessary? Control Clin Trials 17, 1–12.
16 Follmann D, Elliott P, Suh I, et al. (1992) Variance imputation for overviews of clinical trials with continuous response. J Clin Epidemiol 45, 769–773.
17 Higgins JP, Thompson SG, Deeks JJ, et al. (2003) Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ 327, 557–560.
18 Begg CB & Mazumdar M (1994) Operating characteristics of a rank correlation test for publication bias. Biometrics 50, 1088–1101.
19 Egger M, Davey Smith G, Schneider M, et al. (1997) Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ 315, 629–634.
20 Kurowska EM, Jordan J, Spence JD, et al. (1997) Effects of substituting dietary soybean protein and oil for milk protein and fat in subjects with hypercholesterolemia. Clin Invest Med 20, 162–170.
21 Washburn S, Burke GL, Morgan T, et al. (1999) Effect of soy protein supplementation on serum lipoproteins, blood pressure, and menopausal symptoms in perimenopausal women. Menopause 6, 7–13.
22 Burke V, Hodgson JM, Beilin LJ, et al. (2001) Dietary protein and soluble fiber reduce ambulatory blood pressure in treated hypertensives. Hypertension 38, 821–826.
23 Hermansen K, Sondergaard M, Hoie L, et al. (2001) Beneficial effects of a soy-based dietary supplement on lipid levels and cardiovascular risk markers in type 2 diabetic subjects. Diabetes Care 24, 228–233.
24 Jayagopal V, Albertazzi P, Kilpatrick ES, et al. (2002) Beneficial effects of soy phytoestrogen intake in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 25, 1709–1714.
25 Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Jackson CJ, et al. (2002) Effects of high- and low-isoflavone soyfoods on blood lipids, oxidized LDL, homocysteine, and blood pressure in hyperlipidemic men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 365–372.
26 Allison DB, Gadbury G, Schwartz LG, et al. (2003) A novel soy-based meal replacement formula for weight loss among obese individuals: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, 514–522.
27 Cuevas AM, Irribarra VL, Castillo OA, et al. (2003) Isolated soy protein improves endothelial function in postmenopausal hypercholesterolemic women. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, 889–894.
28 Meyer BJ, Larkin TA, Owen AJ, et al. (2004) Limited lipid-lowering effects of regular consumption of whole soybean foods. Ann Nutr Metab 48, 67–78.
29 Puska P, Korpelainen V, Hoie LH, et al. (2004) Isolated soya protein with standardised levels of isoflavones, cotyledon soya fibres and soya phospholipids improves plasma lipids in hypercholesterolaemia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a yoghurt formulation. Br J Nutr 91, 393–401.
30 Sagara M, Kanda T, Njelekera M, et al. (2004) Effects of dietary intake of soy protein and isoflavones on cardiovascular disease risk factors in high risk, middle-aged men in Scotland. J Am Coll Nutr 23, 85–91.
31 Anderson JW & Hoie LH (2005) Weight loss and lipid changes with low-energy diets: comparator study of milk-based versus soy-based liquid meal replacement interventions. J Am Coll Nutr 24, 210–216.
32 Hermansen K, Hansen B, Jacobsen R, et al. (2005) Effects of soy supplementation on blood lipids and arterial function in hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 843–850.
33 Kreijkamp-Kaspers S, Kok L, Bots ML, et al. (2005) Randomized controlled trial of the effects of soy protein containing isoflavones on vascular function in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 81, 189–195.
34 Lukaczer D, Liska DJ, Lerman RH, et al. (2006) Effect of a low glycemic index diet with soy protein and phytosterols on CVD risk factors in postmenopausal women. Nutrition 22, 104–113.
35 Anderson JW, Fuller J, Patterson K, et al. (2007) Soy compared to casein meal replacement shakes with energy-restricted diets for obese women: randomized controlled trial. Metabolism 56, 280–288.
36 Azadbakht L, Kimiagar M, Mehrabi Y, et al. (2007) Soy inclusion in the diet improves features of the metabolic syndrome: a randomized crossover study in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 735–741.
37 Matthan NR, Jalbert SM, Ausman LM, et al. (2007) Effect of soy protein from differently processed products on cardiovascular disease risk factors and vascular endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 960–966.
38 Santo AS, Cunningham AM, Alhassan S, et al. (2008) NMR analysis of lipoprotein particle size does not increase sensitivity to the effect of soy protein on CVD risk when compared with the traditional lipid profile. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 33, 489–500.
39 Wong JM, Kendall CW, de Souza R, et al. (2010) The effect on the blood lipid profile of soy foods combined with a prebiotic: a randomized controlled trial. Metabolism 59, 1331–1340.
40 McInnes GT (2005) Lowering blood pressure for cardiovascular risk reduction. J Hypertens Suppl 23, S3–S8.
41 Anderson JW, Johnstone BM & Cook-Newell ME (1995) Meta-analysis of the effects of soy protein intake on serum lipids. N Engl J Med 333, 276–282.
42 Zhan S & Ho SC (2005) Meta-analysis of the effects of soy protein containing isoflavones on the lipid profile. Am J Clin Nutr 81, 397–408.
43 Kris-Etherton PM, Grieger JA, Hilpert KF, et al. (2009) Milk products, dietary patterns and blood pressure management. J Am Coll Nutr 28, Suppl. 1, 103S–119S.
44 Appel LJ, Sacks FM, Carey VJ, et al. (2005) Effects of protein, monounsaturated fat, and carbohydrate intake on blood pressure and serum lipids: results of the OmniHeart randomized trial. JAMA 294, 2455–2464.
45 Hodgson JM, Burke V, Beilin LJ, et al. (2006) Partial substitution of carbohydrate intake with protein intake from lean red meat lowers blood pressure in hypertensive persons. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 780–787.
46 Thompson SG (1994) Why sources of heterogeneity in meta-analysis should be investigated. BMJ 309, 1351–1355.
47 Squadrito F, Altavilla D, Squadrito G, et al. (2000) Genistein supplementation and estrogen replacement therapy improve endothelial dysfunction induced by ovariectomy in rats. Cardiovasc Res 45, 454–462.
48 Dudasova S & Grancicova E (1992) Influence of casein and soy flour proteins on aminoacid content in the liver of experimental animals. Physiol Res 41, 411–416.
49 Kim JI, Kim JC, Kang MJ, et al. (2005) Effects of pinitol isolated from soybeans on glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in Korean patients with type II diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled study. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 456–458.
50 Setchell KD, Brown NM & Lydeking-Olsen E (2002) The clinical importance of the metabolite equol – a clue to the effectiveness of soy and its isoflavones. J Nutr 132, 3577–3584.
51 Tormala RM, Appt S, Clarkson TB, et al. (2007) Individual differences in equol production capability modulate blood pressure in tibolone-treated postmenopausal women: lack of effect of soy supplementation. Climacteric 10, 471–479.