Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Effect of the dietary fat quality on insulin sensitivity

  • José E. Galgani (a1), Ricardo D. Uauy (a1) (a2), Carolina A. Aguirre (a1) and Erik O. Díaz (a1) (a3)
Abstract

Recent evidence shows that specific fatty acids affect cell metabolism, modifying the balance between fatty acid oxidation and lipogenesis. These effects may have important implications in addressing the present epidemic of nutrition-related chronic disease. Intake of dietary saturated and n-6 PUFA have increased while n-3 fatty acid intake has decreased. Obesity, type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance are highly prevalent, and both are strongly related to disorders of lipid metabolism characterized by an increased plasma and intracellular fatty acid availability. Thus, it has been hypothesized that change in the quality of dietary fat supply is able to modify the degree of insulin sensitivity. Animal studies provide support for this notion. However, there is limited human data either from normal or diabetic subjects. This review aims to analyse human studies that address this question. To this purpose, the experimental design, dietary compliance, insulin-sensitivity method used and confounding variables are discussed in order to identify the role of dietary fat quality as a risk factor for insulin resistance. Most studies (twelve of fifteen) found no effect relating to fat quality on insulin sensitivity. However, multiple study design flaws limit the validity of this conclusion. In contrast, one of the better designed studies found that consumption of a high-saturated-fat diet decreased insulin sensitivity in comparison to a high-monounsaturated-fat diet. We conclude that the role of dietary fat quality on insulin sensitivity in human subjects should be further studied, using experimental designs that address the limitations of existing data sets.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Effect of the dietary fat quality on insulin sensitivity
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Effect of the dietary fat quality on insulin sensitivity
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Effect of the dietary fat quality on insulin sensitivity
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr José Galgani, fax +562 293 1268, email jgalgani@inta.cl
References
Hide All
1 World Health Organization (2003) Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series no. 916. Geneva: WHO.
2 Simopoulos, A (2003) Importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids: evolutionary aspects. World Rev Nutr Diet 92, 122.
3 Griel, AE & Kris-Etherton, PM (2006) Beyond saturated fat: the importance of the dietary fatty acid profile on cardiovascular disease. Nutr Rev 64, 257262.
4 Psota, TL, Gebauer, SK & Kris-Etherton, P (2006) Dietary omega-3 fatty acid intake and cardiovascular risk. Am J Cardiol 98, 3i18i.
5 Storlien, LH, Kraegen, EW, Chisholm, DJ, Ford, GL, Bruce, DG & Pascoe, WS (1987) Fish oil prevents insulin resistance induced by high-fat feeding in rats. Science 237, 885888.
6 Jucker, B, Cline, G, Barucci, N & Shulman, G (1999) Differential effects of safflower oil versus fish oil feeding on insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis, glycolysis, and pyruvate dehydrogenase flux in skeletal muscle. Diabetes 48, 134140.
7 Vessby, B (2000) Dietary fat and insulin action in humans. Br J Nutr 83, Suppl. 1, S91S96.
8 Hu, F, van Dam, R & Liu, S (2001) Diet and risk of type II diabetes: the role of types of fat and carbohydrate. Diabetologia 44, 805817.
9 Rivellese, A & Lilli, S (2003) Quality of dietary fatty acids, insulin sensitivity and type 2 diabetes. Biomed Pharmacother 57, 8487.
10 Riccardi, G, Giacco, R & Rivellese, A (2004) Dietary fat, insulin sensitivity and the metabolic syndrome. Clin Nutr 23, 447456.
11 Salmeron, J, Hu, FB, Manson, JE, Stampfer, MJ, Colditz, GA, Rimm, EB & Willett, WC (2001) Dietary fat intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Am J Clin Nutr 73, 10191027.
12 Mayer-Davis, EJ, Monaco, JH, Hoen, HM, Carmichael, S, Vitolins, MZ, Rewers, MJ, Haffner, SM, Ayad, MF, Bergman, RN & Karter, AJ (1997) Dietary fat and insulin sensitivity in a triethnic population: the role of obesity. The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS). Am J Clin Nutr 65, 7987.
13 Sampath, H & Ntambi, JM (2005) The fate and intermediary metabolism of stearic acid. Lipids 40, 11871191.
14 Folsom, A, Ma, J, McGovern, P & Eckfeldt, J (1996) Relation between plasma phospholipid saturated fatty acids and hyperinsulinemia. Metabolism 45(2), 223228.
15 Pelikánová, T, Kazdova, L, Chvojkova, S & Base, J (2001) Serum phospholipid fatty acid composition and insulin action in type 2 diabetic patients. Metabolism 50, 14721478.
16 Baron, A, Brechtel, G, Wallace, P & Edelman, S (1988) Rates and tissue sites of non-insulin and insulin-mediated glucose uptake in humans. Am J Physiol 255, E769E774.
17 Borkman, M, Storlien, LH, Pan, DA, Jenkins, AB, Chisholm, DJ & Campbell, LV (1993) The relation between insulin sensitivity and the fatty acid composition of the skeletal muscle phospholipids. N Engl J Med 328, 238244.
18 Manco, M, Mingrone, G, Greco, AV, Capristo, E, Gniuli, D, De Gaetano, A & Gasbarrini, G (2000) Insulin resistance directly correlated with increased saturated fatty acids in skeletal muscle triglycerides. Metabolism 49, 220224.
19 Kim, S, Abbasi, F & Reaven, G (2004) Impact of degree of obesity on surrogate estimates of insulin resistance. Diabetes Care 27, 19982002.
20 DeFronzo, R, Tobin, J & Andres, R (1979) Glucose clamp technique, a method for quantifying insulin secretion and resistance. Am J Physiol 237, 214223.
21 Pei, D, Jones, C, Bhargava, R, Chen, Y & Reaven, G (1994) Evaluation of octreotide to assess insulin-mediated glucose disposal by the insulin suppression test. Diabetologia 37, 843845.
22 Bergman, R (1989) Toward physiological understanding of glucose tolerance. Minimal model approach. Diabetes 38, 15121527.
23 Campbell, P, Mandarino, L & Gerich, J (1988) Quantification of the relative impairment in actions of insulin on hepatic glucose production and peripheral glucose uptake in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 37, 1521.
24 Rizza, R, Mandarino, L & Gerich, J (1981) Dose–response characteristics for effects of insulin on production and utilization of glucose in man. Am J Physiol 240, E630E639.
25 Soop, M, Nygren, J, Brismar, K, Thorell, A & Ljungqvist, O (2000) The hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic glucose clamp: reproducibility and metabolic effects of prolonged insulin infusion in healthy subjects. Clin Sci 98, 367374.
26 Ferrari, P, Alleman, Y, Shaw, S, Riesen, W & Weidmann, P (1991) Reproducibility of insulin sensitivity measured by the minimal model method. Diabetologia 34, 527530.
27 Summers, L, Fielding, B & Bradshaw, H (2002) Substituting dietary saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat changes abdominal fat distribution and improves insulin sensitivity. Diabetologia 45, 369377.
28 Mantzioris, E, Cleland, L, Gibson, R, Neumann, M, Demasi, M & James, M (2000) Biochemical effects of a diet containing foods enriched with n-3 fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 4248.
29 Zuijdgeest-van Leeuwen, S, Dagnelie, P, Rietveld, T, van den Berg, W & Wilson, J (1999) Incorporation and washout of orally administered n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters in different plasma lipid fractions. Br J Nutr 82, 481488.
30 Andersson, A, Nälsén, C, Tengblad, S & Vessby, B (2002) Fatty acid composition of skeletal muscle reflects dietary fat composition in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 2221229.
31 Spiegel, K, Knutson, K, Leproult, R, Tasali, E & Van Cauter, E (2005) Sleep loss: a novel risk factor for insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes. J Appl Physiol 99, 20082019.
32 López-Miranda, J, Pérez-Martínez, P, Marin, C, Fuentes, F, Delgado, J & Pérez-Jiménez, F (2007) Dietary fat, genes and insulin sensitivity. J Mol Med 85, 209222.
33 Vessby, B, Uusitupa, M, Hermansen, K, et al. (2001) Substituting dietary saturated for monounsaturated fat impairs insulin sensitivity in healthy men and women: the KANWU study. Diabetologia 44, 312319.
34 Schawb, U, Niskanen, L, Maliranta, H, Savolainen, M, Kesäniemi, A & Uusitupa, M (1995) Lauric and palmitic acid-enriched diets have minimal impact on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and glucose metabolism in healthy young women. J Nutr 125, 466473.
35 Fasching, P, Ratheiser, K, Schneeweiss, B, Rohac, M, Nowotny, P & Waldhäusl, W (1996) No effect of short-term dietary supplementation of saturated and poly- and mono-unsaturated fatty acids on insulin secretion and sensitivity in healthy men. Ann Nutr Metab 40, 116122.
36 Louheranta, A, Turpeinen, A, Schwab, U, Vidgren, H, Parviainen, M & Uusitupa, M (1998) A high-stearic acid diet does not impair glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in healthy women. Metabolism 5, 529534.
37 Louheranta, A, Turpeinen, A, Vidgren, H, Schwab, U & Uusitupa, M (1999) A high-trans fatty acid diet and insulin sensitivity in young healthy women. Metabolism 48, 870875.
38 Lovejoy, S, Smith, S, Champagne, C, Most, M, Lefevre, M, DeLany, J, Denkins, Y, Rood, J, Veldhuis, J & Bray, G (2002) Effects of diets enriched in saturated (palmitic), monounsaturated (oleic), or trans (elaidic) fatty acids on insulin sensitivity and substrate oxidation in healthy adults. Diabetes Care 25, 12831288.
39 Brady, LM, Lovegrove, SS, Lesauvage, SV, Gower, BA, Minihane, AM, Williams, CM & Lovegrove, JA (2004) Increased n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids do not attenuate the effects of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on insulin sensitivity or triacylglycerol reduction in Indian Asians. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 983991.
40 Toft, I, Bonaa, K, Ingebretsen, O, Nordaoy, A & Jenssen, T (1995) Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on glucose homeostasis and blood pressure in essential hypertension. Ann Intern Med 123, 911918.
41 Borkman, M, Chisholm, DJ, Furler, SM, Storlien, LH, Kraegen, EW, Simons, LA & Chesterman, CN (1989) Effects of fish oil supplementation on glucose and lipid metabolism in NIDDM. Diabetes 38, 13141319.
42 Luo, J, Rizkalla, S, Vidal, H, et al. (1998) Moderate intake of n-3 fatty acids for 2 months has no detrimental effect on glucose metabolism and could ameliorate the lipid profile in type 2 diabetic men. Results of a controlled study. Diabetes Care 21, 717724.
43 Boberg, M, Pollare, T, Siegbahn, A & Vessby, B (1992) Supplementation with ϖ-3 fatty acids reduces triglycerides, but increases PAI-1 in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Eur J Clin Invest 22, 645650.
44 Rivellese, AA, Maffettone, A, Iovine, C, Di-Marino, L, Annuzzi, G, Mancini, M & Riccardi, G (1996) Long-term effects of fish oil on insulin resistance and plasma lipoproteins in NIDDM patients with hypertriglyceridemia. Diabetes Care 19, 12071213.
45 Mostad, I, Bjerve, K, Bjorgaas, M, Lydersen, S & Grill, V (2006) Effects of n-3 fatty acids in subjects with type 2 diabetes: reduction of insulin sensitivity and time-dependent alteration from carbohydrate to fat oxidation. Am J Clin Nutr 48, 540550.
46 Dresner, A, Laurent, D, Marcucci, M, et al. (1999) Effects of free fatty acids on glucose transport and IRS-1-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity. J Clin Invest 103, 253259.
47 Boden, G, Lebed, B, Schatz, M, Homko, C & Lemieux, S (2001) Effects of acute changes of plasma free fatty acids on intramyocellular fat content and insulin resistance in healthy subjects. Diabetes 50, 16121617.
48 Roden, M, Price, TB, Perseghin, G, Petersen, KF, Rothman, DL, Cline, GW & Shulman, GI (1996) Mechanism of free fatty acid-induced insulin resistance in humans. J Clin Invest 97, 28592865.
49 Bachman, O, Dahl, D, Brechtel, K, et al. (2001) Effects of intravenoeus and dietary lipid challenge on intramyocellular lipid content and the relation with insulin sensitivity in humans. Diabetes 50, 25792584.
50 Stettler, R, Ith, M, Acheson, KJ, Decombaz, J, Boesch, C, Tappy, L & Binnert, C (2005) Interaction between dietary lipids and physical acitivity on insulin sensitivity and on intramyocellular lipids in healthy men. Diabetes Care 28, 14041409.
51 Roden, M (2005) Muscle triglycerides and mitochondrial function: mechanisms for the development of type 2 diabetes. Int J Obes 29, Suppl. 2, S111S115.
52 Morino, K, Petersen, K & Shulman, G (2006) Molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance in humans and their potential links with mitochondrial dysfunction. Diabetes 55, Suppl. 2, S9S15.
53 Li, Y, Soos, T, Li, X, Wu, J, DeGennaro, M, Sun, X, Littman, D, Birnbaum, M & Polakiewicz, R (2004) Protein kinase C (inhibits insulin signling by phosphorylating IRS1 at Ser1101. J Biol Chem 279, 4530445307.
54 Kim, J, Fillmore, J, Sunshine, M, et al. (2004) PKC-θ knockout mice are protected from fat-induced insulin resistance. J Clin Invest 114, 823827.
55 Yuan, M, Konstantopoulos, N, Lee, J, Hansen, L, Li, ZW, Karin, M & Shoelson, S (2001) Reversal of obesity- and diet-induced insulin resistance with salicylates or targeted disruption of Iκκβ. Nature 293, 16731677.
56 Özcan, U, Cao, Q, Yilmaz, E, Lee, A, Iwakoshi, N, Özdelen, E, Tuncman, G, Görgün, C, Glimcher, L & Hotamisligil, G (2004) Endoplasmic reticulum stress links obesity, insulin action, and type 2 diabetes. Science 306, 457461.
57 Salem, N Jr, Shingu, T, Kim, HY, Hullin, F, Bougnoux, P & Karanian, JW (1998) Specialization in membrane structure and metabolism with respect to polyunsaturated lipids. Prog Clin Biol Res 282, 319333.
58 Slater, SJ, Kelly, MB, Yeager, MD, Larkin, J, Ho, C & Stubbs, CD (1996) Polyunsaturation in cell membranes and lipid bilayers and its effects on membrane proteins. Lipids 31, Suppl., S189S192.
59 Clore, JN, Harris, PA, Li, J, Azzam, A, Gill, R, Zuelzer, W, Rizzo, WB & Blackard, WG (2000) Changes in phosphatidylcholine fatty acid composition are associated with altered skeletal muscle insulin responsiveness in normal man. Metabolism 49, 232238.
60 Pan, DA, Lillioja, S, Milner, MR, Kriketos, AD, Baur, LA, Bogardus, C & Storlien, LH (1995) Skeletal muscle membrane lipid composition is related to adiposity and insulin action. J Clin Invest 96, 28022808.
61 Vessby, B, Tengblad, S & Lithell, H (1994) Insulin sensitivity is related to the fatty acid composition of serum lipids and skeletal muscle phospholipids in 70-year-old men. Diabetologia 37, 10441050.
62 Leyton, J, Drury, P & Crawford, M (1987) Differential oxidation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in vivo in the rat. Br J Nutr 57, 383393.
63 DeLany, JP, Windhauser, MM, Champagne, CM & Bray, GA (2000) Differential oxidation of individual dietary fatty acids in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 905911.
64 McCloy, U, Ryan, M, Pencharz, P, Ross, R & Cunnane, S (2004) A comparison of the metabolism of eighteen-carbon 13C-unsaturated fatty acids in healthy women. J Lip Res 45, 474485.
65 Jones, A, Stolinski, M & Smith, R (1999) Effect of fatty acid chain length and saturation on the gastrointestinal handling and metabolic disposal of dietary fatty acids in women. Br J Nutr 81, 3743.
66 Sampath, H & Ntambi, J (2005) Polyunsaturated fatty acid regulation of genes of lipid metabolism. Ann Rev Nutr 25, 317340.
67 Duplus, E & Forest, C (2002) Is there a single mechanism for fatty acid regulation of gene expression? Biochem Pharm 64, 893901.
68 Jump, D (2002) The biochemistry of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Biol Chem 277, 87558758.
69 Pan, D & Storlien, L (1993) Dietary lipid profile is a determinant of tissue phospholipid fatty acid composition and rate of weight gain in rats. J Nutr 123, 512519.
70 Mayer, K, Meyer, S, Reinholz-Muhly, M, Maus, U, Merfels, M, Lohmeyer, J, Grimminger, F & Seeger, W (2003) Short-time infusion of fish oil-based lipid emulsions, approved for parenteral nutrition, reduces monocyte proinflammatory cytokine generation and adhesive interaction with endothelium in humans. J Immunol 171, 48374843.
71 Shi, H, Kokoeva, M, Inouye, K, Tzameli, I, Yin, H & Flier, J (2006) TLR4 links innate immunity and fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. J Clin Invest 116, 30153025.
72 Banavar, J, Damuth, J, Maritan, A & Rinaldo, A (2002) Supply–demand balance and metabolic scaling. PNAS 99, 1050610509.
73 Woodman, RJ, Mori, TA, Burke, V, Puddey, IB, Watts, GF & Beilin, LJ (2002) Effects of purified eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on glycemic control, blood pressure, and serum lipids in type 2 diabetic patients with treated hypertension. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 10071015.
74 Fuehrlein, BS, Rutenberg, MS, Silver, JN, Warren, MW, Theriaque, DW, Duncan, GE, Stacpoole, PW & Brantly, ML (2004) Differential metabolic effects of saturated versus polyunsaturated fats in ketogenic diets. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89, 16411645.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Galgani supplementary material
Galgani supplementary material

 Word (102 KB)
102 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed