Brown, KH, Rivera, JA & Bhutta, Z, et al. (2004) Estimated risk of zinc deficiency by country. In: Assessment of the risk of zinc deficiency in populations and options for its control: technical document 1 by International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group (IZiNCG) [Hotz C and Brown KH, editors].
Food Nutr Bull
25, Suppl. 2:
http://www.izincg.org/files/izincgtechdocfnb2004.pdf (accessed accessed May 2012).
El-Zanaty, F & Way, A (2009) Egypt Demographic and Health Survey 2008. Cairo, Egypt: Ministry of Health, El-Zanaty and Associates, and Macro International.
Wessells, KR & Brown, KH (2012) Estimating the global prevalence of zinc deficiency: results based on zinc availability in national food supplies and the prevalence of stunting. PLOS ONE
Brown, KH, Rivera, JA & Bhutta, Z, et al. (2004)
Shah, D & Sachdev, HP (2001) Effect of gestational zinc deficiency on pregnancy outcomes: summary of observation studies and zinc supplementation trials. Br J Nutr
85, Suppl. 2, S101–S108.
Deshpande, JD, Joshi, MM & Giri, PA (2013) Review Article: Zinc: the trace element of major importance in human nutrition and health. Int J Med Sci Public Health
Karimi, A, Bagheri, S, Nematy, M, et al. (2012) Zinc deficiency in pregnancy and fetal – neonatal outcomes and impact of the supplements on pregnancy outcomes. Iran J Neonatol
Angelova, M, Nedkova, V, Nicolov, A, et al. (2013) Review: diseases and conditions associated with zinc deficiency: serum zinc in pregnant women with reproductive failures and serum zinc in children with type 1 diabetes. Trakia J Sciences
Mori, R, Ota, E & Middleton, P, et al. (2012) .
Gebreselassie, SG & Gashe, FE (2011) A systematic review of effect of prenatal zinc supplementation on birthweight: meta-analysis of 17 randomized controlled trials. J Health Popul Nutr
Chaffee, BW & King, JC (2012) Effect of zinc supplementation on pregnancy and infant outcomes: a systematic review. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol
26, Suppl. 1, 118–137.
Hess, SY & King, JC (2009) Effects of maternal zinc supplementation on pregnancy and lactation outcomes. Food Nutr Bull
30, Suppl. 1, S60–S78.
Darnton-Hill (2013) Zinc supplementation during pregnancy: biological, behavioural and contextual rationale. In WHO-e-Library of Evidence for Nutrition Actions (eLENA). http://www.who.int/elena/bbc/zinc_pregnancy/en/ (accessed accessed June 2012).
Fall, CHD, Fisher, DJ, Osmond, C, et al. (2009) Maternal Micronutrient Supplementation Study Group (MMSSG). Multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy in low-income countries: a meta-analysis of effects on birth size and length of gestation. Food Nutr Bull
Haider, BA & Bhutta, ZA (2012) Multiple-micronutrient supplementation for women during pregnancy. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, issue 11. Art. No: CD004905
Ronsmans, C, Fisher, DJ, Osmond, C, et al. (2009) Maternal Micronutrient Supplementation Study Group. Multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy in low-income countries: a meta-analysis of effects on stillbirths and on early and late neonatal mortality. Food Nutr Bull
30, Suppl. 4, S547–S555.
Bhutta, ZA & Haider, BA (2008) Maternal micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries. Lancet
Ramakrishnan, U, Grant, F, Goldenberg, T, et al. (2012) Effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation on pregnancy and infant outcomes: a systematic review. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol
26, Suppl. 1, 153–167.
Kawai, K, Spiegelman, D, Shankar, AH, et al. (2011) Maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation and pregnancy outcomes in developing countries: meta-analysis and meta-regression. Bull World Health Organ
Zerfu, TA & Ayele, HT (2013) Micronutrients and pregnancy; effect of supplementation on pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review. Nutr J
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation (FAO) (2001) Zinc. In Human Vitamin and Mineral Requirements. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation Bangkok, Thailand, Chapter 16
, pp. 257–270, Rome, Italy: FAO/WHO.
ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/004/y2809e/y2809e00.pdf (accessed accessed 11 June 2014).
El-Kassas, GM (2004) .
Nutrition Institute (1996) .
Yvonne Alexopoulos (2004) Dietary reference intakes. In Krause's Food & Nutrition therapy, 12th ed., [Mahan, LK, Escott-Stump, S, Raymond, JL and Krause, MV, editors]. USA: Elsevier Health Sciences.
Institute of Medicine (1990) Subcommittee on nutritional status and weight gain during pregnancy. In Nutrition During Pregnancy, Part I. Weight gain. Washington DC: National Academy Press.
Naem, N, El-Sayed, NM, Nossier, SA, et al. (2014) Zinc status and dietary intake of pregnant women, Alexandria, Egypt. J Egypt Public Health Assoc
Moran, VH, Skinner, AL, Medina, MW, et al. (2012) The relationship between zinc intake and serum/plasma zinc concentration in pregnant and lactating women: a systematic review with dose–response meta-analyses. J Trace Elem Med Biol
Norrozi, M, Borna, S, Hanachi, P, et al. (2012) Evaluation of zinc supplementation effect on fetal outcomes in pregnant women with lower-than-median serum zinc concentration. J Family Reprod Health
Hunt, IF, Murphy, NJ, Cleaver, AE, et al. (1989) Zinc supplementation during pregnancy: zinc concentration of serum and hair from low-income women of Mexican descent. Am J Clin Nutr
Frederick, IO, Williams, MA, Sales, AE, et al. (2008) Pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, and other maternal characteristics in relation to infant birth weight. Matern Child Health J
Abrams, B, Altman, SL & Pickett, KE (2000) Pregnancy weight gain: still controversial. Am J Clin Nutr
Christian, P, Khatry, SK, Katz, J, et al. (2003) Effects of alternative maternal micronutrient supplements on low birth weight in rural Nepal: double blind randomised community trial. BMJ
Simmer, K, Lort-Phillips, L, James, C, et al. (1991) A double-blind trial of zinc supplementation in pregnancy. Eur J Clin Nutr
Caulfield, LE, Zavaleta, N, Shankar, AH, et al. (1998) Potential contribution of maternal zinc supplementation during pregnancy to maternal and child survival. Am J Clin Nutr
68, Suppl. 2, 5499–5508.
Mahomed, K, James, DK, Golding, J, et al. (1989) Zinc supplementation during pregnancy: a double blind randomised controlled trial. BMJ
Jonsson, B, Hauge, B, Larsen, MF, et al. (1996) Zinc supplementation during pregnancy: a double blind randomised controlled trial. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand
Maggini, S, Wintergerst, ES, Beveridge, S, et al. (2007) Selected vitamins and trace elements support immune function by strengthening epithelial barriers and cellular and humoral immune responses. Br J Nutr
98, Suppl. 1, S29–S35.
Roth, DE, Caulfield, LE, Ezzati, M, et al. (2008) Acute lower respiratory infections in childhood: opportunities for reducing the global burden through nutritional interventions. Bull World Health Organ