This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
1 J Halkjær , A Olsen , K Overvad , et al. (2010) Intake of total, animal and plant protein and subsequent changes in weight or waist circumference in European men and women: the Diogenes project. Int J Obes (Lond) 35, 1104–1113.
2 H Du , A DL van der , MM van Bakel , et al. (2009) Dietary glycaemic index, glycaemic load and subsequent changes of weight and waist circumference in European men and women. Int J Obes (Lond) 33, 1280–1288.
3 AC Vergnaud , T Norat , D Romaguera , et al. (2010) Meat consumption and prospective weight change in participants of the EPIC-PANACEA study. Am J Clin Nutr 92, 398–407.
4 AM Bernstein , Q Sun , FB Hu , et al. (2010) Major dietary protein sources and risk of coronary heart disease in women. Circulation 122, 876–883.
5 SR Preis , MJ Stampfer , D Spiegelman , et al. (2010) Dietary protein and risk of ischemic heart disease in middle-aged men. Am J Clin Nutr 92, 1265–1272.
6 ET Wang , L de Koning & AM Kanaya (2010) Higher protein intake is associated with diabetes risk in South Asian Indians: the Metabolic Syndrome and Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) study. J Am Coll Nut 29, 130–135.
7 AD Liese , M Nicarbohydratels , X Sun , et al. (2009) Adherence to the DASH Diet is inversely associated with incidence of type 2 diabetes: the insulin resistance atherosclerosis study. Diabetes Care 32, 1434–1436.
8 SA McNaughton , GD Mishra & EJ Brunner (2008) Dietary patterns, insulin resistance, and incidence of type 2 diabetes in the Whitehall II Study. Diabetes Care 31, 1343–1348.
9 TT Fung , M Schulze , JE Manson , et al. (2004) Dietary patterns, meat intake, and the risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Arch Intern Med 164, 2235–2240.
10 K Murakami , H Okubo & S Sasaki (2005) Effect of dietary factors on incidence of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review of cohort studies. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 51, 292–310, .
11 D Aune , G Ursin & MB Veierød (2009) Meat consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Diabetologia 52, 2277–2287, .
12 J Salmerón , JE Manson , MJ Stampfer , et al. (1997) Dietary fiber, glycaemic load, and risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. JAMA 277, 472–477.
14 MB Schulze , M Schulz , C Heidemann , et al. (2008) Carbohydrate intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study. Br J Nutr 99, 1107–1116.
15 E Papakonstantinou , DB Panagiotakos , C Pitsavos , et al. (2005) Food group consumption and glycaemic control in people with and without type 2 diabetes: the ATTICA study. Diabetes Care 28, 2539–2540.
16 FM Sacks , GA Bray , VJ Carey , et al. (2009) Comparison of weight-loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates. N Engl J Med 360, 859–873.
17 I Shai , D Schwarzfuchs , Y Henkin , Dietary Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial (DIRECT) Group, et al. (2008) Weight loss with a low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or low-fat diet. N Engl J Med 359, 229–241.
18 I Greenberg , MJ Stampfer , D Schwarzfuchs , DIRECT Group, et al. (2009) Adherence and success in long-term weight loss diets: the dietary intervention randomized controlled trial (DIRECT). J Am Coll Nutr 28, 159–168.
19 GD Foster , HR Wyatt , JO Hill , et al. (2010) Weight and metabolic outcomes after 2 years on a low-carbohydrate versus low-fat diet: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 153, 147–157.
20 AR Skov , S Toubro , B Rønn , et al. (1999) Randomized trial on protein vs carbohydrate in ad libitum fat reduced diet for the treatment of obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 23, 528–536.
21 A Due , S Toubro , AR Skov , et al. (2004) Effect of normal-fat diets, either medium or high in protein, on body weight in overweight subjects: a randomised 1-year trial. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 28, 1283–1290.
22 ML Dansinger , JA Gleason , JL Griffith , et al. (2005) Comparison of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone diets for weight loss and heart disease risk reduction: a randomized trial. JAMA 293, 43–53.
23 CD Gardner , A Kiazand , S Alhassan , et al. (2007) Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN diets for change in weight and related risk factors among overweight premenopausal women: the A TO Z Weight Loss Study: a randomized trial. JAMA 297, 969–977.
24 S Alhassan , S Kim , A Bersamin , et al. (2008) Dietary adherence and weight loss success among overweight women: results from the A TO Z weight loss study. Int J Obes (Lond) 32, 985–991.
25 GD Foster , HR Wyatt , JO Hill , et al. (2003) A randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet for obesity. N Engl J Med 348, 2082–2090.
26 FF Samaha , N Iqbal & P Seshadri (2003) A low-carbohydrate as compared with a low-fat diet in severe obesity. N Engl J Med 348, 2074–2081.
27 L Stern , N Iqbal , P Seshadri , et al. (2004) The effects of low-carbohydrate versus conventional weight loss diets in severely obese adults: one-year follow-up of a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 140, 778–785.
28 BJ Brehm , RJ Seeley , SR Daniels , et al. (2003) A randomized trial comparing a very low carbohydrate diet and a calorie-restricted low fat diet on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88, 1617–1623.
29 WS Yancy Jr, MK Olsen , JR Guyton , et al. (2004) A low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-fat diet to treat obesity and hyperlipidaemia: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 140, 769–777.
30 KA McAuley , CM Hopkins , KJ Smith , et al. (2005) Comparison of high-fat and high-protein diets with a high-carbohydrate diet in insulin-resistant obese women. Diabetologia 48, 8–16.
31 KA McAuley , KJ Smith , RW Taylor , et al. (2006) Long-term effects of popular dietary approaches on weight loss and features of insulin resistance. Int J Obes (Lond) 30, 342–349.
32 AJ Nordmann , A Nordmann , M Briel , et al. (2006) Effects of low-carbohydrate vs low-fat diets on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med 166, 285–293.
36 PM Clifton , K Bastiaans & JB Keogh (2009) High protein diets decrease total and abdominal fat and improve CVD risk profile in overweight and obese men and women with elevated triacylglycerol. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 19, 548–554.
37 TP Wycherley , GD Brinkworth , JB Keogh , et al. (2010) Long-term effects of weight loss with a very low carbohydrate and low fat diet on vascular function in overweight and obese patients. J Intern Med 267, 452–461.
38 GD Brinkworth , M Noakes , JD Buckley , et al. (2009) Long-term effects of a very-low-carbohydrate weight loss diet compared with an isocaloric low-fat diet after 12 mo. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 23–32.
39 DK Layman , EM Evans , D Erickson , et al. (2009) A moderate-protein diet produces sustained weight loss and long-term changes in body composition and blood lipids in obese adults. J Nutr 139, 514–521.
40 TM Larsen , SM Dalskov , M van Baak , Diet, Obesity, and Genes (Diogenes) Project, et al.Diets with high or low protein content and glycaemic index for weight-loss maintenance. N Engl J Med 363, 2102–2113.
41 EA Delbridge , LA Prendergast , JE Pritchard , et al. (2009) One-year weight maintenance after significant weight loss in healthy overweight and obese subjects: does diet composition matter? Am J Clin Nutr 90, 1203–1214.
43 M Claessens , MA van Baak , S Monsheimer , et al. (2009) The effect of a low-fat, high-protein or high-carbohydrate ad libitum diet on weight loss maintenance and metabolic risk factors. Int J Obes (Lond) 33, 296–304.
44 MC Gannon & FQ Nuttal Effect of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet on blood glucose control in people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 53, 2375–2382.
45 MC Gannon , H Hoover & FQ Nuttall (2010) Further decrease in glycated hemoglobin following ingestion of a LoBAG30 diet for 10 weeks compared to 5 weeks in people with untreated type 2 diabetes. Nutr Metab (Lond) 29 7, 64.
46 FQ Nuttall , K Schweim , H Hoover , et al. (2008) Effect of the LoBAG30 diet on blood glucose control in people with type 2 diabetes. Br J Nutr 99, 511–519.
47 FQ Nuttall , K Schweim , H Hoover , et al. (2006) Metabolic effect of a LoBAG30 diet in men with type 2 diabetes. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 291, E786–E791.
48 FQ Nuttall & MC Gannon (2006) The metabolic response to a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 55, 243–251.
49 G Boden , K Sargrad , C Homko , et al. (2005) Effect of a low-carbohydrate diet on appetite, blood glucose levels, and insulin resistance in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Ann Intern Med 142, 403–411.
50 S Kodama , K Saito , S Tanaka , et al. (2009) Influence of fat and carbohydrate proportions on the metabolic profile in patients with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 32, 959–965.
51 JK Kirk , DE Graves , TE Craven , et al. (2008) Restricted-carbohydrate diets in patients with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. J Am Diet Assoc 108, 91–100, .
52 KJ Coppell , M Kataoka , SM Williams , et al. (2010) Nutritional intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes who are hyperglycaemic despite optimised drug treatment–Lifestyle Over and Above Drugs in Diabetes (LOADD) study: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 341, c3337.
53 RN Larsen , NJ Mann , E Maclean , et al. (2011) The effect of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a 12 month randomised controlled trial. Diabetologia 54, 731–740.
54 EC Westman , WS Yancy Jr, JC Mavropoulos , et al. (2008) The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycaemic index diet on glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nutr Metab (Lond) 5, 36.
55 NJ Davis , N Tomuta , C Schechter , et al. (2009) Comparative study of the effects of a 1-year dietary intervention of a low-carbohydrate diet versus a low-fat diet on weight and glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 32, 1147–1152.
56 N Iqbal , ML Vetter , RH Moore , et al. (2010) Effects of a low-intensity intervention that prescribed a low-carbohydrate vs. a low-fat diet in obese, diabetic participants. Obesity (Silver Spring) 18, 1733–1738.
57 DJ Jenkins , CW Kendall , G McKeown-Eyssen , et al. (2008) Effect of a low-glycaemic index or a high-cereal fiber diet on type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. JAMA 300, 2742–2753.
58 GD Brinkworth , M Noakes , B Parker , et al. (2004) Long-term effects of advice to consume a high-protein, low-fat diet, rather than a conventional weight-loss diet, in obese adults with type 2 diabetes: one-year follow-up of a randomised trial. Diabetologia 47, 1677–1686.
59 J Ma , JE Stevens , K Cukier , et al. (2009) Effects of a protein preload on gastric emptying, glycemia, and gut hormones after a carbohydrate meal in diet-controlled type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 32, 1600–1602.
63 LJ Appel , FM Sacks , VJ Carey , et al.Effects of protein, monounsaturated fat, and carbohydrate intake on blood pressure and serum lipids: results of the OmniHeart randomized trial. JAMA 294, 2455–2464.
64 KR Sargrad , C Homko , M Mozzoli , et al. (2005) Effect of high protein vs high carbohydrate intake on insulin sensitivity, body weight, hemoglobin A1c, and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Am Diet Assoc 105, 573–580.