Reid, G, Jass, J, Sebulsky, MT & McCormick, JK (2003) Potential uses of probiotics in clinical practice. Clin Microbiol Rev 4, 658–672.
Hamilton-Miller, JM (2004) Probiotics and prebiotics for the elderly. Postgrad Med J 80, 447–451.
Flickinger, EA, Wolf, BW & Garleb, KA (2000) Glucose-based oligosaccharides exhibit different in vitro fermentation patterns and affect in vivo apparent nutrient digestibility and microbial populations in dogs. J Nutr 130, 1267–1273.
Gibson, GR & Roberfroid, MB (1995) Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics. J Nutr 125, 1401–1412.
Kenney, J (2002) Low-fat diets more effective than high-fat diets for both weight loss and health. Pritikin Perspec 11, 1–8.
Chyou, PH & Eaker, ED (2000) Serum cholesterol concentrations and all-cause mortality in older people. Age Aging 29, 69–74.
Liong, MT & Shah, NP (2005) Acid and bile tolerance and cholesterol removal ability of lactobacilli strains. J Dairy Sci 88, 55–66.
Liong, MT & Shah, NP (2005) Bile salt deconjugation and BSH activity of five bifidobacterial strains and their cholesterol co-precipitating properties. Food Res Int 38, 135–142.
Marlett, JA (1997) Sites and mechanisms for the hypercholesterolemic actions of soluble dietary fibre sources. Adv Exp Med Biol 427, 109–121.
Hara, H, Li, S, Sasaki, M, et al. (1994) Effective dose of lactosucrose on faecal flora and faecal metabolites of humans. Biosci Microflora 13, 51–63.
Jin, LZ, Ho, YW, Abdullah, N & Jalaludin, S (1998) Growth performance, intestinal microbial populations and serum cholesterol of broiler on diets containing Lactobacillus culture. Poult Sci 77, 1259–1265.
Lin, SY, Ayres, JW, Winkler, W & Sandine, WE (1989) Lactobacillus effects on cholesterol: in vitro and in vivo results. J Dairy Res 72, 2885–2899.
Kwiterovich, DO Jr (2000) The metabolic pathways of high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and triacylglycerol: a current review. Am J Cardiol 86, 5L–10L.
Cooper, RA, Leslie, MH, Knight, D & Detweiler, K (1980) Red blood cholesterol enrichment and spur cell anemia in dogs fed a cholesterol-enriched, atherogenic diet. J Lipid Res 21, 1082–1089.
Barshtein, G, Bergelson, L, Dagan, A, Gratton, E & Yedgar, S (1997) Membrane lipid order of human red blood cells is altered by physiological levels of hydrostatic pressure. Am J Physiol 272, H538–H543.
Liong, MT & Shah, NP (2005) Optimization of cholesterol removal, growth and fermentation patterns of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4962 in presence of mannitol, FOS and inulin: a response surface methodology approach. J Appl Microbiol 98, 1115–1126.
Chapman, MJ, Goldstein, S, Lagrange, D & Lapaud, PM (1981) A density gradient ultracentrifugal procedure for isolation of the major lipoprotein classes from human serum. J Lipid Res 22, 339–358.
Duhamel, G, Forgez, P, Nalpas, B, Berthelot, P & Chapman, MJ (1983) Spur cells in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis are associated with reduced plasma levels of apoA-II, HDL3, and LDL. J Lipid Res 24, 1612–1625.
Dumaswala, UJ, Dumaswala, RU, Levin, DS & Greenwalt, TJ (1996) Improved red blood cell preservation correlates with decreased loss of bands 3, 4·1, acetylcholinerase and lipids in microvesicles. Blood 4, 1612–1616.
Dhaliwal, BS & Steinbrecher, UP (2000) Cholesterol delivered to macrophages by oxidized low density lipoprotein is sequestered in lysosomes and fails to efflux normally. J Lipid Res 41, 1658–1665.
Lowry, OH, Rosebrough, NJ, Farr, AL & Randall, RJ (1951) Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193, 265–275.
Sardet, C, Hansma, H & Ostwald, R (1972) Characterization of guinea pig plasma lipoproteins: the appearance of new lipoproteins in response to dietary cholesterol. J Lipid Res 13, 624–639.
Daly, JA & Ertingshausen, G (1972) Direct method for determining inorganic phosphate in serum with the ‘Centrifichem’. Clin Chem 18, 263–265.
Cooper, RA, Leslie, MH, Fischkoff, S, Shinitzky, M & Shattil, SJ (1978) Factors influencing the lipid composition and fluidity of red cell membranes in vitro: production of red cells possessing more than two cholesterols per phospholipid. Biochemistry 17, 327–331.
McEneny, J, McMaster, C, Trimble, ER & Young, IS (2002) Rapid isolation of VLDL subfractions: assessment of composition and susceptibility to copper-mediated oxidation. J Lipid Res 43, 824–831.
Sanchez-Muniz, FJ, Merinero, MC, Rodríguez-Gil, S, Ordovas, JM, Rodenas, S & Cuesta, C (2002) Dietary fat saturation affects apolipoprotein AII levels and HDL composition in postmenopausal women. J Nutr 132, 50–54.
Tholstrup, T, Sandstrom, B, Bysted, A & Holmer, G (2001) Effect of 6 dietary fatty acids on the postprandial lipid profile, plasma fatty acids, lipoprotein lipase, and cholesterol ester transfer activities in healthy young men. Am J Clin Nutr 73, 198–208.
Kwiterovich, DO Jr (2002) Lipoprotein heterogeneity: diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Am J Cardiol 90, 1i–10i.
Carr, TP, Parks, JS & Rudel, LL (1992) Hepatic ACAT activity in African green monkeys is highly correlated to plasma LDL cholesteryl ester enrichment and coronary artery atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 12, 1274–1283.
Horton, JD, Goldstein, JL & Brown, MS (2002) SREBPs: activators of the complete program of cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis in the liver. J Clin Invest 109, 1125–1131.
Haffner, SM (2002) Lipoprotein disorders associated with type-2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Am J Cardiol 90, 55i–61i.
Fernandez, ML, Abdel-Fattah, G & McNamara, DJ (1993) Dietary fat saturation modifies the metabolism of LDL sub-fractions in guinea pigs. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 13, 1418–1428.
Rader, DJ (2002) High density lipoproteins and atherosclerosis. Am J Cardiol 90, 62i–70i.
Simons, K & Ehehalt, R (2002) Cholesterol, lipid rafts and disease. J Clin Invest 110, 597–603.
Kaiser, RD & London, E (1998) Location of duphenylhexatriene (DPH) and its derivatives within membranes: comparison of different fluorescence quenching analyses of membrane depth. Biochemistry 37, 8180–8190.
Roy, S, Mohanty, A & Dey, J (2005) Microviscosity of bilayer membranes of some N-acylamino acid surfactants determined by fluorescence probe method. Chem Phys Lett 414, 23–27.
Sujatha, J & Mishra, AK (1997) Effect of ionic and neutral surfactants on the properties of phospholipid vesicles: investigation using fluorescence probes. J Photochem Photobiol A: Chem 104, 173–178.
Ben-Yashar, V & Barenholz, Y (1991) Characterization of the core and surface of human plasma lipoproteins. A study based on the use of five fluorophores. Chem Phys Lipids 60, 1–14.
Straume, M & Litman, BJ (1988) Equilibrium and dynamic bilayer structural properties of unsaturated acyl chain phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol-rhodopsin recombinant vesicles and rod outer segment disk membranes as determined from higher order analysis of fluorescence anisotropy decay. Biochemistry 27, 7723–7733.