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Effects of dietary macronutrient content on energy metabolism and uncoupling protein mRNA expression in broiler chickens

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 March 2007

Anne Collin
Affiliation:
Station de Recherches Avicoles, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, F-37380 Nouzilly, France Laboratory for Physiology of Domestic Animals, Department of Animal Production, K. U. Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 30, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium
Ramon D. Malheiros
Affiliation:
Laboratory for Physiology of Domestic Animals, Department of Animal Production, K. U. Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 30, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium
Vera M. B. Moraes
Affiliation:
Laboratory for Physiology of Domestic Animals, Department of Animal Production, K. U. Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 30, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium UNESP, Campus de Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil
Pieter Van As
Affiliation:
Laboratory for Physiology of Domestic Animals, Department of Animal Production, K. U. Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 30, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium
Veerle M. Darras
Affiliation:
Laboratory of Comparative Endocrinology, K. U. Leuven, Naamsestraat 61, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium
Mohammed Taouis
Affiliation:
Station de Recherches Avicoles, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, F-37380 Nouzilly, France
Eddy Decuypere
Affiliation:
Laboratory for Physiology of Domestic Animals, Department of Animal Production, K. U. Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 30, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium
Johan Buyse*
Affiliation:
Laboratory for Physiology of Domestic Animals, Department of Animal Production, K. U. Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 30, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium
*
*Corresponding author: Dr Johan Buyse, fax +32 16 321994, email johan.buyse@agr.kuleuven.ac.be
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Abstract

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The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary macronutrient ratio on energy metabolism and on skeletal muscle mRNA expression of avian uncoupling protein (UCP), thought to be implicated in thermogenesis in birds. Broiler chickens from 2 to 6 weeks of age received one of three isoenergetic diets containing different macronutrient ratios (low-lipid (LL) 30 v. 77 g lipid/kg; low-protein (LP) 125 v. 197 g crude protein (N×6·25)/kg; low-carbohydrate (LC) 440 v. 520 g carbohydrate/kg). LP chickens were characterised by significantly lower body weights and food intakes compared with LL and LC chickens (−47 and −38 % respectively) but similar heat production/kg metabolic body weight, as measured by indirect calorimetry, in the three groups. However, heat production/g food ingested was higher in animals receiving the LP diet (+41 %, P<0·05). These chickens also deposited 57 % less energy as protein (P<0·05) and 33 % more as fat. No significant differences in energy and N balances were detected between LL and LC chickens. The diets with the higher fat contents (i.e. the LP and LC diets) induced slightly but significantly higher relative expressions of avian UCP mRNA in gastrocnemius muscle, measured by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, than the LL diet (88 and 90 v. 78 % glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase respectively, P<0·05). Our present results are consistent with the recent view that UCP homologues could be involved in the regulation of lipid utilisation as fuel substrate and provide evidence that the macronutrient content of the diet regulates energy metabolism and especially protein and fat deposition.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Nutrition Society 2003

References

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