Hostname: page-component-594f858ff7-hd6rl Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-06-09T20:13:14.844Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "corePageComponentUseShareaholicInsteadOfAddThis": true, "coreDisableSocialShare": false, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

The effects of fluid restriction on hydration status and subjective feelings in man

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 March 2007

Susan M. Shirreffs*
School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU, UK
Stuart J. Merson
School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU, UK
Susan M. Fraser
Biomedical Sciences, University Medical School, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK
David T. Archer
Biomedical Sciences, University Medical School, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK
*Corresponding author: Dr Susan Shirreffs, fax +44 1509 226301, email
Rights & Permissions[Opens in a new window]


HTML view is not available for this content. However, as you have access to this content, a full PDF is available via the ‘Save PDF’ action button.

Hydration status and the effects of hypohydration have been the topic of much public and scientific debate in recent years. While many physiological responses to hypohydration have been studied extensively, the subjective responses to hypohydration have largely been ignored. The present investigation was designed to investigate the physiological responses and subjective feelings resulting from 13, 24 and 37 h of fluid restriction (FR) and to compare these with a euhydration (EU) trial of the same duration in fifteen healthy volunteers. The volunteers were nine men and six women of mean age 30 (SD 12) years and body mass 71·5 (SD 13·4) kg. Urine and blood samples were collected and subjective feelings recorded on a 100 mm verbally anchored questionnaire at intervals throughout the investigation. In the EU trial the subjects maintained their normal diet. Body mass decreased by 2·7 (SD 0·6) % at 37 h in the FR trial and did not change significantly in the EU trial. Food intake in the FR trial (n 10) provided an estimated water intake of 487 (SD 335) ml and urinary losses (n 15) amounted to 1·37 (SD 0·39) litres. This is in comparison with an estimated water intake of 3168 (SD 1167) ml and a urinary loss of 2·76 (SD 1·11) litres in the EU trial. Plasma osmolality and angiotensin II concentrations increased from 0–37 h with FR. Plasma volume decreased linearly throughout the FR trial amounting to a 6·2 (SD 5·1) % reduction by 37 h. Thirst increased from 0–13 h of FR then did not increase further (P>0·05). The subjects reported feelings of headache during the FR trial and also that their ability to concentrate and their alertness were reduced.

Research Article
Copyright © The Nutrition Society 2004


Adolph, EF, Barker, JP & Hoy, PA (1954) Multiple factors in thirst. Am J Physiol 178, 538562.Google ScholarPubMed
Andersson, B (1978) Regulation of water intake. Physiol Rev 58, 582601.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barone, JJ & Roberts, HR (1996) Caffeine consumption. Food Chem Toxicol 34, 119129.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Costill, DL, Cote, R & Fink, W (1976) Muscle water and electrolytes following varied levels of dehydration in man. J Appl Physiol 40, 611.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dews, PB, O'Brien, CP & Bergman, J (2002) Caffeine: behavioral effects of withdrawal and related issues. Food Chem Toxicol 40, 12571261.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dill, DB & Costill, DL (1974) Calculation of percentage changes in volumes of blood, plasma and red cells in dehydration. J Appl Physiol 37, 247248.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Documenta Geigy, Scientific Tables, 6th ed. [Diem, K, editor]. Manchester: Geigy Pharmaceutical Company.Google Scholar
Greenleaf, JE (1982) Dehydration-induced drinking in humans. Fed Proc 41, 25092514.Google ScholarPubMed
Halford, JC & Blundell, JE (2000) Pharmacology of appetite suppression. Prog Drug Res 54, 2558.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jennett, S (2001) The Oxford Companion to the Body, p. 667 [Blakemore, C, Jennett, S, editors]. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Lote, C (2001) The Oxford Companion to the Body, pp. 416488 [Blakemore, C and Jennett, S, editors]. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Mack, GW, Weseman, CA, Langhans, GW, Scherzer, H, Gillen, CM & Nadel, ER (1994) Body fluid balance in dehydrated healthy older men: thirst and renal osmoregulation. J Appl Physiol 76, 16151623.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Merson, SJ, Maughan, RJ, Leiper, JB & Shirreffs, SM (2002) Changes in blood, red cell and plasma volumes after ingestion of hypotonic and hypertonic solutions. Proc Nutr Soc 61, 108A.Google Scholar
Pedersen, RS, Bentzen, H, Bech, JN & Pedersen, EB (2001) Effect of water deprivation and hypertonic saline infusion on urinary AQP2 excretion in healthy humans. Am J Physiol 280, F860F867.Google ScholarPubMed
Phillips, PA, Bretherton, M, Risvanis, J, Casley, D & Gray, L (1993) Effects of drinking on thirst and vasopressin in dehydrated elderly men. Am J Physiol 264, R877R881.Google ScholarPubMed
Phillips, PA, Rolls, BJ, Ledingham, JGG, Forsling, ML, Morton, JJ, Crowe, MJ & Wollner, L (1984) Reduced thirst after water deprivation in healthy elderly men. New Engl J Med 311, 753759.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rolls, BJ, Wood, RJ, Rolls, ET, Lind, H, Lind, W & Ledingham, JGG (1980) Thirst following water deprivation in humans. Am J Physiol 239, R476R482.Google ScholarPubMed
Seckl, JR, Williams, TDM & Lightman, SL (1986) Oral hypertonic saline causes a transient fall of vasopressin in humans. Am J Physiol 251, R214R217.Google ScholarPubMed
Zambraski, EJ (1996) The kidney and body fluid during exercise. In Body Fluid Balance: Exercise and Sport, pp. 7594 [Buskirk, ER and Puhl, SM, editors]. Cleveland, OH: CRC Press.Google Scholar