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The effects of vitamin D, K and calcium co-supplementation on carotid intima-media thickness and metabolic status in overweight type 2 diabetic patients with CHD

  • Zatollah Asemi (a1), Fariba Raygan (a2), Fereshteh Bahmani (a1), Zohreh Rezavandi (a2), Hamid Reza Talari (a3), Motahereh Rafiee (a3), Somayyeh Poladchang (a3), Manijeh Darooghegi Mofrad (a1), Sara Taheri (a1), Ali Akbar Mohammadi (a1) and Ahmad Esmaillzadeh (a4) (a5) (a6)...

Abstract

This study was conducted to examine the effects of vitamin D, K and Ca co-supplementation on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and metabolic status in overweight diabetic patients with CHD. This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among sixty-six diabetic patients with CHD. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups to take either 5µg vitamin D, 90 µg vitamin K plus 500 mg Ca supplements (n 33) or placebo (n 33) twice a day for 12 weeks. Fasting blood samples were obtained at the beginning of the study and after the 12-week intervention period to determine related markers. Vitamin D, K and Ca co-supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in maximum levels of left CIMT (−0·04 (sd 0·22) v. +0·04 (sd 0·09) mm, P=0·02). Changes in serum vitamin D (+6·5 (sd 7·8) v. +0·4 (sd 2·2) ng/ml, P<0·001), Ca (+0·6 (sd 0·3) v. +0·1 (sd 0·1) mg/dl, P<0·001) and insulin concentrations (−0·9 (sd 3·1) v. +2·6 (sd 7·2) µIU/ml, P=0·01), homoeostasis model for assessment of estimated insulin resistance (−0·4 (sd 1·2) v. +0·7 (sd 2·3), P=0·01), β-cell function (−2·1 (sd 9·0) v. +8·9 (sd 23·7), P=0·01) and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (+0·007 (sd 0·01) v. −0·006 (sd 0·02), P=0·01) in supplemented patients were significantly different from those in patients in the placebo group. Supplementation resulted in significant changes in HDL-cholesterol (+2·7 (sd 7·0) v. −2·5 (sd 5·7) mg/dl, P=0·002), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (−1320·1 (sd 3758·3) v. +464·0 (sd 3053·3) ng/ml, P=0·03) and plasma malondialdehyde concentrations (−0·4 (sd 0·5) v. −1·0 (sd 1·1) µmol/l, P=0·007) compared with placebo. Overall, vitamin D, K and Ca co-supplementation for 12 weeks among diabetic patients with CHD had beneficial effects on maximum levels of left CIMT and metabolic status. The effect of vitamin D, K and Ca co-supplementation on maximum levels of left CIMT could be a chance finding.

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Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: Dr A. Esmaillzadeh, fax +98 311 6682509, email Esmaillzadeh@hlth.mui.ac.ir

References

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British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
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