Skip to main content Accessibility help

Eight-day consumption of inulin added to a yogurt breakfast lowers postprandial appetite ratings but not energy intakes in young healthy females: a randomised controlled trial

  • Sarah Heap (a1), Jessica Ingram (a1), Marron Law (a1), Amy J. Tucker (a1) and Amanda J. Wright (a1)...


Increasing feelings of satiety may reduce appetite and energy intake. The role of inulin consumption in impacting satiety is unclear. A randomised double-blind controlled crossover trial aimed to determine the effects of inulin+yogurt on satiety after 1 and 8-d consumption. The preload breakfast included 100 g vanilla yogurt with (yogurt-inulin (YI)) and without (yogurt-control (YC)) 6 g inulin. A total of nineteen healthy females (22·8 (sd 2·7) years) with non-restrained eating behaviour and taking hormonal contraceptives participated in the study. Day 1 and 8 visual analogue scale (VAS) ratings of Hunger, Fullness, Desire to Eat and Prospective Food Consumption (PFC) were collected at fasting and every 30 min for 180 min. Energy intake was calculated from a weighed ad libitum lunch and remainder of day food records. Total AUC was calculated for each VAS. Day 1 (VAS only) and 8 (VAS and energy intakes) data were compared between YI and YC using ANCOVA, and ANOVA was used to compare energy intakes on Day 1. There were no significant differences between Day 1 YI and YC AUC appetite ratings or energy intakes. However, 8-d consumption of YI v. YC was associated with lower Desire to Eat and PFC ratings but similar lunch and total day energy intakes. Therefore, the addition of 6 g inulin to a commercially available yogurt affected feelings of appetite, but not energy intake, after repeated consumption. These results suggest that inulin may be a suitable ingredient to increase dietary fibre consumption, with potential to impact appetite.


Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: A. J. Wright, PhD, fax +519 763 5902, email


Hide All
1. Howarth, NC, Saltzman, E & Roberts, SB (2001) Dietary fiber and weight regulation. Nutr Rev 59, 129139.
2. Wanders, AJ, van den Borne, J, de Graaf, C, et al. (2011) Effects of dietary fibre on subjective appetite, energy intake and body weight: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Obes Rev 12, 724739.
3. Clark, MJ & Slavin, JL (2013) The effect of fiber on satiety and food intake: a systematic review. J Am Coll Nutr 32, 200211.
4. Raninen, K, Lappi, J, Mykkänen, H, et al. (2011) Dietary fiber type reflects physiological functionality: comparison of grain fiber, inulin, and polydextrose. Nutr Rev 69, 921.
5. Roberfroid, MB (2007) Inulin-type fructans: functional food ingredients. J Nutr 137, 2493S2502S.
6. Niness, KR (1999) Inulin and oligofructose: what are they? J Nutr 129, 1402S1406S.
7. Cani, PD, Joly, E, Horsmans, Y, et al. (2006) Oligofructose promotes satiety in healthy human: a pilot study. Eur J Clin Nutr 60, 567572.
8. Whelan, K, Efthymiou, L, Judd, PA, et al. (2006) Appetite during consumption of enteral formula as a sole source of nutrition: the effect of supplementing pea-fibre and fructo-oligosaccharides. Br J Nutr 96, 350356.
9. Parnell, JA & Reimer, RA (2009) Weight loss during oligofructose supplementation is associated with decreased ghrelin and increased peptide YY in overweight and obese adults. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 17511759.
10. Verhoef, SPM, Meyer, D & Westerterp, KR (2011) Effects of oligofructose on appetite profile, glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide YY3-36 concentrations and energy intake. Br J Nutr 106, 17571762.
11. Hess, JR, Birkett, AM, Thomas, W, et al. (2011) Effects of short-chain fructooligosaccharides on satiety responses in healthy men and women. Appetite 56, 128134.
12. Peters, HPF, Boers, HM, Haddeman, E, et al. (2009) No effect of added ß-glucan or of fructooligosaccharide on appetite or energy intake. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 5863.
13. Meyer, D & Stasse-Wolthuis, M (2009) The bifidogenic effect of inulin and oligofructose and its consequences for gut health. Eur J Clin Nutr 63, 12771289.
14. Liber, A & Szajewska, H (2013) Effects of inulin-type fructans on appetite, energy intake, and body weight in children and adults: systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Ann Nutr Metab 63, 4254.
15. Tarini, J & Wolever, TMS (2010) The fermentable fibre inulin increases postprandial serum short-chain fatty acids and reduces free-fatty acids and ghrelin in healthy subjects. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 35, 916.
16. Cani, PD, Lecourt, E, Dewulf, EM, et al. (2009) Gut microbiota fermentation of prebiotics increases satietogenic and incretin gut peptide production with consequences for appetite sensation and glucose response after a meal. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 12361243.
17. Delzenne, NM, Cani, PD, Daubioul, C, et al. (2005) Impact of inulin and oligofructose on gastrointestinal peptides. Br J Nutr 93, Suppl. 1, S157S161.
18. Darzi, J, Frost, GS & Robertson, MD (2011) Do SCFA have a role in appetite regulation? Proc Nutr Soc 70, 119128.
19. Tulk, H, Blonski, D, Murch, L, et al. (2013) Daily consumption of a synbiotic yogurt decreases energy intake but does not improve gastrointestinal transit time: a double-blind, randomized, crossover study in healthy adults. Nutr J 12, 87.
20. Kellow, NJ, Coughlan, MT & Reid, CM (2014) Metabolic benefits of dietary prebiotics in human subjects: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Br J Nutr 111, 11471161.
21. Perrigue, MM, Monsivais, P & Drewnowski, A (2009) Added soluble fiber enhances the satiating power of low-energy-density liquid yogurts. J Am Diet Assoc 109, 18621868.
22. Harrold, JA, Hughes, GM, O’Shiel, K, et al. (2013) Acute effects of a herb extract formulation and inulin fibre on appetite, energy intake and food choice. Appetite 62, 8490.
23. Archer, BJ, Johnson, SK, Devereux, HM, et al. (2004) Effect of fat replacement by inulin or lupin-kernel fibre on sausage patty acceptability, post-meal perceptions of satiety and food intake in men. Br J Nutr 91, 591599.
24. Karalus, M, Clark, M, Greaves, KA, et al. (2012) Fermentable fibers do not affect satiety or food intake by women who do not practice restrained eating. J Acad Nutr Diet 112, 13561362.
25. Stunkard, AJ & Messick, S (1985) The three-factor eating questionnaire to measure dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger. J Psychosom Res 29, 7183.
26. Bonnema, AL, Kolberg, LW, Thomas, W, et al. (2010) Gastrointestinal tolerance of chicory inulin products. J Am Diet Assoc 110, 865868.
27. Blundell, JE, de Graaf, C, Hulshof, T, et al. (2010) Appetite control: methodological aspects of the evaluation of foods. Obes Rev 11, 251270.
28. Borwankar, RP (1992) Food texture and rheology: a tutorial review. J Food Eng 16, 116.
29. Malaki Nik, A, Corredig, M & Wright, AJ (2010) Changes in WPI-stabilized emulsion interfacial properties in relation to lipolysis and beta-carotene transfer during exposure to simulated gastric-duodenal fluids of variable composition. Food Dig 1, 1427.
30. Horner, KM, Byrne, NM & King, NA (2014) Reproducibility of subjective appetite ratings and ad libitum test meal energy intake in overweight and obese males. Appetite 81, 116122.
31. Russo, F, Clemente, C, Linsalata, M, et al. (2011) Effects of a diet with inulin-enriched pasta on gut peptides and gastric emptying rates in healthy young volunteers. Eur J Nutr 50, 271277.
32. Kolida, S, Meyer, D & Gibson, GR (2007) A double-blind placebo-controlled study to establish the bifidogenic dose of inulin in healthy humans. Eur J Clin Nutr 61, 11891195.
33. Marciani, L, Gowland, PA, Spiller, RC, et al. (2001) Effect of meal viscosity and nutrients on satiety, intragastric dilution, and emptying assessed by MRI. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 280, G1227G1233.
34. Logan, K, Wright, AJ & Goff, HD (2015) Correlating the structure and in vitro digestion viscosities of different pectin fibers to in vivo human satiety. Food Funct 6, 6371.
35. Drapeau, V, Blundell, J, Therrien, F, et al. (2005) Appetite sensations as a marker of overall intake. Br J Nutr 93, 273280.
36. Pentikäinen, S, Karhunen, L, Flander, L, et al. (2014) Enrichment of biscuits and juice with oat β-glucan enhances postprandial satiety. Appetite 75, 150156.
37. Tsuchiya, A, Almiron-Roig, E, Lluch, A, et al. (2006) Higher satiety ratings following yogurt consumption relative to fruit drink or dairy fruit drink. J Am Diet Assoc 106, 550557.
38. Lluch, A, Hanet-Geisen, N, Salah, S, et al. (2010) Short-term appetite-reducing effects of a low-fat dairy product enriched with protein and fibre. Food Qual Prefer 21, 402409.
39. Tucci, SA, Murphy, LE, Boyland, EJ, et al. (2010) Oral contraceptive effects on food choice during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. A laboratory based study. Appetite 55, 388392.
40. Buffenstein, R, Poppitt, SD, McDevitt, RM, et al. (1995) Food intake and the menstrual cycle: a retrospective analysis, with implications for appetite research. Physiol Behav 58, 10671077.
41. Benelam, B (2009) Satiation, satiety and their effects on eating behaviour. Nutr Bull 34, 126173.
42. Schoeller, DA (1995) Limitations in the assessment of dietary energy intake by self-report. Metabolism 44, 1822.



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed