1Shapiro, TA, Fahey, JW, Wade, KL, et al. (1998) Human metabolism and excretion of cancer chemoprotective glucosinolates and isothiocyanates of cruciferous vegetables. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 7, 1091–1100.
2Lai, RH, Miller, MJ & Jeffery, EH (2010) Glucoraphanin hydrolysis by microbiota in the rat cecum results in sulforaphane absorption. Food Funct 1, 161–166.
3Conaway, CC, Getahun, SM, Liebes, LL, et al. (2000) Disposition of glucosinolates and sulforaphane in humans after ingestion of steamed and fresh broccoli. Nutr Cancer 38, 168–178.
4Rungapamestry, V, Duncan, AJ, Fuller, Z, et al. (2007) Effect of meal composition and cooking duration on the fate of sulforaphane following consumption of broccoli by healthy human subjects. Br J Nutr 97, 644–652.
5Shapiro, TA, Fahey, JW, Wade, KL, et al. (2001) Chemoprotective glucosinolates and isothiocyanates of broccoli sprouts: metabolism and excretion in humans. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 10, 501–508.
6Cramer, JM & Jeffery, EH (2011) Sulforaphane absorption and excretion following ingestion of a semi-purified broccoli powder rich in glucoraphanin and broccoli sprouts in healthy men. Nutr Cancer 63, 196–201.
7Herr, I & Buchler, MW (2010) Dietary constituents of broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables: implications for prevention and therapy of cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 36, 377–383.
8Al Janobi, AA, Mithen, RF, Gasper, AV, et al. (2006) Quantitative measurement of sulforaphane, iberin and their mercapturic acid pathway metabolites in human plasma and urine using liquid chromatography-tandem electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 844, 223–234.
9Egner, PA, Chen, JG, Wang, JB, et al. (2011) Bioavailability of sulforaphane from two broccoli sprout beverages: results of a short-term, cross-over clinical trial in Qidong, China. Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 4, 384–395.
10Bheemreddy, RM & Jeffery, EH (2007) The metabolic fate of purified glucoraphanin in F344 rats. J Agric Food Chem 55, 2861–2866.
11Ye, L, Dinkova-Kostova, AT, Wade, KL, et al. (2002) Quantitative determination of dithiocarbamates in human plasma, serum, erythrocytes and urine: pharmacokinetics of broccoli sprout isothiocyanates in humans. Clin Chim Acta 316, 43–53.
12Vermeulen, M, Klopping-Ketelaars, IW, van den Berg, R, et al. (2008) Bioavailability and kinetics of sulforaphane in humans after consumption of cooked versus raw broccoli. J Agric Food Chem 56, 10505–10509.
13Matusheski, NV, Juvik, JA & Jeffery, EH (2004) Heating decreases epithiospecifier protein activity and increases sulforaphane formation in broccoli. Phytochemistry 65, 1273–1281.
14Zhang, Y, Cho, CG, Posner, GH, et al. (1992) Spectroscopic quantitation of organic isothiocyanates by cyclocondensation with vicinal dithiols. Anal Biochem 205, 100–107.
15Zhang, Y, Wade, KL, Prestera, T, et al. (1996) Quantitative determination of isothiocyanates, dithiocarbamates, carbon disulfide, and related thiocarbonyl compounds by cyclocondensation with 1,2-benzenedithiol. Anal Biochem 239, 160–167.
16Keck, AS, Qiao, Q & Jeffery, EH (2003) Food matrix effects on bioactivity of broccoli-derived sulforaphane in liver and colon of F344 rats. J Agric Food Chem 51, 3320–3327.
17Hanlon, N, Coldham, N, Gielbert, A, et al. (2009) Repeated intake of broccoli does not lead to higher plasma levels of sulforaphane in human volunteers. Cancer Lett 284, 15–20.
18Shapiro, TA, Fahey, JW, Dinkova-Kostova, AT, et al. (2006) Safety, tolerance, and metabolism of broccoli sprout glucosinolates and isothiocyanates: a clinical phase I study. Nutr Cancer 55, 53–62.
19Verhoeven, DT, Verhagen, H, Goldbohm, RA, et al. (1997) A review of mechanisms underlying anticarcinogenicity by brassica vegetables. Chem Biol Interact 103, 79–129.
20Zhu, N, Soendergaard, M, Jeffery, EH, et al. (2010) The impact of loss of myrosinase on the bioactivity of broccoli products in F344 rats. J Agric Food Chem 58, 1558–1563.
21Rouzaud, G, Young, SA & Duncan, AJ (2004) Hydrolysis of glucosinolates to isothiocyanates after ingestion of raw or microwaved cabbage by human volunteers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13, 125–131.