Skip to main content
×
Home

Estimated macronutrient and fatty acid intakes from an East African Paleolithic diet

  • Remko S. Kuipers (a1), Martine F. Luxwolda (a1), D. A. Janneke Dijck-Brouwer (a1), S. Boyd Eaton (a2), Michael A. Crawford (a3), Loren Cordain (a4) and Frits A. J. Muskiet (a1)...
Abstract

Our genome adapts slowly to changing conditions of existence. Many diseases of civilisation result from mismatches between our Paleolithic genome and the rapidly changing environment, including our diet. The objective of the present study was to reconstruct multiple Paleolithic diets to estimate the ranges of nutrient intakes upon which humanity evolved. A database of, predominantly East African, plant and animal foods (meat/fish) was used to model multiple Paleolithic diets, using two pathophysiological constraints (i.e. protein < 35 energy % (en%) and linoleic acid (LA) >1·0 en%), at known hunter–gatherer plant/animal food intake ratios (range 70/30–30/70 en%/en%). We investigated selective and non-selective savannah, savannah/aquatic and aquatic hunter–gatherer/scavenger foraging strategies. We found (range of medians in en%) intakes of moderate-to-high protein (25–29), moderate-to-high fat (30–39) and moderate carbohydrates (39–40). The fatty acid composition was SFA (11·4–12·0), MUFA (5·6–18·5) and PUFA (8·6–15·2). The latter was high in α-linolenic acid (ALA) (3·7–4·7 en%), low in LA (2·3–3·6 en%), and high in long-chain PUFA (LCP; 4·75–25·8 g/d), LCP n-3 (2·26–17·0 g/d), LCP n-6 (2·54–8·84 g/d), ALA/LA ratio (1·12–1·64 g/g) and LCP n-3/LCP n-6 ratio (0·84–1·92 g/g). Consistent with the wide range of employed variables, nutrient intakes showed wide ranges. We conclude that compared with Western diets, Paleolithic diets contained consistently higher protein and LCP, and lower LA. These are likely to contribute to the known beneficial effects of Paleolithic-like diets, e.g. through increased satiety/satiation. Disparities between Paleolithic, contemporary and recommended intakes might be important factors underlying the aetiology of common Western diseases. Data on Paleolithic diets and lifestyle, rather than the investigation of single nutrients, might be useful for the rational design of clinical trials.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Estimated macronutrient and fatty acid intakes from an East African Paleolithic diet
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Estimated macronutrient and fatty acid intakes from an East African Paleolithic diet
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Estimated macronutrient and fatty acid intakes from an East African Paleolithic diet
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr R. S. Kuipers, fax +31 50 361 2290, email remkokuipers@hotmail.com
References
Hide All
1 Eaton SB & Konner M (1985) Paleolithic nutrition. A consideration of its nature and current implications. N Engl J Med 312, 283289.
2 Eaton SB & Eaton SB III (2000) Paleolithic vs. modern diets – selected pathophysiological implications. Eur J Nutr 39, 6770.
3 Eaton SB, Eaton SB III, Konner MJ, et al. (1997) Paleolithic nutrition revisited: a twelve-year retrospective on its nature and implications. Eur J Clin Nutr 51, 207216.
4 Hill K, Hurtado AM & Walker RS (2007) High adult mortality among Hiwi hunter-gatherers: implications for human evolution. J Hum Evol 52, 443454.
5 Volek JS, Fernandez ML, Feinman RD, et al. (2008) Dietary carbohydrate restriction induces a unique metabolic state positively affecting atherogenic dyslipidemia, fatty acid partitioning, and metabolic syndrome. Prog Lipid Res 47, 307318.
6 Eaton SB, Eaton SB III, Konner MJ, et al. (1996) An evolutionary perspective enhances understanding of human nutritional requirements. J Nutr 126, 17321740.
7 Bensinger SJ & Tontonoz P (2008) Integration of metabolism and inflammation by lipid-activated nuclear receptors. Nature 454, 470477.
8 Chawla A, Repa JJ, Evans RM, et al. (2001) Nuclear receptors and lipid physiology: opening the X-files. Science 294, 18661870.
9 Broadhurst CL, Cunnane SC & Crawford MA (1998) Rift Valley lake fish and shellfish provided brain-specific nutrition for early Homo. Br J Nutr 79, 321.
10 Erlandson JM (2001) The archaeology of aquatic adaptations: paradigms for a new millennium. J Archaeol Res 9, 287350.
11 Broadhurst CL, Wang Y, Crawford MA, et al. (2002) Brain-specific lipids from marine, lacustrine, or terrestrial food resources: potential impact on early African Homo sapiens. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 131, 653673.
12 Stewart KM (1994) Early hominid utilization of fish resources and implications for seasonality and behavior. J Hum Evol 27, 229245.
13 Stringer C (2000) Palaeoanthropology – Coasting out of Africa. Nature 405, 2427.
14 Wang S, Lewis CM, Jakobsson M, et al. (2007) Genetic variation and population structure in native Americans. PLoS Genet 3, e185.
15 Crawford MA (2002) Cerebral evolution. Nutr Health 16, 2934.
16 Cunnane SC (2005) Origins and evolution of the Western diet: implications of iodine and seafood intakes for the human brain. Am J Clin Nutr 82, 483484.
17 de Lorgeril M, Salen P, Martin JL, et al. (1999) Mediterranean diet, traditional risk factors, and the rate of cardiovascular complications after myocardial infarction: final report of the Lyon Diet Heart Study. Circulation 99, 779785.
18 Feskens EJ & Kromhout D (1993) Epidemiologic studies on Eskimos and fish intake. Ann N Y Acad Sci 683, 915.
19 Marchioli R, Barzi F, Bomba E, et al. (2002) Early protection against sudden death by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids after myocardial infarction: time-course analysis of the results of the Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico (GISSI)-Prevenzione. Circulation 105, 18971903.
20 Hibbeln JR (2002) Seafood consumption, the DHA content of mothers’ milk and prevalence rates of postpartum depression: a cross-national, ecological analysis. J Affect Disord 69, 1529.
21 Hibbeln JR (2009) Depression, suicide and deficiencies of omega-3 essential fatty acids in modern diets. World Rev Nutr Diet 99, 1730.
22 McCann JC & Ames BN (2005) Is docosahexaenoic acid, an n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, required for development of normal brain function? An overview of evidence from cognitive and behavioral tests in humans and animals. Am J Clin Nutr 82, 281295.
23 Plourde M & Cunnane SC (2007) Extremely limited synthesis of long chain polyunsaturates in adults: implications for their dietary essentiality and use as supplements. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 32, 619634.
24 Caspi A, Williams B, Kim-Cohen J, et al. (2007) Moderation of breastfeeding effects on the IQ by genetic variation in fatty acid metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104, 1886018865.
25 Eaton SB (1992) Humans, lipids and evolution. Lipids 27, 814820.
26 Eaton SB, Eaton SB III, Sinclair AJ, et al. (1998) Dietary intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during the paleolithic. World Rev Nutr Diet 83, 1223.
27 Cordain L, Miller JB, Eaton SB, et al. (2000) Plant–animal subsistence ratios and macronutrient energy estimations in worldwide hunter-gatherer diets. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 682692.
28 Cordain L, Watkins BA & Mann NJ (2001) Fatty acid composition and energy density of foods available to African hominids. Evolutionary implications for human brain development. World Rev Nutr Diet 90, 144161.
29 Ulijaszek SJ (2002) Human eating behaviour in an evolutionary ecological context. Proc Nutr Soc 61, 517526.
30 Goldstone AP, de Hernandez CG, Beaver JD, et al. (2009) Fasting biases brain reward systems towards high-calorie foods. Eur J Neurosci 30, 16251635.
31 Hawkes K, O'Connell JF, Jones NG, et al. (1998) Grandmothering, menopause, and the evolution of human life histories. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95, 13361339.
32 Sear R, Mace R & McGregor IA (2000) Maternal grandmothers improve nutritional status and survival of children in rural Gambia. Proc Biol Sci 267, 16411647.
33 USDA (2008) National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/search (accessed 15 August 2008).
34 Kuipers RS, Fokkema MR, Smit EN, et al. (2005) High contents of both docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids in milk of women consuming fish from lake Kitangiri (Tanzania): targets for infant formulae close to our ancient diet? Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 72, 279288.
35 Kuipers RS, Smit EN, van der Meulen J, et al. (2007) Milk in the island of Chole [Tanzania] is high in lauric, myristic, arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids, and low in linoleic acid reconstructed diet of infants born to our ancestors living in tropical coastal regions. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 76, 221233.
36 Stewart JH (1968) Causal factors and processes in the evolution of pre-farming societies. In Man the Hunter, pp. 321334 [Lee RB and DeVore I, editors]. New York: Aldine Publishing Company.
37 Lee RB (1968) What hunters do for a living, or, how to make out on scarce resources. In Man the Hunter, pp. 3048 [Lee RB and DeVore I, editors]. New York: Aldine Publishing Company.
38 Murdock GV (1967) Ethnographic Atlas. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.
39 Woodburn J (1968) An introduction to Hadza ecology. In Man the Hunter, pp. 4955 [Lee RB and DeVore I, editors]. New York: Aldine Publishing Company.
40 Roberts MB, Stringer CB & Parfitt SA (1994) A hominid tibia from Middle Pleistocene sediments at Boxgrove, UK. Nature 369, 311313.
41 Leonard WR & Robertson ML (1992) Nutritional-requirements and human-evolution – a bioenergetics model. Am J Hum Biol 4, 179195.
42 Cordain L, Gotshall RW, Eaton SB, et al. (1998) Physical activity, energy expenditure and fitness: an evolutionary perspective. Int J Sports Med 19, 328335.
43 Eaton SB & Eaton SB (2003) An evolutionary perspective on human physical activity: implications for health. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 136, 153159.
44 Blumenschine RJ & Cavallo JA (1992) Scavenging and human-evolution. Sci Am 267, 9096.
45 Blumenschine RJ & Madrigal TC (1993) Variability in long-bone marrow yields of east-African ungulates and its zooarchaeological implications. J Archaeol Sci 20, 555587.
46 Cordain L, Watkins BA, Florant GL, et al. (2002) Fatty acid analysis of wild ruminant tissues: evolutionary implications for reducing diet-related chronic disease. Eur J Clin Nutr 56, 181191.
47 Lupo KD (1998) Experimentally derived extraction rates for marrow: implications for body past exploitation strategies of Plio-Pleistocene hominid scavengers. J Archaeol Sci 25, 657675.
48 Bunn HT & Ezzo JA (1993) Hunting and scavenging by Pliopleistocene hominids – nutritional constraints, archaeological patterns, and behavioral-implications. J Archaeol Sci 20, 365398.
49 Brand-Miller JC & Holt SH (1998) Australian aboriginal plant foods: a consideration of their nutritional composition and health implications. Nutr Res Rev 11, 523.
50 Guil JL, Torija ME, Gimenez JJ, et al. (1996) Identification of fatty acids in edible wild plants by gas chromatography. J Chromatogr A 719, 229235.
51 Ezeagu IE, Petzke KJ, Lange E, et al. (1998) Fat content and fatty acid composition of oils extracted from selected wild-gathered tropical plant seeds from Nigeria. J Am Oil Chem Soc 75, 10311035.
52 Freiberger CE, Vanderjagt DJ, Pastuszyn A, et al. (1998) Nutrient content of the edible leaves of seven wild plants from Niger. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 53, 5769.
53 Rocquelin G, Tapsoba S, Mbemba F, et al. (1998) Lipid content and fatty acid composition in foods commonly consumed by nursing Congolese women: incidences on their essential fatty acid intakes and breast milk fatty acids. Int J Food Sci Nutr 49, 343352.
54 Vincent AS (1985) Plant foods in savanna environments: a preliminary report of tubers eaten by the Hadza of Northern Tanzania. World Archaeol 17, 131148.
55 Wehmeyer AS, Lee RB & Whiting M (1969) The nutrient composition and dietary importance of some vegetable foods eaten by the Kung Bushmen. S Afr Med J 43, 15291530.
56 Bhaskar N, Kinami T, Miyashita K, et al. (2004) Occurrence of conjugated polyenoic fatty acids in seaweeds from the Indian Ocean. Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung C – J Biosci 59, 310314.
57 Dembitsky VM, Pechenkinashubina EE & Rozentsvet OA (1991) Glycolipids and fatty-acids of some seaweeds and marine grasses from the Black-Sea. Phytochemistry 30, 22792283.
58 Khotimchenko SV (1991) Fatty-acid composition of 7 Sargassum species. Phytochemistry 30, 26392641.
59 Norziah MH & Ching CY (2000) Nutritional composition of edible seaweed Gracilaria changgi. Food Chem 68, 6976.
60 Oyarzun SE, Crawshaw JG & Valverde E (1996) Nutrition of the Tamandua: I. Nutrient composition of termites (Nasutitermes spp.) and stomach contents from wild Tamanduas (Tamandua tetradactyla). Zoo Biol 15, 509524.
61 Stanley-Samuelson DW & Dadd RH (1983) Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: patterns of occurence in insects. Insect Biochem 13, 549558.
62 Ledger HP (1969) Body composition as a basis for a comparative study of some East African mammals. Symp Zool Soc Lond 21, 280310.
63 Crawford MA (1968) Fatty-acid ratios in free-living and domestic animals. Possible implications for atheroma. Lancet 1, 13291333.
64 Crawford MA, Gale MM & Woodford MH (1969) Linoleic acid and linolenic acid elongation products in muscle tissue of Sncerus caffer and other ruminant species. Biochem J 115, 2527.
65 Crawford MA, Gale MM & Woodford MH (1970) Muscle and adipose tissue lipids of warthog, Phacochoerus aethiopicus. Int J Biochem 1, 654658.
66 Crawford MA, Gale MM, Woodford MH, et al. (1970) Comparative studies on fatty acid composition of wild and domestic meats. Int J Biochem 1, 295.
67 Crawford MA & Woodford MH (1971) Fatty-acid composition in liver, aorta, skeletal and heart-muscle of 2 free-living ruminants. Int J Biochem 2, 493.
68 Duncan WR & Garton GA (1968) The fatty acid composition and intramolecular structure of triglycerides from adipose tissue of the hippopotamus and the African elephant. Comp Biochem Physiol 25, 319325.
69 Naughton JM, O'Dea K & Sinclair AJ (1986) Animal foods in traditional Australian aboriginal diets: polyunsaturated and low in fat. Lipids 21, 684690.
70 Sinclair AJ, Slattery WJ & O'Dea K (1982) The analysis of polyunsaturated fatty acids in meat by capillary gas liquid chromatography. J Sci Fd Agric 33, 776.
71 Ailhaud G, Massiera F, Weill P, et al. (2006) Temporal changes in dietary fats: role of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in excessive adipose tissue development and relationship to obesity. Prog Lipid Res 45, 203236.
72 Pauletto P, Puato M, Angeli MT, et al. (1996) Blood pressure, serum lipids, and fatty acids in populations on a lake-fish diet or on a vegetarian diet in Tanzania. Lipids 31, S309S312.
73 Ackman RG (1989) Nutritional composition of fats in seafoods. Prog Food Nutr Sci 13, 161289.
74 Rudman D, DiFulco TJ, Galambos JT, et al. (1973) Maximal rates of excretion and synthesis of urea in normal and cirrhotic subjects. J Clin Invest 52, 22412249.
75 Lieb CW (1929) The effects on human beings of a twelve months’ exclusive meat diet. JAMA 93, 2022.
76 Speth JD & Spielmann KA (1983) Energy-source, protein-metabolism, and hunter gatherer subsistence strategies. J Anthropol Archaeol 2, 131.
77 Burr GO & Burr MM (1930) On the nature and rôle of the fatty acids essential in nutrition. J Biol Chem 86, 587621.
78 Cuthbertson WF (1976) Essential fatty acid requirements in infancy. Am J Clin Nutr 29, 559568.
79 Holman RT (1970) Biological activities of and requirements for polyunsaturated acids. Progr Chem Fats Other Lipids 9, 607682.
80 Givens ID & Gibbs RA (2008) Current intakes of EPA and DHA in European populations and the potential of animal-derived foods to increase them. Proc Nutr Soc 67, 273280.
81 Ervin RB, Wright JD, Wang CY, et al. (2004) Dietary intake of fats and fatty acids for the United States population: 1999–2000. Adv Data 16.
82 White TD, Ambrose SH, Suwa G, et al. (2009) Macrovertebrate paleontology and the Pliocene habitat of Ardipithecus ramidus. Science 326, 8793.
83 Washburn SL & Lancaster CS (1968) The Evolution of Hunting. In Man the Hunter, pp. 293303 [Lee RB and DeVore I, editors]. New York: Aldine Publishing Company.
84 Sailer LD, Gaulin SC, Voster JS, et al. (1985) Measuring the relationship between diatary quality and body size in primates. Primates 26, 1427.
85 Wells JC (2006) The evolution of human fatness and susceptibility to obesity: an ethological approach. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 81, 183205.
86 Cunnane SC & Crawford MA (2003) Survival of the fattest: fat babies were the key to evolution of the large human brain. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 136, 1726.
87 Leonard WR, Robertson ML, Snodgrass JJ, et al. (2003) Metabolic correlates of hominid brain evolution. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 136, 515.
88 Milton K (2003) The critical role played by animal source foods in human (Homo) evolution. J Nutr 133, 3886S3892S.
89 Aiello LC & Wheeler P (1995) The expensive-tissue hypothesis – the brain and the digestive-system in human and primate evolution. Curr Anthropol 36, 199221.
90 Rao JS, Ertley RN, DeMar JC Jr, et al. (2007) Dietary n-3 PUFA deprivation alters expression of enzymes of the arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid cascades in rat frontal cortex. Mol Psychiatry 12, 151157.
91 Hsieh AT & Brenna JT (2009) Dietary docosahexaenoic acid but not arachidonic acid influences central nervous system fatty acid status in baboon neonates. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 81, 105110.
92 Makrides M, Neumann MA, Byard RW, et al. (1994) Fatty acid composition of brain, retina, and erythrocytes in breast- and formula-fed infants. Am J Clin Nutr 60, 189194.
93 van Goor SA, Dijck-Brouwer DA, Fokkema MR, et al. (2008) Maternal and fetal brain contents of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) at various essential fatty acid (EFA), DHA and AA dietary intakes during pregnancy in mice. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 78, 159169.
94 Koletzko B, Lien E, Agostoni C, et al. (2008) The roles of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy, lactation and infancy: review of current knowledge and consensus recommendations. J Perinat Med 36, 514.
95 Isaac B (1987) Throwing and human evolution. Afr Archaeol Rev 5, 317.
96 Sargent JR (1997) Fish oils and human diet. Br J Nutr 78, Suppl. 1, S513.
97 Simopoulos AP (2008) The importance of the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 233, 674688.
98 Richards MP, Schulting RJ & Hedges RE (2003) Archaeology: sharp shift in diet at onset of Neolithic. Nature 425, 366.
99 CDC (2004) Trends in Intake of Energy and Macronutrients – United States, 1971–2000. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwrhtml/mm5304a3.htm (accessed 15 August 2008).
100 Institute of Medicine (2005) Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids (2002/2005). http://www.nap.edu (accessed 15 August 2008).
101 Smit E, Nieto FJ, Crespo CJ, et al. (1999) Estimates of animal and plant protein intake in US adults: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1991. J Am Diet Assoc 99, 813820.
102 Frassetto L, Morris RC Jr, Sellmeyer DE, et al. (2001) Diet, evolution and aging – the pathophysiologic effects of the post-agricultural inversion of the potassium-to-sodium and base-to-chloride ratios in the human diet. Eur J Nutr 40, 200213.
103 Beasley JM, Ange BA, Anderson CA, et al. (2009) Associations between macronutrient intake and self-reported appetite and fasting levels of appetite hormones: results from the Optimal Macronutrient Intake Trial to Prevent Heart Disease. Am J Epidemiol 169, 893900.
104 Gardner CD, Kiazand A, Alhassan S, et al. (2007) Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN diets for change in weight and related risk factors among overweight premenopausal women: the A TO Z Weight Loss Study: a randomized trial. JAMA 297, 969977.
105 Alhassan S, Kim S, Bersamin A, et al. (2008) Dietary adherence and weight loss success among overweight women: results from the A TO Z weight loss study. Int J Obes (Lond) 32, 985991.
106 Batterham RL, Heffron H, Kapoor S, et al. (2006) Critical role for peptide YY in protein-mediated satiation and body-weight regulation. Cell Metab 4, 223233.
107 Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Nieuwenhuizen A, Tome D, et al. (2009) Dietary protein, weight loss, and weight maintenance. Annu Rev Nutr 29, 2141.
108 Rolls BJ (2009) The relationship between dietary energy density and energy intake. Physiol Behav 97, 609615.
109 Osterdahl M, Kocturk T, Koochek A, et al. (2008) Effects of a short-term intervention with a paleolithic diet in healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Nutr 62, 682685.
110 Jonsson T, Granfeldt Y, Ahren B, et al. (2009) Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a randomized cross-over pilot study. Cardiovasc Diabetol 8, 35.
111 Lindeberg S, Jonsson T, Granfeldt Y, et al. (2007) A Palaeolithic diet improves glucose tolerance more than a Mediterranean-like diet in individuals with ischaemic heart disease. Diabetologia 50, 17951807.
112 Hunt JR, Johnson LK & Fariba Roughead ZK (2009) Dietary protein and calcium interact to influence calcium retention: a controlled feeding study. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 13571365.
113 Barclay AW, Petocz P, McMillan-Price J, et al. (2008) Glycemic index, glycemic load, and chronic disease risk – a meta-analysis of observational studies. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 627637.
114 Niwano Y, Adachi T, Kashimura J, et al. (2009) Is glycemic index of food a feasible predictor of appetite, hunger, and satiety? J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 55, 201207.
115 Last AR & Wilson SA (2006) Low-carbohydrate diets. Am Fam Physician 73, 19421948.
116 Frassetto LA, Schloetter M, Mietus-Synder M, et al. (2009) Metabolic and physiologic improvements from consuming a paleolithic, hunter-gatherer type diet. Eur J Clin Nutr 63, 947955.
117 Kunsman JE, Collins MA, Field RA, et al. (1981) Cholesterol content of beef bone-marrow and mechanically deboned meat. J Food Sci 46, 17851788.
118 Klein CJ (2006) The scientific evidence and approach taken to establish guidelines for cholesterol intake in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Executive summary. http://www.LSRO.org (accessed 15 August 2008).
119 O'Keefe JH Jr, Cordain L, Harris WH, et al. (2004) Optimal low-density lipoprotein is 50 to 700 mg/l: lower is better and physiologically normal. J Am Coll Cardiol 43, 21422146.
120 Mann GV, Roels OA, Price DL, et al. (1962) Cardiovascular disease in African Pygmies. A survey of the health status, serum lipids and diet of Pygmies in Congo. J Chron Dis 15, 341371.
121 Mann GV, Shaffer RD & Rich A (1965) Physical fitness and immunity to heart-disease in Masai. Lancet 2, 13081310.
122 Clarke R, Frost C, Collins R, et al. (1997) Dietary lipids and blood cholesterol: quantitative meta-analysis of metabolic ward studies. BMJ 314, 112117.
123 Mente A, de Koning L, Shannon HS, et al. (2009) A systematic review of the evidence supporting a causal link between dietary factors and coronary heart disease. Arch Intern Med 169, 659669.
124 Mozaffarian D, Rimm EB & Herrington DM (2004) Dietary fats, carbohydrate, and progression of coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 11751184.
125 Mensink RP, Zock PL, Kester AD, et al. (2003) Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 11461155.
126 Davis JE, Gabler NK, Walker-Daniels J, et al. (2009) The c-Jun N-terminal kinase mediates the induction of oxidative stress and insulin resistance by palmitate and toll-like receptor 2 and 4 ligands in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Horm Metab Res 41, 523530.
127 Schaeffler A, Gross P, Buettner R, et al. (2009) Fatty acid-induced induction of Toll-like receptor-4/nuclear factor-kappaB pathway in adipocytes links nutritional signalling with innate immunity. Immunology 126, 233245.
128 Hudgins LC, Parker TS, Levine DM, et al. (2003) A single intravenous dose of endotoxin rapidly alters serum lipoproteins and lipid transfer proteins in normal volunteers. J Lipid Res 44, 14891498.
129 Zhou BF, Stamler J, Dennis B, et al. (2003) Nutrient intakes of middle-aged men and women in China, Japan, United Kingdom, and United States in the late 1990s: the INTERMAP study. J Hum Hypertens 17, 623630.
130 Matalas AL (2006) Disparities within traditional Mediterranean food patterns: an historical approach of the Greek diet. Int J Food Sci Nutr 57, 529536.
131 Tunstall-Pedoe H, Kuulasmaa K, Mahonen M, et al. (1999) Contribution of trends in survival and coronary-event rates to changes in coronary heart disease mortality: 10-year results from 37 WHO MONICA project populations. Monitoring trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease. Lancet 353, 15471557.
132 Sugano M & Hirahara F (2000) Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the food chain in Japan. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 189S196S.
133 Berglund L, Lefevre M, Ginsberg HN, et al. (2007) Comparison of monounsaturated fat with carbohydrates as a replacement for saturated fat in subjects with a high metabolic risk profile: studies in the fasting and postprandial states. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 16111620.
134 Sanders TA (2009) DHA status of vegetarians. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 81, 137141.
135 Cunnane SC, Ryan MA, Lin YH, et al. (2006) Suckling rats actively recycle carbon from alpha-linolenate into newly synthesized lipids even during extreme dietary deficiency of n-3 polyunsaturates. Pediatr Res 59, 107110.
136 Cunnane SC (2003) Problems with essential fatty acids: time for a new paradigm? Prog Lipid Res 42, 544568.
137 Stark AH, Crawford MA & Reifen R (2008) Update on alpha-linolenic acid. Nutr Rev 66, 326332.
138 Zhao G, Etherton TD, Martin KR, et al. (2007) Dietary alpha-linolenic acid inhibits proinflammatory cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 385391.
139 Djousse L, Arnett DK, Carr JJ, et al. (2005) Dietary linolenic acid is inversely associated with calcified atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study. Circulation 111, 29212926.
140 Harris WS, Mozaffarian D, Rimm E, et al. (2009) Omega-6 fatty acids and risk for cardiovascular disease: a science advisory from the American Heart Association Nutrition Subcommittee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; and Council on Epidemiology and Prevention. Circulation 119, 902907.
141 Ramakers JD, Mensink RP, Verstege MI, et al. (2008) An arachidonic acid-enriched diet does not result in more colonic inflammation as compared with fish oil- or oleic acid-enriched diets in mice with experimental colitis. Br J Nutr 100, 347354.
142 Hart AR (2009) Linoleic acid, a dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid, and the aetiology of ulcerative colitis – a European prospective cohort study. Gut.
143 Wolfe AR, Ogbonna EM, Lim S, et al. (2009) Dietary linoleic and oleic fatty acids in relation to severe depressed mood: 10 years follow-up of a national cohort. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 33, 972977.
144 Calder PC (2010) The 2008 ESPEN Sir David Cuthbertson Lecture: fatty acids and inflammation – from the membrane to the nucleus and from the laboratory bench to the clinic. Clin Nutr 29, 512.
145 Yam D, Eliraz A & Berry EM (1996) Diet and disease – the Israeli paradox: possible dangers of a high omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid diet. Isr J Med Sci 32, 11341143.
146 Angela Liou Y & Innis SM (2009) Dietary linoleic acid has no effect on arachidonic acid, but increases n-6 eicosadienoic acid, and lowers dihomo-gamma-linolenic and eicosapentaenoic acid in plasma of adult men. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 80, 201206.
147 Feskens EJ & Kromhout D (1993) Epidemiologic studies on Eskimos and fish intake. Ann N Y Acad Sci 683, 915.
148 Innis SM & Kuhnlein HV (1988) Long-chain n-3 fatty acids in breast milk of Inuit women consuming traditional foods. Early Hum Dev 18, 185189.
149 Crawford MA, Bloom M, Broadhurst CL, et al. (1999) Evidence for the unique function of docosahexaenoic acid during the evolution of the modern hominid brain. Lipids 34, S39S47.
150 Mozaffarian D & Rimm EB (2006) Fish intake, contaminants, and human health: evaluating the risks and the benefits. JAMA 296, 18851899.
151 Psota TL, Gebauer SK & Kris-Etherton P (2006) Dietary omega-3 fatty acid intake and cardiovascular risk. Am J Cardiol 98, 3i18i.
152 Astorg P, Arnault N, Czernichow S, et al. (2004) Dietary intakes and food sources of n-6 and n-3 PUFA in French adult men and women. Lipids 39, 527535.
153 Xie L & Innis SM (2008) Genetic variants of the FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster are associated with altered (n-6) and (n-3) essential fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids in women during pregnancy and in breast milk during lactation. J Nutr 138, 22222228.
154 Collins FD, Sinclair AJ, Royle JP, et al. (1971) Plasma lipids in human linoleic acid deficiency. Nutr Metab 13, 150167.
155 Holman RT, Johnson SB & Hatch TF (1982) A case of human linolenic acid deficiency involving neurological abnormalities. A J Clin Nutr 35, 617623.
156 Mead JF (1960) The Metabolism of the polyunsaturated fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr 8, 5561.
157 Hansen HS, Jensen B & Wettstein-Knowles P (1986) Apparent in vivo retroconversion of dietary arachidonic to linoleic acid in essential fatty acid-deficient rats. Biochim Biophys Acta 878, 284287.
158 Conquer JA & Holub BJ (1997) Dietary docosahexaenoic acid as a source of eicosapentaenoic acid in vegetarians and omnivores. Lipids 32, 341345.
159 Le HD, Meisel JA, de Meijer VE, et al. (2009) The essentiality of arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 81, 165170.
160 Lien EL (2009) Toxicology and safety of DHA. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 81, 125132.
161 Seyberth HW, Oelz O, Kennedy T, et al. (1975) Increased arachidonate in lipids after administration to man: effects on prostaglandin biosynthesis. Clin Pharmacol Ther 18, 521529.
162 Nelson GJ, Schmidt PC, Bartolini G, et al. (1997) The effect of dietary arachidonic acid on platelet function, platelet fatty acid composition, and blood coagulation in humans. Lipids 32, 421425.
163 Kelley DS, Taylor PC, Nelson GJ, et al. (1998) Arachidonic acid supplementation enhances synthesis of eicosanoids without suppressing immune functions in young healthy men. Lipids 33, 125130.
164 Kelley DS, Taylor PC, Nelson GJ, et al. (1997) Effects of dietary arachidonic acid on human immune response. Lipids 32, 449456.
165 Ferretti A, Nelson GJ, Schmidt PC, et al. (1997) Increased dietary arachidonic acid enhances the synthesis of vasoactive eicosanoids in humans. Lipids 32, 435439.
166 Kusumoto A, Ishikura Y, Kawashima H, et al. (2007) Effects of arachidonate-enriched triacylglycerol supplementation on serum fatty acids and platelet aggregation in healthy male subjects with a fish diet. Br J Nutr 98, 626635.
167 Serhan CN (2008) Systems approach with inflammatory exudates uncovers novel anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving mediators. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 79, 157163.
168 Whelan J, Li B & Birdwell C (1997) Dietary arachidonic acid increases eicosanoid production in the presence of equal amounts of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid. Adv Exp Med Biol 400B, 897904.
169 Sanigorski AJ, Sinclair AJ & Hamazaki T (1996) Platelet and aorta arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acid levels and in vitro eicosanoid production in rats fed high-fat diets. Lipids 31, 729735.
170 Mann N, Sinclair A, Pille M, et al. (1997) The effect of short-term diets rich in fish, red meat, or white meat on thromboxane and prostacyclin synthesis in humans. Lipids 32, 635644.
171 O'Dea K & Sinclair AJ (1985) The effects of low-fat diets rich in arachidonic acid on the composition of plasma fatty acids and bleeding time in Australian aborigines. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 31, 441453.
172 Calder PC (2009) Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory processes: new twists in an old tale. Biochimie 91, 791795.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary Materials

Kuipers Supplementary table 2
Kuipers Supplementary table 2

 PDF (21 KB)
21 KB
PDF
Supplementary Materials

Kuipers Supplementary table 1 legend
Kuipers Supplementary table 1 legend

 PDF (114 KB)
114 KB
PDF
Supplementary Materials

Kuipers Supplementary table 1
Kuipers Supplementary table 1

 PDF (10 KB)
10 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 152
Total number of PDF views: 467 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 3633 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.