Skip to main content Accessibility help

Food-chain selenium and human health: emphasis on intake

  • Margaret P. Rayman (a1)


Following the publication of the landmark trial of Clark et al. in 1996 that appeared to show that Se could reduce the risk of cancer, awareness of the importance of Se to human health has markedly increased. As a result, there is now much more aggressive marketing of Se supplements and functional foods, even in situations where additional consumption of Se is inappropriate. The present review addresses how Se gets into the food chain, the wide variability in Se content of foods and the very different levels of intake between countries and regions. Though it is clear that there are adverse consequences for health of both deficient and excessive intake, health effects at intermediate levels of intake are less certain. Thus it is difficult to define optimal intake which depends on a large number of factors, such as which functions of Se are most relevant to a particular disease state, which species of Se is most prominent in the Se source, which health condition is being considered, the adequacy or otherwise of intake of other nutrients, the presence of additional stressors, and lastly whether the ability to make selenoproteins may be compromised. These complexities need to be understood, particularly by policy makers, in order to make informed judgments. Potential solutions for increasing Se intake, where required, include agronomic biofortification and genetic biofortification or, for individuals, increased intake of naturally Se-rich foods, functional foods or supplements. The difficulties of balancing the risks and benefits in relation to Se intake are highlighted.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Food-chain selenium and human health: emphasis on intake
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Food-chain selenium and human health: emphasis on intake
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Food-chain selenium and human health: emphasis on intake
      Available formats


Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Professor Margaret Rayman, fax +44 1483 300374, email


Hide All
1Clark, LC, Combs, GF Jr, Turnbull, BW, et al. (1996) Effects of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in patients with carcinoma of the skin. A randomized controlled trial. Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Study Group. JAMA 276, 19571963.
2Reilly, C (2006) Selenium in Food and Health, 2nd ed.New York: Springer.
3Diplock, AT (1993) Indexes of selenium status in human populations. Am J Clin Nutr 57, Suppl. 2, 256S258S.
4Fordyce, FM, Guangdi, Z, Green, K & Xinping, L (2000) Soil, grain and water chemistry in relation to human selenium-responsive diseases in Enshi District, China. Appl Geochem 15, 117132.
5Johnson, CC, Ge, X, Green, KA & Liu, X (2000) Selenium distribution in the local environment of selected villages of the Keshan Disease belt, Zhangjiakou District, Hebei Province, People's Republic of China. Appl Geochem 15, 385401.
6Adams, ML, Lombi, E, Zhao, F-J & McGrath, S (2002) Evidence of low selenium concentrations in UK bread-making wheat grain. J Sci Food Agric 82, 11601165.
7Rayman, MP (2004) The use of high-selenium yeast to raise selenium status: how does it measure up? Br J Nutr 92, 557573.
8Fordyce, FM (2005) Selenium deficiency and toxicity in the environment. In Essentials of Medical Geology, pp. 373415 [Selinus, O, Alloway, B, Centeno, JA, Finkelman, RB, Fuge, R, Lindh, U and Smedley, P, editors]. London: Elsevier.
9Spadoni, M, Voltaggio, M, Carcea, M, Coni, E, Raggi, A & Cubadda, F (2007) Bioaccessible selenium in Italian agricultural soils: comparison of the biogeochemical approach with a regression model based on geochemical and pedoclimatic variables. Sci Total Environ 376, 160177.
10Zhao, FJ, Lopez-Bellido, FJ, Gray, CW, Whalley, WR, Clark, LJ & McGrath, SP (2007) Effects of soil compaction and irrigation on the concentrations of selenium and arsenic in wheat grains. Sci Total Environ 372, 433439.
11Broadley, MR, White, PJ & Bryson, RJ (2006) Biofortification of UK food crops with selenium. Proc Nutr Soc 65, 169181.
12Terry, N, Zayed, AM, De Souza, MP & Tarun, AS (2000) Selenium in higher plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 51, 401432.
13Rayman, MP, Goenaga Infante, H & Sargent, M (2008) Food-chain selenium and human health: spotlight on speciation. Br J Nutr 100, 238253.
14World Health Organization (1987) Selenium. A Report of the International Programme on Chemical Safety. Environmental Health Criteria no. 58. Geneva: WHO.
15Whanger, PD (1989) Selenocompounds in plants and their effects on animals. In Toxicants of Plant Origin, vol. III, Proteins and Amino Acids, pp. 141167 [Cheeke, PR, editor]. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
16Barceloux, DG (1999) Selenium. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 37, 145172.
17Keck, A & Finley, J (2006) Database values do not reflect selenium contents of grain, cereals, and other foods grown or purchased in the upper Midwest of the United States. Nutr Res 26, 1722.
18Finley, JW, Matthys, L, Shuler, T & Korynta, E (1996) Selenium content of foods purchased in North Dakota. Nutr Res 16, 723728.
19Barclay, MNI, MacPherson, A & Dixon, J (1995) Selenium content of a range of UK foods. J Food Compost Anal 8, 307318.
20Lisk, DJ, Bache, CA, Essick, LA, Reid, CM, Rutzke, M & Crown, K (1988) Absorption and excretion of selenium and barium in humans from consumption of Brazil nuts. Nutr Rep Int 38, 183191.
21Chang, JC, Gutenmann, WH, Reid, CM & Lisk, DJ (1995) Selenium content of Brazil nuts from two geographic locations in Brazil. Chemosphere 30, 801802.
22Kannamkumarath, SS, Wrobel, K, Wrobel, K, Vonderheide, A & Caruso, JA (2002) HPLC-ICP-MS determination of selenium distribution and speciation in different types of nut. Anal Bioanal Chem 373, 454460.
23United States Environmental Protection Agency (2005) Barium and Compounds, Integrated Risk Information System, CASRN 7440-39-3.
24Oak Ridge Associated Universities (2007) Brazil Nuts.
25World Health Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization, International Atomic Energy Agency Expert Group (1996) Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Health. Geneva: WHO.
26Combs, GF Jr (2001) Selenium in global food systems. Br J Nutr 85, 517547.
27Surai, PF (2006) Selenium in Nutrition and Health. Nottingham, UK: Nottingham University Press.
28Fardy, JJ, McOrist, GD & Farrar, YJ (1989) The determination of selenium in the Australian diet using neutron activation analysis. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 133, 391396.
29Sima, A & Pfannhauser, W (1998) Selenium levels in foods produced in Austria. In Mengen-Spurenelem, Arbeitstag 18th, pp. 197204 [Anke, M, editor]. Leipzig: Verlag Harald Schubert.
30Robberecht, HJ & Deelstra, HA (1994) Factors influencing blood selenium concentrations: a literature review. J Trace Elem Electrolytes Health Dis 8, 129143.
31Maihara, VA, Gonzaga, IB, Silva, VL, Fávaro, DIT, Vasconcellos, MBA & Cozzolino, SMF (2004) Daily dietary selenium intake of selected Brazilian population groups. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 259, 465468.
32Kvíčala, J, Zamrazil, V & Jiránek, V (1996) Selenium deficient status of the inhabitants of South Moravia. In Natural Antioxidants and Food Quality in Atherosclerosis and Cancer Prevention, pp. 177187 [Kumpulainen, J and Salonen, J, editors]. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.
33Gissel-Nielsen, G (1998) Effects of selenium supplementation of field crops. In Environmental Chemistry of Selenium, pp. 99112 [Frankenberger, WT Jr and Engberg, RA, editors]. New York: Marcel Dekker.
34Klapec, T, Mandic, ML, Grigic, J, Primorac, L, Ikic, M, Lovric, T, Grigic, Z & Herceg, Z (1998) Daily dietary intake of selenium in eastern Croatia. Sci Total Environ 217, 127136.
35Danish Governmental Food Agency (1995) Food Habits of Danes 1995, Main Results. Soeborg, Denmark: Levnedsmiddelstyrelsen.
36Reilly, C (1996) Selenium in Food and Health. London: Blackie Academic and Professional.
37Lamand, M, Tressol, JC & Bellanger, J (1994) The mineral and trace element composition in French food items and intake levels in France. J Trace Elem Electrolytes Health Dis 8, 195202.
38Alfthan, G & Neve, J (1996) Selenium intakes and plasma selenium levels in various populations. In Natural Antioxidants and Food Quality in Atherosclerosis and Cancer Prevention, pp. 161167 [Kumpulainen, J and Salonen, J, editors]. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.
39Mahalingam, TR, Vijayalakshni, S, Prabhu, RK, et al. (1997) Studies on some trace and minor elements in blood. A survey of the Kalpakkan (India) population. Part III: Studies on dietary intake and its correlation to blood levels. Biol Trace Elem Res 57, 223238.
40Murphy, J, Hannon, EM, Kiely, M, Flynn, A & Cashman, KD (2002) Selenium intakes in 18–64-y-old Irish adults. Eur J Clin Nutr 56, 402408.
41Allegrini, M, Lanzola, E & Gallorini, M (1985) Dietary selenium intake in a coronary heart disease study in Northern Italy. Nutr Res Suppl. 1, 398402.
42Miyazaki, Y, Koyama, H, Hongo, T, Sasada, Y, Nojiri, M & Suzuki, S (2001) Nutritional considerations for changes in dietary habit and health promotion practices in community health care; from the viewpoint of selenium (in Japanese with English abstract). Nippon Koshu Eisei Zasshi 48, 243257.
43Moser, PB, Reynolds, RD, Acharya, S, Howard, MP, Andon, MB & Lewis, SA (1988) Copper, iron, zinc, and selenium dietary intake and status of Nepalese lactating women and their breast-fed infants. Am J Clin Nutr 47, 729734.
44van Dokkum, W (1995) The intake of selected minerals and trace elements in European countries. Nutr Res Rev 8, 271302.
45Kumpulainen, JT (1993) Selenium in foods and diets of selected countries. J Trace Elem Electrolytes Health Dis 7, 107108.
46Donovan, UM, Gibson, RS, Ferguson, EL, Ounpuu, S & Heywood, P (1992) Selenium intakes of children from Malawi and Papua New Guinea consuming plant-based diets. J Trace Elem Electrolytes Health Dis 6, 3943.
47Vannoort, R, Cressey, P & Silvers, K (2000) 1997/1998 New Zealand Total Diet Survey. Part 2: Elements. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Health.
48Wasowicz, W, Gromadzinska, J, Rydzynski, K & Tomczak, J (2003) Selenium status of low-selenium area residents: Polish experience. Toxicol Lett 137, 95101.
49Reis, MF, Holzbecher, J, Martinho, E & Chatt, A (1990) Determination of selenium in duplicate diets of residents of Pinhel, Portugal, by neutron activation. Biol Trace Elem Res 26–27, 629635.
50Al-Saleh, I, Al-Doush, I & Faris, R (1997) Selenium levels in breast milk and cow's milk: a preliminary report from Saudi Arabia. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 16, 4146.
51Djujic, I, Djujic, B & Trajkovic, L (1995) Dietary intake of selenium in Serbia: results for 1991. Naucni Skupovi (Srpska Akademija Nauka I Umetnosti). Odeljenje Prirodno-Matematickih Nauka 6, 8187.
52Kadrabová, J, Mad'arič, A & Ginter, E (1998) Determination of the daily selenium intake in Slovakia. Biol Trace Element Res 61, 277286.
53Pokorn, D, Stibilj, V, Gregoric, B, Dermelj, M & Stupar, J (1998) Elemental composition (Ca, Mg, Mn, Cu, Cr, Zn, Se and I) of daily diet samples from some old people's homes in Slovenia. J Food Compost Anal 11, 4753.
54Díaz-Alarcón, JP, Navarro-Alarcón, M, López-García de la Serrana, H & López-Martínez, MC (1996) Determination of selenium in meat products by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry – selenium levels in meat, organ meats and sausages in Spain. J Agric Food Chem 44, 14941497.
55Becker, W (1989) Food Habits and Nutrient Intake in Sweden 1989. Uppsala, Sweden: Swedish National Food Administration.
56Foster, LH & Sumar, S (1997) Selenium in health and disease: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 37, 211228.
57Giray, B & Hincal, F (2004) Selenium status in Turkey. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 259, 447451.
58Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (1997) Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, October 1997, Food Surveillance Information Sheet, no. 126. Dietary Intake of Selenium. London: Joint Food Safety and Standards Group.
59Food and Nutrition Board & Institute of Medicine (2000) Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
60Combs, GF Jr & Combs, SB (1986) The biological availability of selenium in foods and feeds. In The Role of Selenium in Nutrition, pp. 127177New York: Academic Press.
61Rayman, MP & Callahan, A (2006) Nutrition and Arthritis. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publications.
62Rayman, MP (1997) Dietary selenium: time to act. BMJ 314, 387388.
63Thomson, CD (2004) Selenium and iodine intakes and status in New Zealand and Australia. Br J Nutr 91, 661672.
64Cheng, YY & Qian, PC (1990) The effect of selenium-fortified table salt in the prevention of Keshan disease on a population of 1·05 million. Biomed Environ Sci 3, 422428.
65Li, C (2007) Selenium deficiency and endemic heart failure in China: a case study of biogeochemistry for human health. Ambio 36, 9093.
66Levander, OA & Beck, MA (1997) Interacting nutritional and infectious etiologies of Keshan disease. Insights from Coxsackie virus B-induced myocarditis in mice deficient in selenium or vitamin E. Biol Trace Elem Res 56, 521.
67Su, C, Gong, C, Li, Q, Chen, L, Zhou, D & Jin, Q (1979) Preliminary results of viral etiology of Keshan disease. Chin Med J 59, 466472.
68Moreno-Reynes, R, Suetens, C, Mathieu, F, Begaux, F, Zhu, D, Rivera, MT, Boelaert, M, Nève, J, Perlmutter, N & Vanderpas, J (1998) Kashin–Beck osteoarthropathy in rural Tibet in relation to selenium and iodine status. New Eng J Med 339, 11121120.
69Coppinger, RJ & Diamond, AM (2001) Selenium deficiency and human disease. In Selenium: Its Molecular Biology and Role in Human Health, pp. 219233 [Hatfield, DL, editor]. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
70Suetens, C, Moreno-Reyes, R, Chasseur, C, Mathieu, F, Begaux, F, Haubruge, E, Durand, MC, Neve, J & Vanderpas, J (2001) Epidemiological support for a multifactorial aetiology of Kashin–Beck disease in Tibet. Int Orthop 25, 180187.
71Huttunen, JK (1997) Selenium and cardiovascular diseases – an update. Biomed Environ Sci 10, 220226.
72Cooper, LT, Rader, V & Ralston, NV (2007) The roles of selenium and mercury in the pathogenesis of viral cardiomyopathy. Congest Heart Fail 13, 193199.
73Whanger, P, Vendeland, S, Park, YC & Xia, Y (1996) Metabolism of subtoxic levels of selenium in animals and humans. Ann Clin Lab Sci 26, 99113.
74Yang, GQ, Wang, SZ, Zhou, RH & Sun, SZ (1983) Endemic selenium intoxication of humans in China. Am J Clin Nutr 37, 872881.
75Yang, G & Zhou, R (1994) Further observations on the human maximum safe dietary selenium intake in a seleniferous area of China. J Trace Elem Electrolytes Health Dis 8, 159165.
76Longnecker, MP, Taylor, PR, Levander, OA, et al. (1991) Selenium in diet, blood, and toenails in relation to human health in a seleniferous area. Am J Clin Nutr 53, 12881294.
77Whanger, PD (2002) Selenocompounds in plants and animals and their biological significance. J Am Coll Nutr 21, 223232.
78Hansen, JC & Sloth Pederson, H (1986) Environmental exposure to heavy metals in N. Greenland. Arct Med Res 41, 2134.
79Fan, AM, Book, SA, Neutra, RR & Epstein, DM (1988) Selenium and human health implications in California's San Joaquin Valley. J Toxicol Environ Health 23, 539559.
80Yang, G, Yin, S, Zhou, R, Gu, L, Yan, B, Liu, Y & Liu, Y (1989) Studies of safe maximal daily dietary Se-intake in a seleniferous area in China. Part II: Relation between Se-intake and the manifestation of clinical signs and certain biochemical alterations in blood and urine. J Trace Elem Electrolytes Health Dis 3, 123130.
81Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals (2003) Safe Upper Levels for Vitamins and Minerals. London: Food Standards Agency.
82Akbaraly, NT, Arnaud, J, Hininger-Favier, I, Gourlet, V, Roussel, AM & Berr, C (2005) Selenium and mortality in the elderly: results from the EVA study. Clin Chem 51, 21172123.
83Walston, J, Xue, Q, Semba, RD, Ferrucci, L, Cappola, AR, Ricks, M, Guralnik, J & Fried, LP (2006) Serum antioxidants, inflammation, and total mortality in older women. Am J Epidemiol 163, 1826.
84Berr, C, Balansard, B, Arnaud, J, Roussel, AM & Alperovitch, A (2000) Cognitive decline is associated with systemic oxidative stress: the EVA study. Etude du Vieillissement Arteriel. J Am Geriatr Soc 48, 12851291.
85Akbaraly, NT, Hininger-Favier, I, Carriere, I, Arnaud, J, Gourlet, V, Roussel, AM & Berr, C (2007) Plasma selenium over time and cognitive decline in the elderly. Epidemiology 18, 5258.
86Gao, S, Jin, Y, Hall, KS, et al. (2007) Selenium level and cognitive function in rural elderly Chinese. Am J Epidemiol 165, 955965.
87Peretz, A, Neve, J, Desmedt, J, Duchateau, J, Dramaix, M & Famaey, JP (1991) Lymphocyte response is enhanced by supplementation of elderly subjects with selenium-enriched yeast. Am J Clin Nutr 53, 13231328.
88Kiremidjian-Schumacher, L, Roy, M, Wishe, HI, Cohen, MW & Stotzky, G (1994) Supplementation with selenium and human immune cell functions. Biol Trace Elem Res 41, 115127.
89Kiremidjian-Schumacher, L, Roy, M, Glickman, R, Schneider, K, Rothstein, S, Cooper, J, Hochster, H, Kim, M & Newman, R (2000) Selenium and immunocompetence in patients with head and neck cancer. Biol Trace Elem Res 73, 97111.
90Broome, CS, McArdle, F, Kyle, JA, Andrews, F, Lowe, NM, Hart, CA, Arthur, JR & Jackson, MJ (2004) An increase in selenium intake improves immune function and poliovirus handling in adults with marginal selenium status. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 154162.
91Yu, SY, Zhu, YJ & Li, WG (1997) Protective role of selenium against hepatitis B virus and primary liver cancer in Qidong. Biol Trace Elem Res 56, 117124.
92Yu, MW, Horng, IS, Hsu, KH, Chiang, YC, Liaw, YF & Chen, CJ (1999) Plasma selenium levels and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma among men with chronic hepatitis virus infection. Am J Epidemiol 150, 367374.
93Li, W, Zhu, Y, Yan, X, Zhang, Q, Li, X, Ni, Z, Shen, Z, Yao, H & Zhu, J (2000) The prevention of primary liver cancer by selenium in high risk populations. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 34, 336338.
94Bjelakovic, G, Nikolova, D, Simonetti, RG & Gluud, C (2004) Antioxidant supplements for prevention of gastrointestinal cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 364, 12191228.
95Baum, MK, Shor-Posner, G, Lai, S, Zhang, G, Lai, H, Fletcher, MA, Sauberlich, H & Page, JB (1997) High risk of HIV-related mortality is associated with selenium deficiency. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 15, 370374.
96Campa, A, Shor-Posner, G, Indacochea, F, Zhang, G, Lai, H, Asthana, D, Scott, GB & Baum, MK (1999) Mortality risk in selenium-deficient HIV-positive children. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 20, 508513.
97Burbano, X, Miguez-Burbano, MJ, McCollister, K, Zhang, G, Rodriguez, A, Ruiz, P, Lecusay, R & Shor-Posner, G (2002) Impact of a selenium chemoprevention clinical trial on hospital admissions of HIV-infected participants. HIV Clin Trials 3, 483491.
98Hurwitz, BE, Klaus, JR, Llabre, MM, Gonzalez, A, Lawrence, PJ, Maher, KJ, Greeson, JM, Baum, MK, Shor-Posner, G, Skyler, JS & Schneiderman, N (2007) Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load with selenium supplementation: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 167, 148154.
99Kupka, R, Msamanga, GI & Spiegelman, D (2004) Se status is associated with accelerated HIV disease progression among HIV-infected pregnant women in Tanzania. J Nutr 134, 25562560.
100Scott, R & MacPherson, A (1998) Selenium supplementation in sub-fertile human males. Br J Urol 82, 7680.
101Barrington, JW, Lindsay, P, James, D, Smith, S & Roberts, A (1996) Selenium deficiency and miscarriage: a possible link? Br J Obstet Gynaecol 103, 130132.
102Barrington, JW, Taylor, M, Smith, S & Bowen-Simpkins, P (1997) Selenium and recurrent miscarriage. J Obstet Gynaecol 17, 199200.
103Rayman, MP, Bode, P & Redman, CW (2003) Low selenium status is associated with the occurrence of the pregnancy disease preeclampsia in women from the United Kingdom. Am J Obstet Gynecol 189, 13431349.
104Zhuo, H, Smith, AH & Steinmaus, C (2004) Selenium and lung cancer: a quantitative analysis of heterogeneity in the current epidemiological literature. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13, 771778.
105Zeegers, MP, Goldbohm, RA, Bode, P & van den Brandt, (2002) Prediagnostic toenail selenium and risk of bladder cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11, 12921297.
106Brinkman, M, Buntinx, F, Muls, E & Zeegers, MP (2006) Use of selenium in chemoprevention of bladder cancer. Lancet Oncol 7, 766774.
107Wei, WQ, Abnet, CC, Qiao, YL, Dawsey, SM, Dong, ZW, Sun, XD, Fan, JH, Gunter, EW, Taylor, PR & Mark, SD (2004) Prospective study of serum selenium concentrations and esophageal and gastric cardia cancer, heart disease, stroke, and total death. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 8085.
108Rayman, MP (2005) Selenium in cancer prevention: a review of the evidence and mechanism of action. Proc Nutr Soc 64, 527542.
109Etminan, M, FitzGerald, JM, Gleave, M & Chambers, K (2005) Intake of selenium in the prevention of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Causes Control 16, 11251131.
110Brinkman, M, Reulen, RC, Kellen, E, Buntinx, F & Zeegers, MP (2006) Are men with low selenium levels at increased risk of prostate cancer? Eur J Cancer 42, 24632471.
111Jacobs, ET, Jiang, R, Alberts, DS, et al. (2004) Selenium and colorectal adenoma: results of a pooled analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst 96, 16691675.
112Duffield-Lillico, AJ, Reid, ME, Turnbull, BW, Combs, GF Jr, Slate, EH, Fischbach, LA, Marshall, JR & Clark, LC (2002) Baseline characteristics and the effect of selenium supplementation on cancer incidence in a randomized clinical trial: a summary report of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11, 630639.
113Duffield-Lillico, AJ, Dalkin, BL, Reid, ME, Turnbull, BW, Slate, EH, Jacobs, ET, Marshall, JR, Clark, LC & Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Study Group (2003) Selenium supplementation, baseline plasma selenium status and incidence of prostate cancer: an analysis of the complete treatment period of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial. BJU Int 91, 608612.
114Reid, ME, Duffield-Lillico, AJ, Garland, L, Turnbull, BW, Clark, LC & Marshall, JR (2002) Selenium supplementation and lung cancer incidence: an update of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11, 12851291.
115Reid, ME, Duffield-Lillico, AJ, Sunga, A, Fakih, M, Alberts, DS & Marshall, JR (2006) Selenium supplementation and colorectal adenomas: an analysis of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer trial. Int J Cancer 118, 17771781.
116Gärtner, R, Gasier, BC, Dietrich, JW, Krebs, B & Angsturm, MW (2002) Selenium supplementation in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis decreases thyroid peroxidase antibodies concentrations. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87, 16871691.
117Duntas, LH, Mantzou, E & Koutras, DA (2003) Effects of six month treatment with selenomethionine in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. Eur J Endocrinol 148, 389393.
118Turker, O, Kumanlioglu, K, Karapolat, I & Dogan, I (2006) Selenium treatment in autoimmune thyroiditis: 9-month follow-up with variable doses. J Endocrinol 190, 151156.
119Derumeaux, H, Valeix, P, Castetbon, K, Bensimon, M, Boutron-Ruault, MC, Arnaud, J & Hercberg, S (2003) Association of selenium with thyroid volume and echostructure in 35- to 60-year-old French adults. Eur J Endocrinol 148, 309315.
120Glattre, E, Thomassen, Y, Thoresen, SO, Haldorsen, T, Lund-Larsen, PG, Theodorsen, L & Aaseth, J (1989) Prediagnostic serum selenium in a case–control study of thyroid cancer. Int J Epidemiol 18, 4549.
121Jellum, E, Andersen, A, Lund-Larsen, P, Theodorsen, L & Orjasaeter, H (1993) The JANUS serum bank. Sci Total Environ 139–140, 527535.
122Negro, R, Greco, G, Mangieri, T, Pezzarossa, A, Dazzi, D & Hassan, H (2007) The influence of selenium supplementation on postpartum thyroid status in pregnant women with thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92, 12631268.
123Flores-Mateo, G, Navas-Acien, A, Pastor-Barriuso, R & Guallar, E (2006) Selenium and coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 84, 762773.
124Arteel, GE, Briviba, K & Sies, H (1999) Protection against peroxynitrite. FEBS Lett 445, 226230.
125Xia, Y, Hill, KE, Byrne, DW, Xu, J & Burk, RF (2005) Effectiveness of selenium supplements in a low-selenium area of China. Am J Clin Nutr 81, 829834.
126Burk, RF, Hill, KE, Motley, AK, Austin, LM & Norsworthy, BK (2006) Deletion of selenoprotein P upregulates urinary selenium excretion and depresses whole-body selenium content. Biochim Biophys Acta 1760, 17891793.
127Hill, KE, Zhou, J, McMahan, WJ, Motley, AK & Burk, RF (2004) Neurological dysfunction occurs in mice with targeted deletion of the selenoprotein P gene. J Nutr 134, 157161.
128Valentine, WM, Hill, KE, Austin, LM, Valentine, HL, Goldowitz, D & Burk, RF (2005) Brainstem axonal degeneration in mice with deletion of selenoprotein P. Toxicol Pathol 33, 570576.
129Dong, Y, Lisk, D, Block, E & Ip, C (2001) Characterization of the biological activity of γ-glutamyl-Se-methylselenocysteine: a novel, naturally occurring anticancer agent from garlic. Cancer Res 61, 29232928.
130Ip, C (1998) Lessons from basic research in selenium and cancer prevention. J Nutr 128, 18451854.
131Zeng, H & Combs, GF Jr (2008) Selenium as an anticancer nutrient: roles in cell proliferation and tumor cell invasion. J Nutr Biochem 19, 17.
132Finley, JW (2003) Reduction of cancer risk by consumption of selenium-enriched plants: enrichment of broccoli with selenium increases the anticarcinogenic properties of broccoli. J Med Food 6, 1926.
133Bates, CJ, Thane, CW, Prentice, A & Delves, HT (2002) Selenium status and its correlates in a British National Diet and Nutrition Survey: people aged 65 years and over. J Trace Elem Med Biol 6, 18.
134Hesse-Bahr, K, Dreher, I & Kohrle, J (2000) The influence of the cytokines IL-1β and INFγ on the expression of selenoproteins in the human hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2. Biofactors 11, 8385.
135Bjelakovic, G, Nikolova, D, Gluud, LL, Simonetti, RG & Gluud, C (2007) Mortality in randomized trials of antioxidant supplements for primary and secondary prevention: systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 297, 842857.
136Papp, LV, Lu, J, Holmgren, A & Khanna, KK (2007) From selenium to selenoproteins: synthesis, identity, and their role in human health. Antioxid Redox Signal 9, 775806.
137Rayman, MP (2000) The importance of selenium to human health. Lancet 356, 233241.
138Schweizer, U, Bräuer, AU, Köhrle, J, Nitsch, R & Savaskan, NE (2004) Selenium and brain function: a poorly recognized liaison. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 45, 164178.
139Schiavon, R, Guidi, GC, Biasioli, S, De Fanti, E & Targa, L (1994) Plasma glutathione peroxidase activity as an index of renal function. Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 32, 759765.
140Ravaglia, G, Forti, P, Maioli, F, Muscari, A, Sacchetti, L, Arnone, G, Nativio, V, Talerico, T & Mariani, E (2003) Homocysteine and cognitive function in healthy elderly community dwellers in Italy. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 668673.
141Gori, AM, Corsi, AM, Fedi, S, Gazzini, A, et al. (2005) A proinflammatory state is associated with hyperhomocysteinemia in the elderly. Am J Clin Nutr 82, 335341.
142Beck, MA, Esworthy, RS, Ho, Y-S & Chu, F-F (1998) Glutathione peroxidase protects mice from viral-induced myocarditis. FASEB J 12, 11431149.
143Zhao, L, Cox, AG, Ruzicka, JA, Bhat, AA, Zhang, W & Taylor, EW (2000) Molecular modeling and in vitro activity of an HIV-1-encoded glutathione peroxidase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97, 63566361.
144Zhang, W, Ramanathan, CS, Nadimpalli, RG, Bhat, AA, Cox, AG & Taylor, EW (1999) Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase modules encoded by RNA viruses. Biol Trace Elem Res 70, 97116.
145Shisler, JL, Senkevich, TG, Berry, MJ & Moss, B (1998) Ultraviolet-induced cell death blocked by a selenoprotein from a human dermatotropic poxvirus. Science 279, 102105.
146Maiorino, M & Ursini, F (2002) Oxidative stress, spermatogenesis and fertility. Biol Chem 383, 591597.
147Pfeifer, H, Conrad, M, Roethlein, D, Kyriakopoulos, A, Brielmeier, M, Bornkamm, G & Behne, D (2001) Identification of a specific sperm nuclei selenoenzyme necessary for protamine thiol cross-linking during sperm maturation. FASEB J 15, 12361238.
148Flohé, L (2007) Selenium in mammalian spermiogenesis. Biol Chem 388, 987995.
149Behne, D, Kyriakopoulos, A, Kalcklösch, M, Weiss-Nowak, C, Pfeifer, H, Gessner, H & Hammel, C (1997) Two new selenoproteins found in the prostatic glandular epithelium and in the spermatid nuclei. Biomed Environ Sci 10, 340345.
150Brigelius-Flohé, R (2006) Glutathione peroxidases and redox-regulated transcription factors. Biol Chem 387, 13291335.
151Hawkes, WC & Turek, PJ (2001) Effects of dietary selenium on sperm motility in healthy men. J Androl 22, 764772.
152Nomura, AM, Lee, J, Stemmermann, GN & Combs, GF Jr (2000) Serum selenium and subsequent risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 9, 883887.
153Levander, OA, Alfthan, G, Arvilommi, H, Gref, CG, Huttunen, JK, Kataja, M, Koivistoinen, P & Pikkarainen, J (1983) Bioavailability of selenium to Finnish men as assessed by platelet glutathione peroxidise activity and other blood parameters. Am J Clin Nutr 37, 887897.
154Rayman, M, Thompson, A, Warren-Perry, M, Galassini, R, Catterick, J, Hall, E, Lawrence, D & Bliss, J (2006) Impact of selenium on mood and quality of life: a randomized, controlled trial. Biol Psychiatry 59, 147154.
155Duffield-Lillico, AJ, Slate, EH, Reid, ME, et al. (2003) Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Study Group. Selenium supplementation and secondary prevention of nonmelanoma skin cancer in a randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 95, 14771481.
156Stranges, S, Marshall, JR, Natarajan, R, Donahue, RP, Trevisan, M, Combs, GF, Cappuccio, FP, Ceriello, A & Reid, ME (2007) Effects of long-term selenium supplementation on the incidence of type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 147, 217223.
157Burk, RF, Norsworthy, BK, Hill, KE, Motley, AK & Byrne, DW (2006) Effects of chemical form of selenium on plasma biomarkers in a high-dose human supplementation trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15, 804810.
158Peters, U, Foster, CB, Chatterjee, N, Schatzkin, A, Reding, D, Andriole, GL, Crawford, ED, Sturup, S, Chanock, SJ & Hayes, RB (2007) Serum selenium and risk of prostate cancer – a nested case–control study. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 209217.
159Beckett, GJ & Arthur, JR (2005) Selenium and endocrine systems. J Endocrinol 184, 455465.
160Korpela, H, Kumpulainen, J, Jussila, E, Kemilä, S, Kääriäinen, M, Kääriäinen, T & Sotaniemi, EA (1989) Effect of selenium supplementation after acute myocardial infarction. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 65, 249252.
161Stranges, S, Marshall, JR, Trevisan, M, Natarajan, R, Donahue, RP, Combs, GF, Farinaro, E, Clark, LC & Reid, ME (2006) Effects of selenium supplementation on cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality: secondary analyses in a randomized clinical trial. Am J Epidemiol 163, 694699.
162Brooks, JD, Metter, EJ, Chan, DW, Sokoll, LJ, Landis, P, Nelson, WG, Muller, D, Andres, R & Carter, HB (2001) Plasma selenium level before diagnosis and the risk of prostate cancer development. J Urol 166, 20342038.
163Li, B, Taylor, PR, Li, JY, et al. (1993) Linxian nutrition intervention trials. Design, methods, participant characteristics, and compliance. Ann Epidemiol 3, 577585.
164Vanderpas, JB, Contempré, B, Duale, NL, Deckx, H, Bebe, N, Longombé, AO, Thilly, CH, Diplock, AT & Dumont, JE (1993) Selenium deficiency mitigates hypothyroxinemia in iodine-deficient subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 57, Suppl. 2, 271S275S.
165Burk, RF, Early, DS, Hill, KE, Palmer, IS & Boeglin, ME (1998) Plasma selenium in patients with cirrhosis. Hepatology 27, 794798.
166Mostert, V, Dreher, I, Kohrle, J & Abel, J (1999) Transforming growth factor-β1 inhibits expression of selenoprotein P in cultured human liver cells. FEBS Lett 460, 2326.
167Dreher, I, Jakobs, TC & Kohrle, J (1997) Cloning and characterization of the human selenoprotein P promoter. Response of selenoprotein P expression to cytokines in liver cells. J Biol Chem 272, 2936429371.
168Walter, PL, Steinbrenner, H, Barthel, A & Klotz, LO (2008) Stimulation of selenoprotein P promoter activity in hepatoma cells by FoxO1a transcription factor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 365, 316321.
169Irons, R, Carlson, BA, Hatfield, DL & Davis, CD (2006) Both selenoproteins and low molecular weight selenocompounds reduce colon cancer risk in mice with genetically impaired selenoprotein expression. J Nutr 136, 13111317.
170Brown, KM, Pickard, K, Nicol, F, Beckett, GJ, Duthie, GG & Arthur, JR (2000) Effects of organic and inorganic selenium supplementation on selenoenzyme activity in blood lymphoctyes, granulocytes, platelets and erythrocytes. Clin Sci (Lond) 98, 593599.
171Hu, YJ & Diamond, AM (2003) Role of glutathione peroxidase 1 in breast cancer: loss of heterozygosity and allelic differences in the response to selenium. Cancer Res 63, 33473351.
172Kumaraswamy, E, Malykh, A, Korotkov, KV, Kozyavkin, S, Hu, Y, Kwon, SY, Moustafa, ME, Carlson, BA, Berry, MJ, Lee, BJ, Hatfield, DL, Diamond, AM & Gladyshev, VN (2000) Structure–expression relationships of the 15-kDa selenoprotein gene. Possible role of the protein in cancer etiology. J Biol Chem 275, 3554035547.
173Ratnasinghe, D, Tangrea, JA, Andersen, MR, Barrett, MJ, Virtamo, J, Taylor, PR & Albanes, D (2000) Glutathione peroxidise codon 198 polymorphism variant increases lung cancer risk. Cancer Res 60, 63816383.
174Méplan, C, Crosley, LK, Nicol, F, Beckett, GJ, Howie, AF, Hill, KE, Horgan, G, Mathers, JC, Arthur, JR & Hesketh, JE (2007) Genetic polymorphisms in the human selenoprotein P gene determine the response of selenoprotein markers to selenium supplementation in a gender-specific manner (the SELGEN study). FASEB J 21, 30633074.
175Ichimura, Y, Habuchi, T, Tsuchiya, N, Wang, L, Oyama, C, Sato, K, Nishiyama, H, Ogawa, O & Kato, T (2004) Increased risk of bladder cancer associated with a glutathione peroxidise 1 codon 198 variant. J Urol 172, 728732.
176Ravn-Haren, G, Olsen, A, Tjonneland, A, Dragsted, LO, Nexo, BA, Wallin, H, Overvad, K, Raaschou-Nielsen, O & Vogel, U (2006) Associations between GPX1 Pro198Leu polymorphism, erythrocyte GPX activity, alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort study. Carcinogenesis 27, 820825.
177Lee, OJ, Schneider-Stock, R, McChesney, PA, Kuester, D, Roessner, A, Vieth, M, Moskaluk, CA & El-Rifai, W (2005) Hypermethylation and loss of expression of glutathione peroxidase-3 in Barrett's tumorigenesis. Neoplasia 7, 854861.
178Chen, Y, Hall, M, Graziano, JH, Slavkovich, V, van Geen, A, Parvez, F & Ahsan, H (2007) A prospective study of blood selenium levels and the risk of arsenic-related premalignant skin lesions. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16, 207213.
179Arnaud, J, Akbaraly, NT, Hininger, I, Roussel, AM & Berr, C (2007) Factors associated with longitudinal plasma selenium decline in the elderly: the EVA study. J Nutr Biochem 18, 482487.
180Eurola, M & Hietaniemi, V (2000) Report of the Selenium Monitoring Programme 1997–1999. Publications of Agricultural Research Centre of Finland, Series B 24. Jokioinen: Agricultural Research Centre of Finland.
181Hartikainen, H (2005) Biogeochemistry of selenium and its impact on food chain quality and human health. J Trace Elem Med Biol 18, 309318.
182Aro, A, Alfthan, G, Ekholm, P & Varo, P (1998) Effects of selenium supplementation of fertilizers on human nutrition and selenium status. In Environmental Chemistry of Selenium, pp. 8197 [Frankenberger, WT Jr and Engberg, RA, editors]. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.
183Rayman, MP, Angus, F & Goenaga Infante, H (2007) Bioavailability and speciatioin of selenium from selenium-enriched mushrooms. Proc Nutr Soc 66, 55A.
184Cole, DJA (2000) Selenium, the pig and the human diet. In Concepts in Pig Science, pp. 149158 [Lyons, TP and Cole, DJA, editors]. Nottingham, UK: Nottingham University Press.
185Lyons, MP, Papazyan, TT & Surai, PF (2007) Selenium in food chain and animal nutrition: lessons from nature. Asian-Aust J Anim Sci 20, 11351155.
186Arnold, WN & Thrasher, JB (2003) Selenium concentration in the prostate. Biol Trace Elem Res 91, 277280.
187Gianduzzo, TR, Holmes, EG, Tinggi, U, Shahin, M, Mactaggart, P & Nicol, D (2003) Prostatic and peripheral blood selenium levels after oral supplementation. J Urol 170, 870873.
188Sabichi, AL, Lee, JJ, Taylor, RJ, et al. (2006) Selenium accumulation in prostate tissue during a randomized, controlled short-term trial of l-selenomethionine: a Southwest Oncology Group Study. Clin Cancer Res 12, 21782184.
189Taylor, PR & Greenwald, P (2005) Nutritional interventions in cancer prevention. J Clin Oncol 23, 333345.
190Niskar, AS, Paschal, DC, Kieszak, SM, et al. (2003) Serum selenium levels in the US population: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Biol Trace Elem Res 91, 110.
191Lawson, KA, Wright, ME, Subar, A, Mouw, T, Hollenbeck, A, Schatzkin, A & Leitzmann, MF (2007) Multivitamin use and risk of prostate cancer in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. J Natl Cancer Inst 99, 754764.



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed