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Functional food science and behaviour and psychological functions

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 March 2007

F. Bellisle*
Affiliation:
INSERM - Unité 341 et Service de Nutrition, Hôtel-Dieu, 1, Place du Parvis Notre-Dame, F-75181, Paris Cedex 04, France
J. E. Blundell
Affiliation:
PsychoBiology Group, Department of Psychology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
L. Dye
Affiliation:
PsychoBiology Group, Department of Psychology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
M. Fantino
Affiliation:
Laboratoire de Physiologie, Faculté de Médecine, Université de Bourgogne, 7, Boulevard Jeanne d'Arc, F-21033 Dijon Cedex, France
E. Fern
Affiliation:
Nestec Ltd, Nestlé, 55, Avenue Nestlé, CH-1800 Vevey, Switzerland
R. J. Fletcher
Affiliation:
Kellogg Company of Great Britain Ltd, The Kellogg Building, Talbot Road, Manchester MI6 OPU, UK
J. Lambed
Affiliation:
6Mars Confectionery, Division of Mars UK Ltd, Dundee Road, Slough SLI 4JX, UK
M. Roberfroid
Affiliation:
UCL, Ecole de Pharmacie, Tour Van Helmont, Avenue E. Mounier, 73, B-I200 Brussels, Belgium
S. Specter
Affiliation:
INSERM - Unité 341 et Service de Nutrition, Hôtel-Dieu, 1, Place du Parvis Notre-Dame, F-75181, Paris Cedex 04, France
J. Westenhöfer
Affiliation:
Department of Nutrition and Home Economics, Advanced Technical College, Lohbrüigger Kirchstr. 65, 0-21033 Hamburg, Germany
M. S. Westerterp-Plantenga
Affiliation:
Department of Sciences, Open University of the Netherlands/Maastricht University, Postbus 2960, NL-6401 DL Heerlen, The Netherlands
*
*Corresponding author: Dr F. Bellisle, fax +33 1 40 46 82 48, email bellisle@imaginet.fr
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Abstract

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The impact of ingesting various foods on psychological and behavioural functions is a topic of both interest and concern to the general public. In this article, the scientific literature concerning demonstrated cause-and-effect relationships is reviewed, beginning with methodological considerations specific to the quantification of particular behaviours and psychological events. The essential function of food is to satisfy hunger and the need for essential nutrients. The contributions of macronutrients to appetite and satiety are described, as well as their impact on metabolism and energy balance. Functional properties of macronutrient substitutes (high intensity sweeteners, fat replacers) and flavour enhancers are examined in relation to their contribution to hunger, satiety, and energy balance. The effects of foods and individual nutrients on the performance of diverse psychomotor tasks are studied with consideration given to the various validated quantitative tools used to assess behaviour. The effects of food components on activation, sedation, and affective states such as dysphoria are also reviewed, with special attention given to brain function and neuroactive substances such as serotonin and the endorphins. The case of hyperactivity in children is given special emphasis with reference to the potential influence of sugar and food additives. Safety issues related to food constituents and additives are discussed. Finally, a set of criteria is proposed for the evaluation and elaboration of studies in the behavioural and psychological fields, along with suggestions for future research.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Nutrition Society 1998

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