Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-ttngx Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-22T01:41:59.339Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Functional food science and behaviour and psychological functions

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 March 2007

F. Bellisle*
INSERM - Unité 341 et Service de Nutrition, Hôtel-Dieu, 1, Place du Parvis Notre-Dame, F-75181, Paris Cedex 04, France
J. E. Blundell
PsychoBiology Group, Department of Psychology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
L. Dye
PsychoBiology Group, Department of Psychology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
M. Fantino
Laboratoire de Physiologie, Faculté de Médecine, Université de Bourgogne, 7, Boulevard Jeanne d'Arc, F-21033 Dijon Cedex, France
E. Fern
Nestec Ltd, Nestlé, 55, Avenue Nestlé, CH-1800 Vevey, Switzerland
R. J. Fletcher
Kellogg Company of Great Britain Ltd, The Kellogg Building, Talbot Road, Manchester MI6 OPU, UK
J. Lambed
6Mars Confectionery, Division of Mars UK Ltd, Dundee Road, Slough SLI 4JX, UK
M. Roberfroid
UCL, Ecole de Pharmacie, Tour Van Helmont, Avenue E. Mounier, 73, B-I200 Brussels, Belgium
S. Specter
INSERM - Unité 341 et Service de Nutrition, Hôtel-Dieu, 1, Place du Parvis Notre-Dame, F-75181, Paris Cedex 04, France
J. Westenhöfer
Department of Nutrition and Home Economics, Advanced Technical College, Lohbrüigger Kirchstr. 65, 0-21033 Hamburg, Germany
M. S. Westerterp-Plantenga
Department of Sciences, Open University of the Netherlands/Maastricht University, Postbus 2960, NL-6401 DL Heerlen, The Netherlands
*Corresponding author: Dr F. Bellisle, fax +33 1 40 46 82 48, email
Rights & Permissions [Opens in a new window]


Core share and HTML view are not available for this content. However, as you have access to this content, a full PDF is available via the ‘Save PDF’ action button.

The impact of ingesting various foods on psychological and behavioural functions is a topic of both interest and concern to the general public. In this article, the scientific literature concerning demonstrated cause-and-effect relationships is reviewed, beginning with methodological considerations specific to the quantification of particular behaviours and psychological events. The essential function of food is to satisfy hunger and the need for essential nutrients. The contributions of macronutrients to appetite and satiety are described, as well as their impact on metabolism and energy balance. Functional properties of macronutrient substitutes (high intensity sweeteners, fat replacers) and flavour enhancers are examined in relation to their contribution to hunger, satiety, and energy balance. The effects of foods and individual nutrients on the performance of diverse psychomotor tasks are studied with consideration given to the various validated quantitative tools used to assess behaviour. The effects of food components on activation, sedation, and affective states such as dysphoria are also reviewed, with special attention given to brain function and neuroactive substances such as serotonin and the endorphins. The case of hyperactivity in children is given special emphasis with reference to the potential influence of sugar and food additives. Safety issues related to food constituents and additives are discussed. Finally, a set of criteria is proposed for the evaluation and elaboration of studies in the behavioural and psychological fields, along with suggestions for future research.

Research Article
Copyright © The Nutrition Society 1998


Aaron, JI, Mela, DJ & Evans, RE (1994) The influences of attitudes, beliefs, and label information on perceptions of reduced-fat spread. Appetite 22, 2537.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Acheson, KJ, Campbell, IT, Edholm, OG, Miller, DS & Stock, MJ (1980) The measurement of food and energy intake in man: an evaluation of some techniques. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 33, 11471154.Google Scholar
Adams, WR, Kiefer, SW & Badia-Elder, N (1995) Tryptophandeficiency and alcohol consumption in rats as a model for disadvantaged human populations: a preliminary study. Medical Anthropologia 16, 175191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
Anderson, KJ & Revelle, W (1982) Impulsivity, caffeine and proof-reading: a test of the Easterbrook hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception Performance 8, 614624.Google Scholar
Anderson, SA & Raiten, DJ (1992) Safety of Amino Acids Used as Dietary Supplements. Report prepared for the Food and Drug Administration.Google Scholar
Ballard-Barbash, R, Graubard, I, Schatzkin, A & Thompson, FE (1996) Contribution of dieting to the inverse association between energy intake and body mass index. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50, 98106.Google Scholar
Bartus, RT, Dean, RL, Beer, B & Lippa, AS (1982) The cholinergic hypothesis of geriatric memory dysfunction. Science 216, 408417.Google Scholar
Basiotis, PP, Welsh, SO, Cronin, FJ, Kelsay, JL & Mertz, W (1987) Number of days of food intake records required to estimate individual and group nutrient intakes with defined confidence. Journal of Nutrition 117, 16381641.Google Scholar
Beaton, GH, Tarasuk, V & Anderson, GH (1992) Estimation of possible impact of non caloric fat and carbohydrate substitutes on macronutrient intake in the human. Appetite 19, 87103.Google Scholar
Beauchamp, GK, Vazquez de Vaquera, M & Pearson, PB (1987) Dietary status of human infants and their sensory responses to amino acid flavor. In Umami: A Basic Taste, pp. 125138 [Kawamura, Y and Kare, MT, editors]. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
Behar, D, Rapaport, JL, Adams, AA, Berg, CK & Cornblath, M (1984) Sugar challenge testing with children considered behaviourally ‘sugar reactive.’. Nutrition and Behavior 1, 277288.Google Scholar
Bellisle, F, Dalix, AM, Chappuis, F, Rossi, F, Fiquet, P, Gaudin, V, Assoun, M & Slama, G (1996) Monosodium glutamate affects meal-time food selection in diabetic patients. Appetite 26, 267276.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bellisle, F, Monneuse, MO, Chabert, M, Larue-Achagiotis, C, Lanteaume, MT & Louis-Sylvestre, J (1991) Monosodium glutamate as a palatability enhancer in the European diet. Physiology and Behavior 49, 869873.Google Scholar
Bellisle, F & Perez, C (1994) Low-energy substitutes for sugars and fats in the human diet: impact on nutritional regulation. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 18, 197205.Google Scholar
Benkelfat, C, Ellenbogen, MA, Palmour, RM & Young, SN (1994) Mood-lowering effect of tryptophan depletion: enhanced sus- ceptibility in young men at genetic risk for major affective disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry 51, 687697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Benton, D (1992) Vitamin-mineral supplements and intelligence. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 51, 295302.Google Scholar
Benton, D & Owens, D (1993) Blood glucose and human memory. Psychopharmacology 113, 8388.Google Scholar
Benton, D, Owens, D & Parker, P (1994) Blood glucose, memory and attention. Neuropsychologia 115, 129.Google Scholar
Benton, D & Sargent, J (1992) Breakfast, blood glucose and memory. Biological Psychology 33, 207210.Google Scholar
Blass, E & Fitzgerald, E (1988) Milk-induced analgesia and comforting in 10-day-old rats: opioid mediation. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 29, 913.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blass, E, Fitzgerald, E & Kehoe, P (1987) Interactions between sucrose, pain and isolation distress. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 26, 483489.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blundell, JE & Burley, VJ (1992) Evaluation of the satiating power of dietary fat in man. In Progress in Obesity Research, pp.453457 [Oomura, Y, Baba, S and Shimazu, T, editors]. London: Libbey.Google Scholar
Blundell, JE, Burley, VJ, Rolls, BJ & Peters, JC (1991) Simultaneous replication validates an effect of olestra on the pattern of eating. International Journal of Obesity 15, 9.Google Scholar
Blundell, JE & Green, SM (1996) Effect of sucrose and sweeteners on appetite and energy intake. International Journal of Obesity 20, Suppl. 2, S12–S17.Google ScholarPubMed
Blundell, JE & Hill, AJ (1986) Paradoxical effects of an intense sweetener (aspartame) on appetite. Lancet 1, 10921093.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blundell, JE, Lawton, CL & Hill, AJ (1993) Mechanisms of appetite control and their abnormalities in obese patients. Hormonal Research 39, 7276.Google Scholar
Booth, DA (1991) Are low-calorie substitutes compensated? Appetite 17, 159162.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Booth, DA, Lee, M & McAleavey, C (1976) Acquired sensory control of satiation in man. British Journal of Psychology 67, 137147.Google Scholar
Caputo, FA & Mattes, RD (1993) Human dietary responses to perceived manipulation of fat content in a midday meal. International Journal of Obesity 17, 237240.Google Scholar
Carlson, SE, Ford, AJ, Werkman, SH, Peeples, JM & Koo, WWK (1996) Visual acuity and fatty acid status of term infants fed human milk and formulas with and without docosahexaenoate and arachidonate from egg yolk lecithin. Paediarric Research 5, 882888.Google Scholar
Chandler, AMK, Walker, SP, Connolly, K & Grantham-McGregor, SM (1995) School breakfast improves verbal fluency in undernourished Jamaican children. Journal of Nutrition 125, 894900.Google Scholar
Chapelot, D, Fricker, J, Pasquet, P & Apfelbaum, M (1993) Contribution of the cognitive factors in the response of restrained and non restrained eaters after a change in the fat content of the main course of lunch meal. International Journal of Obesity 17, 62.Google Scholar
Christensen, L, Krietsch, K & White, B (1989) Development, crossvalidation, and assessment of the reliability of the Christensen Dietary Distress Inventory. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science 21, 115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Christensen, L & Redig, C (1993) Effect of meal composition on mood. Behavioral Neuroscience 107, 346353.Google Scholar
Colditz, GA, Giovannucci, E, Rimm, EB, Stampfer, MJ, Rosner, B & Speizer, FE (1991) Alcohol intake in relation to diet and obesity among women and men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54, 17011707.Google Scholar
Connors, CK & Blouin, AG (1983) Nutritional effects on behaviour of children. Journal of Psychiatric Research 17, 198201.Google Scholar
Crombie, IK, Todman, J, McNeill, G, Florey, C, Menzies, IT & Kennedy, RA (1990) Effect of vitamin and mineral supplementation on verbal and non-verbal reasoning of schoolchildren. Lancet 311, 744747.Google Scholar
Crook, WG (1974) An alternative method of managing the hyperactive child. Paediatrics 5, 4656.Google Scholar
Cueto, S (1995) Cited in Pollitt E, Jacoby E & Cueto S (1995) Breakfast prevents delays of memory functions. FASEB Journal 9, A483.Google Scholar
Deary, IJ, Crawford, JR, Hepburn, D, Langan, S, Blackmore, L & Frier, BM (1993) Severe hypoglycaemia and intelligence in adult patients with insulin-treated diabetes. Diabetes 42, 341344.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
de Castro, JM (1987) Macronutrient relationships with meal patterns and mood in the spontaneous feeding behavior of humans. Physiology and Behavior 39, 561569.Google Scholar
de Castro, JM & de Castro, ES (1989) Spontaneous meal patterns in humans: influence of the presence of other people. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50, 237247.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
de Graaf, C, Hulshof, T, Weststrate, JA & Hautvast, JGA (1996) Non-absorbable fat (sucrose polyester) and the regulation of energy intake and weight. American Journal of Physiology 270, R1386R1393.Google Scholar
Debry, G (1989) Le Café, sa Composition, sa Consommation, ses Incidences sur la Santé (Coffee: Composition, Intake and Health Considerations). Nancy: Centre de Nutrition Humaine.Google Scholar
Deijen, JM, Heemstra, ML & Orlebeke, JF (1989) Dietary effects on mood and performance. Journal of Psychiatric Research 23, 275283.Google Scholar
Dickie, NH & Bender, AE (1982) Breakfast and performance in schoolchildren. British Journal of Nutrition 48, 483496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Drewnowski, A (1990) Dietary fats: perceptions and preferences. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 4, 431435.Google Scholar
Drewnowski, A, Kurth, C, Holden-Wiltse, J & Saari, J (1992) Food preferences in human obesity: carbohydrates versus fats. Appetite 18, 207221.Google Scholar
Drewnowski, A & Schwartz, M (1990) Invisible fats: sensory assessment of sugar/fat mixtures. Appetite 14, 203217.Google Scholar
Dum, J, Gramsch, C & Ferz, A (1983) Activation of hypothalamic β-endorphin pools by reward induced by highly palatable food. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 18, 443447.Google Scholar
Duncan, KH, Bacon, JA & Weinsier, RL (1983) The effects of high and low energy density diets on satiety, energy intake and eating time of obese and non obese subjects. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 46, 886892.Google Scholar
Feingold, BF (1981) Dietary management of behavior and learning disabilities. In Nutrition and Behavior [Miller, SA, editor]. Philadelphia, PA: Franklin Institute.Google Scholar
Ferguson, HB, Stoddart, C & Simeon, PG (1986) Double blind challenge studies of behavioural and cognitive effects of sucrose-aspartame ingestion in normal children. Nutrition Reviews 44, Suppl., 144150.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fernstrom, J (1994) The effect of dietary macronutrients on brain serotonin formation. In Appetite and Body Weight Regulation, pp.5162 [Fernstrom, JD and Miller, GD, editors]. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc.Google Scholar
Fernstrom, JD & Wurtman, IU (1972) Brain serotonin content: physiological dependence on plasma tryptophan levels. Science 173, 149151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Femstrom, MH, Krowinski, RL & Kupfer, DJ (1987) Appetite and food preference in depression: effects of imipramine treatment. Biological Psychiatry 22, 529539.Google Scholar
Foltin, RW, Kelly, TH & Fischman, MW (1993) Ethanol as an energy source in humans: comparison with dextrose-containing beverages. Appetite 20, 95110.Google Scholar
Fourest-Fontecave, S, Adamson, E, Lins, PE, Ekblom, B, Sendahl, C & Strand, L (1987) Mental alertness in response to hypoglycaemia in normal man: the effect of 12 hours and 72 hours of fasting. Diabète et Métabolisme 13, 405410.Google ScholarPubMed
Garner, DM, Olmstead, MP & Polivy, J (1983) Development and validation of a multidimensional eating disorders inventory for anorexia nervosa and bulimia. International Journal of Eating Disorders 2, 1534.Google Scholar
Gonder-Frederick, L, Hall, JL, Vogt, J, Cox, DJ, Green, J & Gold, PE (1987) Memory enhancement in elderly humans: effects of glucose ingestion. Physiology and Behavior 41, 503504.Google Scholar
Goodwin, GM, Fairburn, CG & Cowen, PJ (1987) Dieting changes serotonergic function in women, not men: implications for the aetiology of anorexia nervosa? Psychological Medicine 17, 839842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goodwin, JS, Goodwin, JM & Garry, PJ (1983) Association between nutritional status and cognitive functioning in a healthy elderly population. Journal of the American Medical Association 249, 29172921.Google Scholar
Green, MW & Rogers, PJ (1995) Impaired cognitive functioning during spontaneous dieting. Psychological Medicine 25, 115129.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Greenwood, CE & Winocur, G (1990) Learning and memory impairment in rats fed a high saturated fat diet. Behavioral Neural Biology 53, 7487.Google Scholar
Hall, JL, Gonder-Frederick, LA, Chewning, WW, Silveira, J & Gold, PE (1989) Glucose enhancement of performance on memory tests in young and aged humans. Neuropsychologia 27, 11291138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Herman, CP & Polivy, J (1980) Restrained eating. In Obesity, pp. 208225 [Stunkard, AJ, editor]. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders.Google Scholar
Herold, KC, Polonsky, KS, Cohen, RM, Levy, J & Douglas, F (1985) Variable deterioration in cortical function during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. Diabetes 34, 677685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hill, AJ & Blundell, JE (1988) Role of amino acids in appetite control in man. In Amino Acids in Health and Disease, pp. 239248 [Huether, G, editor]. Berlin: Springer Verlag.Google Scholar
Hindmarch, I, Kerr, JS & Sherwood, N (1991) The effects of alcohol and other drugs on psychomotor performance and cognitive function. Alcohol and Alcoholism 26, 7179.Google ScholarPubMed
Holmes, CS, Koepke, KM & Thompson, RG (1986) Simple versus complex impairment at three blood glucose levels. Psychoneuroendocrinology 11, 353357.Google Scholar
Hulshof, T, Graaf, C & Weststrate, JA (1995) Short term satiating effect of the fat replacer sucrose polyester (SPE) in man. British Journal of Nutrition 74, 569585.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
James, JE (1991) Caffeine and Health. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Jarvis, MJ (1993) Does caffeine intake enhance absolute levels of cognitive performance? Psychopharmacology 110, 4552.Google Scholar
Johnson, J & Vickers, Z (1993) Effects of flavor and macronutrient composition of food servings on liking, hunger and subsequent intake. Appetite 21, 2539.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kanarek, RB & Swinney, D (1990) Effects of food snacks on cognitive performance in male college students. Appetite 14, 1527.Google Scholar
Kant, AK, Ballard-Barbash, R & Schatzkin, A (1995) Evening eating and its relation to self-reported body weight and nutrient intake in women, CSFII 1985–86. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 14, 358363.Google Scholar
Kaye, WH, Pickar, D, Naber, D & Ebert, MH (1982) Cerebrospinal fluid opioid activity in anorexia nervosa. Psychiatry 139, 643645.Google ScholarPubMed
Kelly, TH, Foltin, RW, Rolls, BJ & Fischman, MW (1994) Effect of meal macronutrient and energy content on human performance. Appetite 23, 97111.Google Scholar
Kendall, A, Levitsky, DA, Strupp, BJ & Lissner, L (1991) Weight loss on a low-fat diet: consequence of the impression of the control of food intake in humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53, 11241129.Google Scholar
Kolata, G (1982) Consensus on diets and hyperactivity. Science 215, 958.Google ScholarPubMed
Kruesi, MJP & Rapoport, JL (1986) Diet and human behavior: how much do they affect each other? Annual Review of Nutrition 6, 113130.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Langan, SJ, Deary, IJ, Hepburn, DA & Frier, BM (1991) Cumulative cognitive impairment following recurrent severe hypoglycaemia in adult patients with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus. Diabetalogia 34, 337344.Google Scholar
Lapp, JE (1981) Effects of glycemic alterations and noun imagery on the learning of paired associates. Journal of Learning Disabilities 14, 3538.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lieberman, H, Corkin, S, Spring, B, Growdon, JH & Wurtman, RJ (1983) Mood, performance and sensitivity: changes induced by food constituents. Journal of Psychiatric Research 17, 135145.Google Scholar
Lieberman, HR, Spring, B & Garfield, GS (1986) The behavioral effects of food constituents: strategies used in studies of amino acids, protein, carbohydrates and caffeine. Nutrition Reviews 44, suppl., 6169.Google Scholar
Lindley, MG (1993) Fat replacer ingredients and the markets for fat-reduced foods. In Low-Calorie Foods and Food Ingredients, pp.77105 [Kahn, R, editor]. London: Blackie Academic and Professional.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lipton, MA & Kane, FJ (1983) Psychiatry. In Nutritional Support of Medical Practice, 2nd ed., pp.562580 [Scheider, HA, Anderson, CE and Coursin, D, editors]. Philadelphia, PA: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
Lissner, L, Levitsky, DA, Strupp, BJ, Kalkwarf, HJ & Roe, DA (1987) Dietary fat and the regulation of energy intake in human subjects. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 46, 886892.Google Scholar
Lloyd, HM, Green, MW & Rogers, PJ (1994) Mood and cognitive performance effects of isocaloric lunches differing in fat and carbohydrate content. Physiology and Behavior 56, 5157.Google Scholar
Lloyd, HM & Rogers, PJ (1995) Mood and cognitive performance improved by low dose of alcohol administered double blind. Appetite 24, 280.Google Scholar
Lloyd, HM, Rogers, PJ & Hedderley, DI (1996) Acute effects on mood and cognitive performance of breakfasts differing in fat and carbohydrate content. Appetite 27, 151164.Google Scholar
Logue, AW (1991) The Psychology of Eating and Drinking. An Introduction, 2nd ed. New York, NY: W.H. Freeman.Google Scholar
Louis-Sylvestre, J, Tournier, A, Verger, P, Chabert, M & Delorme, B (1987) Learned caloric adjustment of human intake. Appetite 12, 95103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Macdiarmid, RI & Hetherington, MM (1995) Mood modulation by food: an exploration of affect and cravings in 'chocolate addicts'. British Journal of Psychology 34, 129138.Google ScholarPubMed
McGivern, RF & Berntson, GG (1980) Mediation of diurnal fluctuations in pain sensitivity in the rat by food intake patterns: reversal by naloxone. Science 210, 210211.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McNair, PM, Lorr, M & Dropplemen, LF (1971) Profile of Mood States Manual. San Diego, CA: Educational and Industrial Testing Service.Google Scholar
Mahan, LK, Chase, M, Furukawa, CT, Sulzbacher, S, Shapiroo, GG, Pierson, W & Bierman, CW (1988) Sugar 'allergy' and children's behaviour. Annals of Allergy 61,453458.Google Scholar
Manning, CA, Hall, JL & Gold, PE (1990) Glucose effects on memory and other neuropsychological tests in elderly humans. Psychological Science 1, 307311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martin, LJ, Su, W, Jones, PJ, Lockwood, GA, Tritchler, DL & Boyd, NF (1996) Comparison of energy intakes determined by food records and doubly labeled water in women participating in a dietary-intervention trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 63, 483490.Google Scholar
Matsumura, M, Fukuda, N, Saito, S & Mori, H (1982) Effect of a test meal, duodenal acidification, and tetragastrin on the plasma concentration of P-endorphin-like immunoreactivity in man. Regulatory Peptides 4, 173181.Google Scholar
Mayeno, AN & Gleich, DJ (1994) Eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome and tryptophan production: a cautionary tale. Tibtech 12, 346352.Google Scholar
Melchior, JC, Fantino, M, Colas-Linhart, N, Rigaud, D, Petiet, A, Laforest, MD, Fumeron, F & Apfelbaum, M (1991) Lack of plasmatic beta-endorphin response to a gastronomic meal in healthy humans. Physiology and Behavior 49, 12171221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mercer, ME & Holder, MD (1997) Antinociceptive effects of palatable sweet ingesta on human responsivity to pressure pain. Physiology and Behavior 61, 311318.Google Scholar
Michener, W & Rozin, P (1994) Pharmacological versus sensory factors in the satiation of chocolate craving. Physiology and Behavior 56, 419422.Google Scholar
Michaud, C, Musse, N, Nicolas, JP & Méjean, L (1991) Effects of breakfast-size on short-term memory, concentration, mood and blood glucose. Journal of Adolescent Health 12, 5357.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Milgram, GG (1990) The Facts About Drinking: Coping With Alcohol Use, Abuse, and Excessive Drinking. New York, NY: Consumers Union.Google Scholar
Mitchell, PJ & Redman, JR (1992) Effects of caffeine, time of day and user history on study-related performance. Psychophamcology 109, 121126.Google Scholar
Nehlig, A, Daval, J-L & Debry, G (1992) Caffeine and the central nervous system: mechanisms of action, biochemical, metabolic and psychostimulant effects. Brain Research Reviews 17, 139170.Google Scholar
Nelson, M (1992) Vitamin and mineral supplementation and academic performance in schoolchildren. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 51, 303313.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nelson, M, Naismith, DJ, Burley, V, Gatenby, SJ & Geddes, N (1990) Nutrient intakes, vitamin-mineral supplementation and intelligence in British schoolchildren. British Journal of Nutrition 64, 1322.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Owens, DS & Benton, D (1994) The impact of raising blood glucose on reaction times. Neuropsychobiology 30, 106113.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Perez, C, Dalix, AM, Guy-Grand, B & Bellisle, F (1994) Human responses to five concentrations of sucrose in a dairy product: immediate and delayedpalatability effects,. Appetite 23, 165178.Google Scholar
Pollitt, E, Leibel, RL & Greenfield, D (1981) Brief fasting, stress and cognition in children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 34, 15261533.Google Scholar
Pollitt, E, Lewis, NL, Garza, C & Shulman, RJ (1983) Fasting and cognitive function. Journal of Psychiatric Research 17, 169174.Google Scholar
Prewitt, TE, Schmeisser, D, Bowen, PE, Aye, P, Dolecek, TA, Langenberg, P, Cole, T & Brace, L (1991) Changes in body weight, body composition, and energy intake in women fed high- and low-fat diets. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54, 304310.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Prinz, RJ & Riddle, DB (1986) Association between nutrition and behaviour. Nutrition Reviews 44, Suppl., 151158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prinz, RJ, Roberts, WA & Hantman, E (1980) Dietary correlates of hyperactive behaviour in children. Journal of Consulting Clinical Psychology 47,760769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Priola, RD & Lieber, CS (1972) Energy cost of the metabolism of drugs, including ethanol. Pharmacology 7, 185196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ramzan, I, Wong, BK & Corcoran, GB (1993) Pain sensitivity in dietary-induced obese rats. Physiology and Behavior 54, 433435.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rapp, DJ (1978) Does diet affect hyperactivity? Learning Disabilities 11, 383389.Google Scholar
Reid, M & Hammersley, R (1995) Effect of carbohydrate intake on subsequent food intake and mood state. Physiology and Behavior 8, 421427.Google Scholar
Richardson, NJ, Rogers, PJ, Elliman, NA & O'Dell, RJ (1995) Mood and performance effects of caffeine in relation to acute and chronic caffeine deprivation. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 52, 313320.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rissanen, A, Sarlio-Lahteenkorva, S, Alfthan, G, Gref, CG, Keso, L & Salaspuro, M (1987) Employed problem drinkers: a nutritional risk group? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 45, 456461.Google Scholar
Roane, DS & Martin, RJ (1990) Continuous sucrose feeding decreases pain threshold and increases morphine potency. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 35, 225229.Google Scholar
Rodin, J & Slochower, J (1976) Externality in the nonobese: effects of environmental responsiveness on weight. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 33, 338344.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rogers, PJ (1995) Food, mood and appetite. Nutrition Research Reviews 8, 243269.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rogers, PJ, Richardson, NJ & Demoncourt, C (1995) Caffeine use: is there a net benefit for mood and psychomotor performance? Neuropsychobiology 31, 195199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rolls, BJ (1991) Effects of intense sweeteners on hunger, food intake, and body weight: a review. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53, 872878.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rolls, BJ & Hammer, VA (1995) Fat, carbohydrate, and the regulation of energy intake. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62, 1086s1095S.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rolls, BJ & Hetherington, M (1990) A behavior scientist's perspectives on the study of diet and behavior. In Diet and Behavior, pp. 209227 [Krasnegor, NA, Miller, GD and Simopoumos, AP, editors]. London: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
Rolls, BJ, Hetherington, M & Burley, VJ (1988) The specificity of satiety: the influence of different amounts of protein, fats and carbohydrate on satiety. Physiology and Behavior 43, 4553.Google Scholar
Rolls, BJ, Kim-Harris, S, Fischmann, MW, Foltin, RW, Moran, TH & Stoner, SA (1994) Satiety after preloads with different amounts of fat and carbohydrate: implications for obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 60, 476487.Google Scholar
Rolls, BJ, Pirraglia, PA, Jones, MB & Peters, JC (1992) Effects of olestra, a noncaloric fat substitute, on daily energy and fat intakes in lean men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 56, 8492.Google Scholar
Rolls, ET & Rolls, JH (1997) Olfactory sensory-specific satiety in humans. Physiology and Behavior 61, 461473.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rosen, LA, Booth, SR, Bender, ME, McGrath, ML, Sorrel, S & Drabman, R (1988) Effects of sugar (sucrose) on children's behavior. Journal of Consulting Clinical Psychology 56, 583589.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rosenthal, NE, Genhart, MJ, Caballero, B, Jacobsen, FM, Skwerer, RG, Coursey, RD, Rogers, S & Spring, BJ (1989) Psychobiological effects of carbohydrate- and protein-rich meals in patients with seasonal affective disorder and normal controls. Biological Psychiatry 25, 10291040.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rosenthal, NE & Hefferman, MM (1986) Bulimia, carbohydrate craving, and depression: a central connection. In Nutrition and the Brain, vol. 7, pp. 139166 [Wurtman, RJ and Wurtman, JJ, editors]. New York, NY: Raven Press.Google Scholar
Roshon, MS & Hagen, RL (1989) Sugar consumption, locomotion, task orientation, and learning in preschool children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 17, 349357.Google Scholar
Rumpler, WV, Rhodes, DG, Baer, DJ, Conway, JM & Seale, JL (1996) Energy value of moderate alcohol consumption by humans investigated. The effects of an equal-energetic substitution of ethanol for dietary carbohydrate in high-and low-fat diets on energy expenditure and body composition. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 64, 108114.Google Scholar
Saravis, S, Schachar, R, Zlotkin, S, Leiter, LA & Anderson, GH (1990) Aspartame: effects on learning, behaviour and mood. Paediatrics 86, 7580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schlundt, DG, Virts, KL, Sbrocco, T, Pope-Cordle, J & Hill, JO (1993) A sequential behavioral analysis of craving sweets in obese women. Addictive Behavior 18, 6780.Google Scholar
Schrauwen, LPAJ, van Marken Lichtenbelt, WD, Thimister, EJEM & Westerterp, KR (1995) Feeding subjects at energy balance in a respiration chamber. International Journal of Obesity 19, 82.Google Scholar
Schweiger, U, Laessle, RG, Kittl, S, Dickhaut, B, Schweiger, M & Pirke, KM (1986) Macronutrient intake, plasma large neutral amino acids and mood during weight-reducing diets. Journal of Neural Transplantation 67, 7783.Google Scholar
Shetty, PS, Prentice, AM, Goldberg, GR, Murgatroyd, PR, McKenna, APM, Stubbs, RJ & Volschenk, PA (1994) Alterations in fuel selection and voluntary food intake in response to iso-energetic manipulation of glycogen stores in man. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 60, 534543.Google Scholar
Silverman, K, Evans, SM, Strain, EC & Griffiths, RR (1992) Withdrawal syndrome after double-blind cessation of caffeine consumption. New England Journal of Medicine 327, 11091114.Google Scholar
Simeon, T & Grantham-McGregor, S (1989) Effects of missing breakfast on the cognitive functions of school children with differing nutritional status. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49, 646653.Google Scholar
Sjødin, A, Anderson, A, Hogberg, J & Westerterp, K (1994) Energy balance in cross country skiers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 26, 720724.Google Scholar
Smith, AP & Kendrick, AM (1992) Meals and performance. In Handbook of Human Performance, vol. 2, Health and Peformance, pp.223 [Smith, AP and Jones, DM, editors]. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Smith, A, Kendrick, A & Maben, AL (1992) Use and effects of food and drinks in relation to daily rhythms of mood and cognitive performance. Effects of caffeine, lunch and alcohol on human performance, mood and cardiovascular function. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 51, 325333.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, AP, Kendrick, A, Maben, A & Salmon, J (1994 a) Effects of breakfast and caffeine on cognitive performance, mood and cardiovascular functioning. Appetite 22, 3955.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, AP, Maben, A & Brockman, P (1994 b) Effects of evening meals and caffeine on cognitive performance, mood and cardiovascular functioning. Appetite 22, 5765.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, AP & Miles, C (1986 a) Effects of lunch on selective and sustained attention. Neuropsychobiology 16, 117120.Google Scholar
Smith, AP & Miles, C (1986 b) The effects of lunch on cognitive vigilance tasks. Ergonomics 29, 12511261.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, AF & Miles, C (1987) The combined effects of occupational health hazards: an experimental investigation of the effects of noise, nightwork and meals. Internal Archives of Occupational Environmental Health 59, 8389.Google Scholar
Smith, AP, Rusted, JM, Savory, M, Eaton-Williams, P & Hall, SR (1991) The effects of caffeine, impulsivity and time of day on performance, mood, and cardiovascular function. Journal of Psychophamcology 5, 120128.Google Scholar
Sonko, BJ, Prentice, AM, Murgatroyd, PR, Goldberg, GR, de Ven, MLHM & Coward, WA (1994) Effect of alcohol on post-meal fat storage. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59, 619625.Google Scholar
Spitzer, L & Rodin, J (1981) Human eating behavior: a critical review of studies in normal and overweight individuals. Appetite 2, 293329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spring, B, Chiodo, J & Bowen, DJ (1987) Carbohydrates, trypto-phan, and behavior: a methodological review. Psychological Bulletin 102, 234256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spring, B, Maller, O, Wurtman, J, Digman, L & Gozolino, L (1983) Effects of protein and carbohydrate meals on mood and performance: interactions with sex and age. Journal of Psychiatric Research 17, 155167.Google Scholar
Stavric, B (1988) Methylxanthines: toxicity to humans. 2. Caffeine. Food and Chemical Toxicology 26, 645662.Google Scholar
Steinberg, LA, O'Connell, NC, Hatch, TF, Picciano, MF & Birch, LL (1992) Tryptophan intake influences infants sleep latency. Journal of Nutrition 122, 17811791.Google Scholar
Stewart, MA (1970) Hyperactive children. Scientific American 222, 9499.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stubbs, RJ (1995) Macronutrient effects on appetite. International Journal of Obesity 19, S11–S19.Google Scholar
Stunkard, AJ & Messick, S (1985) The three factor eating questionnaire to measure dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 29, 7183.Google Scholar
Swanson, IM & Kinsboume, M (1980) Food dyes impair performance of hyperactive children on a laboratory learning test. Science 207, 14851487.Google Scholar
Tamerin, JS & Mendelson, JH (1969) The psychodynamics of chronic inebriation; observation of alcoholics during the process of drinking in an experimental group setting. American Journal of Psychiatry 125, 886889.Google Scholar
Teff, KL, Young, SN, Marchand, L & Botez, MI (1989) Acute effect of protein or carbohydrate breakfasts on human cerebrospinal fluid monoamine precursor and metabolite levels. Journal of Neurochemistry 52, 235241.Google Scholar
Thayer, RE (1987) Energy, tiredness, and tension effects of a sugar snack versus modest exercise. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 52, 119125.Google Scholar
Tournier, A & Louis-Sylvestre, J (1991) Effect of the physical state of a food on subsequent intake in human subjects. Appetite 16, 1724.Google Scholar
Tremblay, A & Saint-Pierre, S (1996) The hyperphagic effect of a high-fat diet and alcohol intake persists after control for energy density. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 63, 479482.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tuttle, WW, Daum, K, Imig, CJ, Randall, S & Schumacher, MT (1952) Effect of omitting breakfast on the physiologic response of the aged. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 28, 117120.Google Scholar
Tuttle, WW, Daum, K, Larsen, R, Salzano, J & Roloff, L (1954) Effect on schoolboys of omitting breakfast: physiologic responses, attitudes and scholastic attainments. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 30, 674677.Google Scholar
Tuttle, WW, Daum, K, Myers, L & Martin, C (1950) Effects of omitting breakfast on the physiologic response of men. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 26, 332335.Google Scholar
Vaisman, N, Voet, H, Akivis, A & Vakil, E (1996) Effect of breakfast timing on the cognitive functions of elementary school students. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 150, 10891092.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Verboeket van de Venne, WPHG & Westerterp, KR (1991) Influence of the feeding frequency on nutrient utilization in man: consequences for energy metabolism. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 45, 161169.Google Scholar
Walker, R (1995) The safety of light foods. In Light Foods, pp. 8794 [Leathwood, PD, Louis-Sylvestre, J and Mareschi, J-P, editors]. Brussels: ILSI Press.Google Scholar
Wallin, MS & Rissanen, AN (1994) Food and mood: relationship between food, serotonin, and affective disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 377, 3670.Google Scholar
Waterhouse, J, Minors, D, Atkinson, G & Benton, D (1997) Chronobiology and mealtimes: internal and external factors. British Journal of Nutrition 77, Suppl. 1, S29–S38.Google Scholar
Weiss, B, Williams, JH, Margen, S, Abrams, B, Caan, B, Citron, LJ, Cox, C, McKibben, J, Ogar, D & Schulz, S (1980) Behavioral responses to artificial food colors. Science 207, 14871489.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wells, AS & Read, NW (1996) Influences of fat, energy and time of day on mood and performance. Physiology and Behavior 59, 10691076.Google Scholar
Wender, EH & Solanto, MV (1991) Effects of sugar on aggressive and inattentive behaviour in children with attention deficit disorder upon identification of targets in a non-search task. Perceptual Psychophysiology 16, 143149.Google Scholar
Westerterp, KR, Donkers, HHLM, Fredrix, EWHM & Boekhoudt, P (1995) Energy intake, physical activity and body weight: a simulation model. British Journal of Nutrition 73, 337347.Google Scholar
Westerterp, KR, Verboeket van de Venne, WPHG, Meijer, GAL & ten Hoor, F (1992) Self reported intake as a measure for energy intake, a validation against doubly labelled water. In Obesity in Europe 91, pp. 1722 [Ailhaud, G, Guy-Grand, B, Lafontan, M and Ricquier, D, editors]. London: John Libbey.Google Scholar
Westerterp, KR, Verboeket-van de Venne, WPHG, Westerterp Plantenga, MS, Velthuis-te Wierik, EJM, de Graaf, C & Westrate, JA (1996) Dietary fat and body fat: an intervention study. International Journal of Obesity 20, 10221026.Google Scholar
Westerterp-Plantenga, MS, Ijedema, MJW & Wijckmans-Duijsens, NEG (1996 a) The role of macronutrient selection in determining patterns of food intake in obese and non-obese women. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50, 580591.Google ScholarPubMed
Westerterp-Plantenga, MS, Pasman, WJ, Ijedema, MJW & Wijckmans-Duijsens, NEG (1996 b) Energy intake adaptation of food intake to extreme energy densities of food by obese and non-obese women. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50, 401407.Google Scholar
Westerterp-Plantenga, MS, Wijckmans-Duijsens, NEG & ten Hoor, F (1994) Food intake in the daily environment after energy reduced lunch related to habitual meal frequency. Appetite 22, 173182.Google Scholar
Westerterp-Plantenga, MS, Wijckmans-Duijsens, NEG, ten Hoor, F & Weststrate, JA (1997 a) Effect of replacement of fat by non- absorbable fat (Sucrose Polyester) in meals or snacks as a function of dietary restraint. Physiology and Behavior 61, 939– 947.Google Scholar
Westerterp-Plantenga, MS, Wijckmans-Duijsens, NEG, Verboeket- van de Venne, WPHG, de Graaf, C, Weststrate JA & van het Hof, KH (1997 b) Diet-induced thermogenesis and satiety in humans, after full fat and reduced fat meals. Physiology and Behavior 61, 343349.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
World Health Organization (1987) Evaluation of Certain Food Additives and Contaminants. Technical Report Series no. 759. Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
Wolraich, M, Milich, R, Stumbo, P & Schutz, F (1985) Effects of sucrose ingestion on the behaviour of hyperactive boys. Journal of Pediatrics 106, 675682.Google Scholar
Wolraich, M, Stumbo, P, Milich, R, Chenard, C & Schultz, F (1986) Dietary characteristics of hyperactive and control boys and their behavioural correlates. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 86, 500—–504.Google Scholar
Wurtman, JJ (1984) The involvement of brain serotonin in excessive carbohydrate snacking by obese carbohydrate cravers. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 84, 10041007.Google Scholar
Wurtman, JJ, Brzezinski, A, Wurtman, RJ & Laferrere, B (1989) Effect of nutrient intake on premenstrual depression. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 161, 12281235.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wyon, DP, Abrahamsson, L, Järtelius, M & Fletcher, RJ (1997) An experimental study of the effects of energy intake at breakfast on the test performance of 10-year-old children in school. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 48, 512.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yamaguchi, S (1987) Fundamental properties of Umami in human taste perception. In Umami: A Basic Taste, pp.4173 [Kawamura, Y and Kare, MT, editors]. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
Yamaguchi, S (1991) Basic properties of Umami and effects on humans. Physiology and Behavior 49, 833841.Google Scholar
Young, SN (1991) Some effects of dietary components (amino acids, carbohydrate, folic acid) on brain serotonin synthesis, mood, and behaviour. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 69, 893903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Young, SN (1993) The use of diet and dietary compounds in the study of factors controlling affect in humans. Journal of Psychiatric Neuroscience 18, 235244.Google Scholar
Young, SN, Smith, SE, Pihl, RO & Ervin, FR (1985) Tryptophan depletion causes a rapid lowering of mood in normal males. Psychophannacology 87, 173177.Google Scholar