Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Functional food science and defence against reactive oxidative species

  • A. T. Diplock (a1), J.-L. Charuleux (a2), G. Crozier-Willi (a3), F. J. Kok (a4), C. Rice-Evans (a1), M. Roberfroid (a5), W. Stahl (a6) and J. Viña-Ribes (a7)...

This paper assesses critically the science base that underpins the argument that oxidative damage is a significant causative factor in the development of human diseases and that antioxidants are capable of preventing or ameliorating these disease processes. The assessment has been carried out under a number of headings, and some recommendations for future research are made based on the present day knowledge base.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Functional food science and defence against reactive oxidative species
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Functional food science and defence against reactive oxidative species
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Functional food science and defence against reactive oxidative species
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*fax +44 (0) 171403 7195, +44(0) 171 955 4521.
Hide All
Abdo KM, Rao G & Montgomery CA (1986) Thirteen week toxicity study of D–alpha-tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E) in Fischer 344 rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology 24, 1043– 1050.
Aeschbach R & Wille HJ (1993) Procédé d' extraction d' antioxydant d' origine végétale sous forme liquide (Procedure for extraction of antioxidants of vegetable origin in liquid form). European Patent 639336.
Akasaka K, Ohata A, Ohrui H & Meguro H (1995) Automatic determination of hydroperoxides of phosphatidycholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in human plasma. Journal of Chromatography B 665, 3743.
Albanes D & 22 others (1996) Alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplements and lung cancer incidence in the ATBC cancer prevention study: effects of baseline characteristics and study compliance. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 88, 1560– 1570.
Albanes D, Virtamo J, Rautalahti M, Haukka J, Palmgren J, Gref CG & Heinonen OP (1992) Serum β-carotene before and after β-carotene supplementation. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 46, 1524
Ambe KS & Tappel AL (1961) Oxidative damage to amino acids peptides and proteins by radiation. Journal of Food Science and Technology 26, 448451.
Ames BN (1989) Endogenous oxidative DNA damage, ageing and cancer. Free Radical Research Communications 7, 121128.
Anderson TW & Reid DB (1974) A double-blind trial of vitamin E in angina pectoris. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 27, 11741178.
Anonymous (1993) Production of light colored cloudy juice. Food Marketing and Technology, December issue, 2832.
Artz WE, Rao SK & Sauer RM (1992) Lipid oxidation in extruded products during storage as affected by extrusion temperature and selected antioxidants. In Food Extrusion Science and Technology, pp. 5597 [Kokini JL, Ho CT and Karwe MV editors]. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc.
ATBC: Alpha Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group (1994) The effect of vitamin E and beta;-carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. New England Journal of Medicine 330, 10291035.
Azen SP, Qian D, Mack WJ, Sevanlan A, Selzer RH, Liu Ch, Liu Ci & Hodis HN (1996) Effect of supplementary antioxidant vitamin intake on carotid arterial wall intima-media thickness in a controlled clinical trial of cholesterol lowering. Circulation 94, 23692372.
Azzi A, Boscoboinik DO, Marilley D, Ozer NK, Stauble B & Tasinato A (1995) Vitamin E : a sensor and an information transducer of the cell oxidation state. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62, 1337S1346S.
Babich H, Borenfreund E & Stern A (1993) Comparative cytotoxicities of selected minor dietary non-nutrients with chemopreventive properties. Cancer Letters 73, 127– 133.
Bagdon RE, Zbinden G & Studer A (1960) Chronic toxicity studies of β-carotene. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2, 225– 236.
Baruah P & Swain T (1959) The action of potato phenolase on flavonoid compounds. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 10, 125.
Beckman JS (1996) Oxidative damage and tyrosine nitration from peroxynitrite. Chemical Research in Toxicology 9, 836844.
Beckmann C, Roy RM & Sproule A (1982) Modification of radiation-induced sex-linked recessive lethal mutation fre– quency by tocopherol. Mutation Research 105, 7377.
Bendich A (1988) The safety of β-carotene. Nutrition and Cancer 11, 207214.
Bendich A (1990) Antioxidant nutrients and immune functions - introduction. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 262, 112.
Bendich A (1997) Vitamin C safety in humans. In Vitamin C in Health and Disease, pp. 367379 [ Packer L and Fuchs K, editors]. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker.
Bendich A & Langseth L (1995) The effects of vitamin C supplementation: a review. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 14, 124136.
Bendich A & Machlin LJ (1988) Safety of oral intake of vitamin E. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 48, 642649.
Bendich A & Machlin L (1993) The safety of oral intake of vitamin E: data from clinical studies from 1986 to 1991. In Vitamin E in Health and Disease, pp. 411417 [ Packer L and Fuchs K, editors]. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker.
Bendich A, Machlin LJ, Scandurra O, Burton GW & Wayner DDM (1986) The antioxidant role of vitamin C. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 2, 419444.
Berger L, Gerson CD & Yu TY (1977) The effect of ascorbic acid on uric acid excretion with a commentary on the renal handling of ascorbic acid. American Journal of Medicine 62, 7176.
Berliner JA & Heinecke JW (1996) The role of oxidized lipoproteins in atherogenesis. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 20, 707727.
Bertram JS & Bortkiewicz H (1995) Dietary carotenoids inhibit neoplastic transformation and modulate gene expression in mouse and human cells. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62, 1322S1326S.
Bierenbaum ML, Noonan FN, Machlin LJ, Machlin S, Stier A, Watson PB & Naso AM (1985) The effect of supplemental vitamin E on serum parameters in diabetics, postcoronary and normal subjects. Nutrition Reports International 31, 11711180.
Block G, Patterson B & Subar A (1992) Fruit, vegetables and cancer prevention: a review of the epidemiological evidence. Nutrition and Cancer 18, 129.
Bloeck M, Iseli-Winters S, Perren M, Escher F & Solms J (1986) Quality changes during storage of heat sterilized vegetables. In The Shelf Life of Beverages, pp. 393411 [ Charalambous G, editor]. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Blot WJ, Li JY, Taylor RR, Guo W, Dawsey S, Wang GQ, Yang CS, Zhrug SF, Gali M, Li GY, Liu BQ, Fangren J, Sum YH, Liu F, Fraument JF, Zhang YH & Li B (1993) Nutrition intervention trials in Linxian, China. Supplementation with specific vitamin and mineral combinations, cancer incidence and disease-specific mortality in the general population. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 85, 14831492.
Brown ED, Morris VM, Rhodes DG, Sinha R & Levander OA (1995) Urinary excretion of malondialdehyde in subjects fed meat cooked at high or low temperatures. Lipids 30, 10531056.
Brown JP (1988) Hydrolysis of glycosides and esters. In Role of the Gut Flora in Toxicity and Cancer, pp. 109144 [Rowlands IR, editor]. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Burk RF & Ludden TM (1989) Exhaled alkanes as indices of in vivo lipid peroxidation. Biochemistry and Pharmacology 38, 1029– 1032.
Cao G & Cutler RG (1995) Protein oxidation and ageing. Difficulties in measuring reactive protein carbonyls in tissues using 2,4–dinitrophenylhydrazine. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 320, 106114.
Cadet J, Ravanat JL, Buchko GW, Yeo H & Ames BN (1994) Singlet oxygen DNA damage: chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis of damage products. Methods in Enzymology 234, 7988.
Chirico S & Halliwell B (1994) High performance liquid chromatography-based TBA tests. Methods in Enzymology 233, 314318.
Chu YH & Lin JY (1993) Factors affecting the content of tocopherol in soyabean oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 70, 12631268.
Claycamp HG (1992) Phenol sensitization of DNA to subsequent oxidative damage in 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine assays. Carcinogenesis 13, 12891292.
Clifford MN (1996) Anthocyanins in foods. In Proceedings of the Symposium of Polyphenols and Anthocyanins as Food Colorants and Antioxidants, pp. 119 [Phannhauser W and Strigl A, editors]. Vienna: University of Vienna.
Cochrane HA (1965) Overnutrition in prenatal life: a problem? Canadian Medical Association Journal 93, 893899.
Cook JD, Watson SS, Simpson KH, Lipschitz DA & Skikne BS (1984) The effect of high ascorbic acid supplementation on body iron stores. Blood 64, 721726.
Corrigan JJ (1982) The effect of vitamin E on warfarin-induced vitamin K deficiency. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 393, 361368.
De Pee S & West CE (1996) Dietary carotenoids and their role in combating vitamin A deficiency: review of the literature. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50, Suppl 2, 237259.
Demole V (1939) Pharmakologisches über Vitamin E (Pharmacology of vitamin E). Internationale Zeitschrifi für Vitamin-forschung 8, 338341.
Dhanakoti SN & Draper HH (1987) Response of urinary malondialdehyde to factors that stimulate lipid peroxidation in vivo. Lipids 22, 643646.
Diplock AT (1985) Fat Soluble Vitamins: Their Biochemistry and Applications. London: Heinemann.
Diplock AT (1994) Antioxidants and disease prevention. In Molecular Aspects of Medicine, vol. 15, pp. 295376 [Baum H editor]. Oxford and New York: Pergamon Press.
Diplock AT (1995) Safety of antioxidant vitamins and β-carotene. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62, Suppl. 6, 1510s– 1516s.
Dizdaroglu M (1993 a) Chemistry of free radical damage to DNA and nucleoproteins. In DNA and Free Radicals, pp. 1939 [Halliwell B and Aruoma OJ, editors]. Chichester: Ellis Horwood.
Dizdaroglu M (1993 b) Quantitative determination of oxidative base damage to DNA by stable isotope-dilution mass spectrometry. FEBS Letters 315, 16.
Dysma HA & Park J (1975) Excess dietary vitamin E in rats. FASEB Journal 34, 912.
Eldin AK & Appelqvist LA (1996) The chemistry and antioxidant properties of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Lipids 32, 671701.
El-Sadaani M, Esterbauer H, El-Sayed M, Goher M, Nassar AY & Jurgens G (1989) A spectrophotometric assay for lipid peroxides in serum lipoproteins using a commercially available reagent. Journal of Lipid Research 30, 627630.
European Parliament and Council Directive (1994) European Parliament and Council Directive 94/36/EC on colours for use in foodstuffs. L239, 13–29.
Erdman JW, Bierer TL & Gugger ET (1993) Absorption and transport of carotenoids. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 691, 7685.
Ernst E & Matrai A (1985) Einfluss von α-Tocopherol (Vitamin E) auf die Fliesseigenschaft des Blutes (Influence of α-tocopherol (vitamin E) on blood flow characteristics). Therapiewoche 35, 57015702.
Esterbauer H, Gebicki J, Puhl H & Jurgens G (1992) The role of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in oxidative modification of LDL. Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine 13, 341390.
Farrell PM & Bieri JG (1975) Megavitamin E supplementation in man. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 28, 13811386.
Finnegan MTV, Herbert KE, Evans MD, Griffiths HR & Lunec J (1996) Evidence for sensitization of DNA to oxidative damage during isolation. Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine 20, 9398.
Floyd RA, Watson JJ, Wong PK, Altmiller DH & Rickard RC (1986) Hydroxy-free radical adduct of deoxyguanosine: sensitive detection and mechanisms of formation. Free Radical Research Communications 1, 163172.
Fridovich I (1986) Superoxide dismutases. Advances in Enzymology 58, 6197.
Fu S, Gebicki S, Jessup W, Gebicki J & Dean RT (1995) Biological fate of amino acid, peptide and protein hydroperoxides. Bio-chemical Journal 311, 821827.
Gale CR, Martyn CN, Winter PD & Cooper C (1995) Vitamin C and risk of death from stroke and coronary heart disease in a cohort of elderly people. British Medical Journal 310, 15631566.
Garewal H (1995) Antioxidants in oral cancer prevention. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62, Suppl.6, 1410S1416S.
Gaziano JM, Johnson EJ, Russell RM, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Ridker PM, Frei B, Henekens CH & Krinsky NI (1995) Discrimination in absorption or transport of β-carotene isomers after oral supplementation with either all-trans-or 9-cis-β-carotene. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 61, 1248– 1252.
Gebhart E, Wagner H, Grziwok K & Behnsen M (1985) The actions of anticlastogens in human lymphocyte cultures and their modification by rat liver S9 mix. Chapter II. Studies with vitamins C and E. Mutation Research 149, 8394.
Gerster H (1995) β-carotene, vitamin E and vitamin C in different stages of experimental carcinogenesis. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49, 155168.
Gillian RE, Mondell B & Warbasse JR (1977) Quantitative evaluation of vitamin E in the treatment of angina pectoris. American Heart Journal 93,444449.
Giovanucci E, Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA & Willett WC (1995) Intake of carotenoids and retinol in relation to risk of prostate cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 87, 17671776.
Giseg SP, Simpson JA, Charlton TS, Duncan MW & Dean RT (1993) Protein-bound, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine is a major reductant formed during hydroxyl radical damage to proteins. Biochemical Journal 32, 47804786.
Giulivi C & Davies KJA (1993) Dityrosine and tyrosine oxidation products are endogenous markers for the selective proteolysis of oxidatively modified red blood cell hemoglobin by (the 19s) proteasome. Journal of Biological Chemistry 268, 87528759.
Goodman GE, Metch BJ & Omenn GS (1994) The effect of long-term β-carotene and vitamin A administration on serum concentrations of α-tocopherol. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers Prevention 3, 429432.
Greenberg ER & The Polyp Prevention Study Group (1994) A clinical trial of antioxidant vitamins to prevent colorectal adenoma. New England Journal of Medicine 331, 141147.
Griffiths HR, Lunec J & Blake DR (1992) Oxygen radical induced fluorescence in proteins: identification of the fluorescent tryptophan metabolite, N-formylkynurenine, as a biological index of radical damage. Amino Acids 3, 183194.
Gugler RM, Leschik M & Dengler HJ (1975) Disposition of quercetin in man after single oral and intravenous doses. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 9, 229234.
Gutteridge JMC & Tickner TR (1978) The characterisation of thiobarbituric acid reactivity in human plasma and urine. Analytical Biochemistry 91, 250257.
Hackett AM (1986) The metabolism of flavonoid compounds in mammals. In Progress in Clinical and Biological Research, vol.213, pp. 177194 [ Cody VE, Middleton JR and Harbome HB, editors]. New York, NY: A.R. Liss.
Hackett AM, Griffiths LA, Broillet A & Wermeille M (1983) The metabolism and excretion of 1–(14C)-cyanidanol- in man following oral administration. Xenobiotica 13, 279286.
Haddad E, Blankenship JW & Register UD (1985) Short-term effect of a low-fat diet on plasma retinol and α-tocopherol and red cell α-tocopherol levels in hyperlipidemic men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 41, 599604.
Halliwell B (1995) Antioxidant characterization; methodology and mechanism. Biochemical Pharmacology 49, 13411348.
Halliwell B (1996) Oxidative stress, nutrition and health. Free Radical Research 25, 5774.
Halliwell B & Chirico S (1993) Lipid peroxidation: its mechanism, measurement and significance. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 57, 715S725S.
Halliwell B & Dizdaroglu M (1992) The measurement of oxidative damage to DNA by HPLC and GCNS techniques. Free Radical Research Communications 16, 7587.
Halliwell B & Gutteridge JMC (1989) Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine, 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Hamberg M & Zhang LY (1995) Quantitative determination of 8-hydroxyguanine and guanine by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Analytical Biochemistry 229, 336344.
Hanck A (1982) Tolerance and effects of high doses of ascorbic acid. Dosis facit venenum. International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research, Suppl. 23, 221238.
Harris G, Bashir S & Winyard PG (1994) 7,8-Dihydro-8-oxo2'-deoxyguanosine present in DNA is not simply an artefact of isolation. Carcinogenesis 15, 411413.
Hennekens CH, Buring JE, Manson JE, Stampfer M, Rosner B, Cook NR, Belanger C, LaMotte F, Gaziano JM, Ridker PM, Willett W & Peto R (1996) Lack of effect of long-term supplementation with β-carotene on the incidence of malignant neoplasms and cardiovascular disease. New England Journal of Medicine 334, 11451149.
Herbert KE, Evans MD, Finnegan MTV, Griffiths HR & Lunec J (1996) A novel HPLC procedure for the analysis of 8-oxoguanine in DNA. Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine 3, 467473.
Herbert V & Hacob E (1974) Destruction of vitamin B12 by ascorbic acid. Journal of the American Medical Association 230, 241242.
Hertog MGL (1994) Flavonols and flavones in foods and their relation with cancer and coronary heart disease risk. PhD Thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
Hertog MGL, Hollman PCH & van de Putte B (1993) Content of potentially anticarcinogenic flavonoids in tea infusions, wines and fruit juices. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 41, 12421246.
Heywood R, Palmer AK, Gregson RL & Hummler H (1985) The toxicity of 0-carotene. Toxicology 36, 91100.
Hirono I, Ueno I, Hosaka S, Takanashi H, Matshushima T, Sugimura T & Natori S (1981) Carcinogenicity examination of quercetin and nutin in ACI rats. Cancer Letters 13, 1521.
Holley AE & Slater TF (1991) Measurement of lipid hydroperoxides in normal human blood plasma using HPLC-chemiluminescence linked to a diode array detector for measuring conjugated dienes. Free Radical Research Communications 15, 5153.
Hollman PC, Vries JH, Leeuwen SD, Mengelers MJ & Katan MB (1995) Absorption of dietary quercetin glycosides and quercetin in healthy ileostomy volunteers. American Jour– nal of Clinical Nutrition 62, 12761282.
Hood RL (1995) Tocotrienols and cholesterol metabolism. In Nutrition, Lipids, Health and Disease, pp. 133137 [Ong ASH, Niki E and Packer L, editors]. Champaign, IL: AOCS Press.
Hook EB, Healey KM, Niles AM & Shalko RC (1974) Vitamin E: teratogen or anti–teratogen? Lancet, 809.
Inagaki Y, Kinoshita MO, Nakamura Y & Masuda YA (1978) Double-blind controlled study of the efficacy of DL-α-tocopherylnicotinate in patients with vascular disease. In Tocopherol, Oxygen and Biomembranes, pp. 339349 [DeDuve C and Hayashi O, editors]. Amsterdam and New York: Elsevier– North Holland Biomedical Press.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (1983) Quercetin. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans no.31, pp. 213229. Lyon: IARC.
Ito N (1992) Is quercetin carcinogenic? Japanese Journal of Cancer Research 83, 312313.
Ito N, Hagiwara A, Tamano S, Kagawa M, Shibata M, Kurata Y & Fukushima S (1989) Lack of carcinogenicity of quercetin in F344/ Du C j rats. Japanese Journal of Cancer Research 80, 317325.
Jacob RA & Bum BJ (1996) Oxidative damage and defense. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 63, 985S990S.
Jiang ZY, Woodland ACS & Wolff SP (1992) Lipid hydroperoxide measurement by oxidation of Fe2+ in the presence of xylenol orange. Comparison with the TBA assay and iodometric method. Lipids 26, 853857.
Jideani VAE (1992) Carotene retention in palm oil by mechanised and traditional processes. Journal of Food Science and Technology 29, 6869.
Kallner A, Hartmann D & Homig D (1979) Steady–state turnover and body pool of ascorbic acid in man. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 32, 530539.
Kanofsky JR (1989) Singlet oxygen production in biological systems. Chemical and Biological Interactions 70, 128.
Kappus H & Diplock AT (1992) Tolerance and safety of vitamin E: a toxicological position report. Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine 13, 5574.
Karam LS, Bertgold DS & Simic MG (1991) Biomarkers of OH radical damage in vivo. Free Radical Research Communications 12/13, 1116.
Katusin RB, Matic S, Razem D & Mihokovic V (1988) Radiation decontamination of tea herbs. Journal of Food Science and Technology 53, 11201126.
Kaugars GE, Silverman S, Lovas JG, Brandt RB, Riley WT, Dao C, Singh VN & Gallo J (1994) A clinical trial of antioxidant supplements in the treatment of oral leukoplakia. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology 78, 462468.
Keller J, Halmes NC, Hinson JA & Humford NR (1993) Immu– nochemical detection of oxidised proteins. Chemical Research in Toxicology 6, 430433.
Kennedy JF, Rivera ZS, Lloyd LL, Warner FP & Jumel K (1992) Ascorbic acid stability in aseptically processed orange juice in TetraBrik cartons and the effect of oxygen. Food Chemistry 45, 327331.
Kennedy TA & Liebler DC (1992) Peroxyl radical scavenging by 0-carotene in lipid bilayers. Journal of Biological Chemistry 267, 46584663.
Kim JM & White RH (1996) Effect of vitamin E on the anti– coagulant response to warfarin. American Journal of Cardiology 77, 545546.
Kiritsakis A (1990) Chemistry of olive oil. In Olive Oil, pp. 2555. Champaign, IL: American Oil Chemists Society.
Kitagawa M & Mino M (1989) Effects of elevated D-α- (RRR)-tocopherol dosage in man. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 35, 133142.
Klaui H & Pongracz G (1981) Ascorbic acid and its derivatives as antioxidants in oils and fats. In Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid), pp. 139– 166 [ Counsell JN and Hornig DH, editors]. London and New Jersey: Applied Science Publishers.
Kohlmeier L & Hastings SB (1995) Epidemiologic evidence of a role of carotenoids in cardiovascular disease prevention. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62, 1370S1376S.
Kondo T (1996) Parkinsons disease and free radicals. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 786, 206216.
Krasavage WJ & Terhaar CJ (1977) D-alpha-tocopheryl-polyethyleneglycol 1000 succinate. Acute toxicity, subchronic feeding, reproduction and teratologic studies in the rat. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 25, 273278.
Kritharides L, Jessup W, Gifford J & Dean RT (1994) A method for defining the stages of oxidation by the separation of cholesterol and cholesterol ester oxidation products using HPLC. Analytical Biochemistry 213, 7989.
Kuhnau J (1976) The flavonoids. A class of semi-essential food components: their role in human nutrition. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 24, 117191.
Kushi LH, Fulsom AR, Prineas RJ, Mink PJ, Wu Y & Bostick RM (1996) Dietary antioxidant vitamins and death from coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. New England Journal of Medicine 334, 11561162.
Labuza TP (1971) Kinetics of lipid oxidation in foods. CRC Critical Review of Food Technology, 355405.
Lachance PA (1996) Future vitamin and antioxidant RDAs for health promotion. Preventive Medicine 25, 4647.
Lagouri V & Boskou D (1996) International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 47, 493497.
Lakritz L & Thayer DW (1992) Effect of ionising radiation on unesterified tocopherols in fresh chicken breast muscle. Meat Science 32, 257265.
Lakritz L & Thayer DW (1994) Effect of gamma radiation on total tocopherols in fresh chicken breast muscle. Meat Science 37, 439448.
Landrum JT, Bone RA & Kilburn MD (1997) The macular pigment: a possible role in protection from age–related macular degeneration. Advances in Pharmacology 38, 537556.
Lee DS, Chung SK & Yam KL (1992) Carotenoid loss in dried red pepper products. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 27, 179185.
Levander OA & Burk RF (1996) Selenium. In Present Knowledge in Nutrition, pp. 320328 [Ziegler EE and Filer LJ, editors]. Washington, DC: ILSI Press.
Levander OA, Moms VC, Higgs DJ & Varma RN (1973) Nutritional relationships among vitamin E Selenium antioxidants and ethyl alcohol in the rat. Journal of Nutrition 103, 536542.
Levine M, Conry-Cantilena C, Wang Y, Welch RW, Washko PW, Dhariwal KR, Park JB, Lazarev A, Graumlich JF, King J & Cantilena LR (1996) Vitamin C pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers: evidence for a recommended dietary allowance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 93, 37043709.
Levine RL, Garland D, Oliver CN, Amici A, Climent I, Lenz AG, Ahn BW, Shaltiel S & Stadtman ER (1995) Determination of carbonyl content in oxidatively modified protein. Methods in Enzymology 186,464487.
Levine RL, Williams JA, Stadtman ER & Shacter E (1994) Carbonyl assay for determination of oxidatively modified proteins. Methods in Enzymology 233, 346357.
Loeliger J, Lambelet P, Aeschbach R & Prior E (1996) Natural antioxidants: from radical mechanisms to food stabilisation. In Food Lipids and Health, pp. 6877 [McDonald RE and Min DB, editors]. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker Inc.
Losonczy KG, Harris TB & Havlik RJ (1996) Vitamin E and vitamin C supplement use and risk of all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality in older persons: the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 64, 190196.
Luis A & Navab M (1993) Lipoprotein oxidation and gene expression in the artery wall. Biochemical Pharmacology 46, 21192126.
Lunec J, Herbert K, Blount S, Podmore ID & Griffiths HR (1994) 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine, marker of oxidative DNA damage in systemic lupus erythematosus. FEBS Letters 348, 131138.
Lyras L, Shaw PJ, Evans PJ & Halliwell B (1996) Oxidative damage and motor neurone disease. Difficulties in the measurement of protein carbonyls in human brain tissue. Free Radical Research 24, 399406.
McDonald I & Newell C (1996) Measuring Health. A Guide to Rating Scales and Questionnaires, 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
McLarty JW (1992) An intervention trial in high-risk asbestos-exposed persons. In The Biology and Prevention of Aerodigestive Tract Cancer, pp. 141149 [Newell GR and Hongs WK, editors]. New York, NY: Plenum Press Inc.
Malins DC & Haimonot R (1991) Major alterations in the nucleotide structure of DNA in cancer of the female breast. Cancer Research 51, 54305432.
Mangels AR, Block G, Frey CM, Patterson BH, Taylor PR, Norkus EP & Levander OA (1993 a) The bioavailability to humans of ascorbic acid from oranges, orange juice and cooked broccoli is similar to that of synthetic ascorbic acid. Journal of Nutrition 123, 10541061.
Mangels AR, Holden JM, Beecher GR, Forman R & Lanza E (1993 b) Carotenoid content of fruits and vegetables: an evaluation of analytic data. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 93, 284296.
Markus M, Prabhudesai M & Wassef S (1980) Stability of vitamin B12 in the presence of ascorbic acid in food and serum: restoration by cyanide of apparent loss. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 33, 137143.
Maskos Z, Rush JD & Koppenol WH (1992) The hydroxylation of tryptophan. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 296, 514– 520.
Matthews-Roth MM (1986) β-carotene therapy for erythropoietic protoporphyria and other photosensitivity diseases. Biochemie 68, 875884.
Melia AT, Kosstwardy SG & Zhi JG (1996) The effect of Orlistat, an inhibitor of dietary fat absorption on the absorption of vitamins A and E in healthy volunteers. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 36, 647653.
Meyer AS & Isaksen A (1995) Application of enzymes as food antioxidants. Trends in Food Science and Technology 6, 300– 304.
Mitch WE, Johnson MW, Kirshenbaum JM & Lopez RE (1981) Effect of large oral doses of ascorbic acid on uric acid excretion by normal subjects. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 29, 318321.
Mitchell GE, McLauchlin RL, Isaacs AR, Williams DJ & Nottingham SM (1992) Effect of low dose irradiation on composition of tropical fruits and vegetables. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 5, 29 13 11.
Mo JY, Maki H & Sekiguchi M (1992) Hydrolytic elimination of mutagenic nucleotide, 8-oxodGTP, by human 18-kilodalton protein, sanitization of nucleotide pool. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 89, 1102 111025.
Morrow JD, Frei B, Longmire AW, Gaziano JM, Lynch SM, Shys Y, Strauss WE, Oakes TA & Roberts LJ (1995) Increase in circulating products of lipid peroxidation (F2 isoprostanes) in smokers. New England Journal of Medicine 332, 11981203.
Morrow JD & Roberts LJ II (1994) Mass spectrometry of prostanoids: F2, isoprostanes produced by non-cyclooxygenase free radical-catalyzed mechanism. Methods in Enzymology 233, 163– 174.
Morrow JD & Roberts LJ (1996) The isoprostanes. Biochemical Pharmacology 51, l9.
Mortin JF (1989) Tannin as carcinogen in bush–tea: tea, mate and khat. In Chemistry and Significance of Condensed Tannins, pp. 403421 [Hemingway RW and Karchesy JJ, editors]. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
National Toxicological Program (1992) NTP Technical Report on the Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Quercetin in F344/N Rats. National Institutes of Health Publication no. 91. Washington, DC: National Institutes of Health.
Muldoon M & Kritchevsky SB (1996) Flavonoids and heart disease. British Medical Journal 312, 458459.
Newmark HL, Scheiner J, Markus M & Prabhudesai M (1976) Stability of vitamin B12 in the presence of ascorbic acid. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 29, 645649.
Nierenberg DW, Stukel TA, Mott LA & Greenberg ER (1994) Steady-state serum concentration of alpha tocopherol not altered by supplementation with oral beta carotene. The Polyp Prevention Study 1 Group. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 86, 117– 120.
Niki E (1987) Antioxidants in relation to lipid peroxidation. Chemistry and Physics of Lipids 44, 227253.
Niki E, Kawakami A, Yamamoto Y & Kamiya Y (1985) Oxidation of lipids: VIII. Synergistic inhibition of oxidation of phosphatidylcholine liposome in aqueous dispersion by vitamin E and vitamin C. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan 58, 19711975.
Niki E, Tsuchiya J, Tanimura R & Kamiya Y (1982) Regeneration of vitamin E from α-chromanoxyl radical by glutathione and vitamin C. Chemistry Letters 27, 789792.
Norkus EP & Rosso P (1975) Changes in the ascorbic acid metabolism of the offspring following high maternal intake of this vitamin in the pregnant guinea pig. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 258,401409.
Norkus EP & Rosso P (1981) Effects of maternal intake of ascorbic acid on the postnatal metabolism of this vitamin in the guinea pig. Journal of Nutrition 11, 624630.
Olson JA & Krinsky NI (1995) Introduction: the colorful fascinating world of carotenoids: important biological modulators. FEBS Letters 9, 15471550.
O'Leary V, Darley-Usmar V, Rusell L & Stone D (1992) Prooxidant effects of lipoxygenase-derived peroxides and antioxidants on the copper-initiated oxidation of low density lipoprotein. Biochemical Journal 282, 631634.
Office Life Sciences Research (1979) Evaluation of the health aspects of carotene (β-carotene) as a food ingredient. Federation of European Biochemistry and Societies ' Letters Bethesda Md, USA Contract Number (FDA) 223752004.
Olinski R, Zastawny T, Bubzbon J, Foksincki M, Barecki A & Dizdaroglu M (1992) DNA base modifications in chromatin of human cancerous tissues. FEBS Letters 309, 193198.
Oliver CN, Ahn BA & Moerman EJ (1987) Age related changes in oxidised proteins. Journal of Biological Chemistry 262, 5488– 5491.
Omenn GS, Goodman GE, Thornquist MD, Balmes J, Cullen MR, Glass A, Keogh JP, Meyskens FL, Valanis B, Williams JH, Bamhardt S & Hammar S (1996) Effects of combination of β-carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. New England Journal of Medicine 334, 11501155.
Onyewu PN (1985) Thermal degradation of beta carotene under simulated time and temperature conditions of various food processes. Dissertation Abstracts International B46, 716.
Oshima H, Freisen M, Brouet I & Bartsch H (1990) Nitrotyrosine as a new marker for endogenous nitrosation and nitration of proteins. Food and Chemical Toxicology 28, 647652.
Özer NK, Boscoboinik DO & Azzi A (1995) New roles of lipoproteins and vitamin E in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology International 35, 117124.
Packer L (1996) Nitric oxide. Part A: sources and detection of NO; NO synthase. Methods in Enzymology 268,331340.
Padula M & Rodriguez ADB (1987) Changes in individual carotenoids and vitamin C on processing and storage of guava juice. Acta Alimentaria 16, 209216.
Paganga G & Rice–Evans CA (1997) The identification of flavonoids as glycosides in human plasma. FEBS Letters
Palozza P & Krinsky NI (1992) Antioxidant effects of carotenoids in vivo and in vitro: an overview. Methods in Enzymology 268, 127136.
Parker RS (1989) Dietary and biochemical aspects of vitamin E. Advances in Food Nutrition and Research 33, 157232.
Patterson RLS & Stevenson MH (1995) Irradiation-induced off odour in chicken and its possible control. British Journal of Poultry Science 36, 425441.
Poor CL, Bierer TL, Merchen NR, Fahey GC & Erdman J (1993) The accumulation of a! and 0 carotene in serum and tissues of preruminant calves fed raw and steamed carrot slumes. Journal of Nutrition 123, 12961304.
Pothakamury UR & Barbaosa-Canovas GV (1995) Fundamental aspects of controlled release in foods. Trends in Food Science and Technology 6,397406.
Potter NN & Hotchkiss JH (1995) Food Science. New York, NY: Chapman and Hall.
Pryor WA, Squadrito GL & Friedman M (1995) The cascade mechanism to explain ozone toxicity: the role of lipid ozonation products. Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine 19, 935941.
Quackenbush FW (1987) Reverse phase HPLC separation of cisand trans-carotenoids and its application to 7beta;-carotenes in food materials. Journal of Liquid Chromatography 10, 643653.
Ranhota GS, Gelroth J, Langemeier A & Rogers DE (1995) Stability and contribution of beta carotene added to whole wheat bread and crackers. Cereal Chemistry 72, 139141.
Ravanat JL, Turesky RJH, Gremaud E, Trudel LJ & Stadler RH (1995) Determination of 8-oxoguanine in DNA by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and HPLC-electrochemical detection: overestimation of the background level of the oxidised base by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay. Chemical Research in Toxicology 8, 1039– 1045.
Reaven PD & Witztum JL (1996) Oxidized low density lipoproteins in atherogenesis: role of dietary modification. Annual Reviews in Nutrition 16, 5 171.
Rhead WA & Schrauzer GN (1971) Risks of long-term ascorbic acid overdosage. Nutrition Reviews 29, 262263.
Ribaya-Mercado JD, Ordovas JM & Russell RM (1995) Effect of β-carotene supplementation on the concentrations and distribution of carotenoids, vitamin E, A and cholesterol in plasma lipoprotein and non-lipoprotein fractions in healthy older women. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 14, 614– 620.
Rice-Evans C, Diplock AT & Symons MCR (1991) Techniques in Free Radical Research, pp. 143147. Amsterdam, London and New York: Elsevier.
Rice-Evans C, Leake D, Bruckdorfer KR & Diplock AT (1996) Practical approaches to low density lipoprotein oxidation: whys, wherefores and pitfalls. Free Radical Research 25, 285311.
Rice-Evans C & Miller NJ (1996) Antioxidant activities of flavonoids as bioactive components of food. Biochemical Society Transactions 24, 790795.
Rice-Evans C, Miller NJ, Bolwell PG, Bramley PM & Pridham JB (1995) The relative antioxidant activity of plant–derived polyphenolic flavonoids. Free Radical Research 22, 375383.
Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Ascherio A, Giovannucci E, Colditz GA & Willett WC (1993) Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease in men. New England Journal of Medicine 328, 14501456.
Rivers JM (1989) Safety of high-level vitamin C ingestion. International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research 30, Suppl., 95102.
Rock CL, Jacob RA & Bowen PE (1996) Update on the biological characteristics of the antioxidant micronutrients: vitamin C, vitamin E, the carotenoids. Journal of the American Dietetics Association 96, 693702.
Rodriguez MS & Irwin MI (1972) A conspectus of research on vitamin A requirements in man. Journal of Nutrition 102, 909968.
Rommel A & Wrolstad RE (1993 a) Ellagic acid content of red raspberry juice as influenced by cultivar, processing and environmental factors. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 41, 19511960.
Rommel A & Wrolstad RE (1993 b) Composition of flavonols in red raspbeny juice as influenced by cultivar, processing and environmental factors. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chem– istry 41, 19411950.
Rowland I (1993) Dietary modification of the activity of food mutagens. Mutagenesis 8, 476.
Sahu SC (1992) Effect of ascorbic acid and curcumin on quercetin induced nuclear DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and protein degradation. Cancer Letters 83, 237241.
Sahu SC & Gray GC (1993) Interaction of flavonoids, trace metals and oxygen. Nuclear damage and lipid peroxidation induced by myricetin. Cancer Letters 70, 7379.
Sahu SC & Gray GC (1994) Kaempferol-induced nuclear DNA damage and lipid peroxidation. Cancer Letters 85, 159164.
Sakumi K, Furuichi M, Tsuzuki T & Kakuma T (1993) Cloning and expression of cDNA for a human enzyme that hydrolyzes 8-oxo-dGTP, a mutagenic substrate for DNA synthesis. Journal of Biological Chemistry 268, 2352423530.
Sandmeier D (1996) Prooxidative Effekte von Gewürzen unter Lichteinfluss (Prooxidative effects on spices under the influence of light). Fett/Lipid 98, 199202.
Sarkkinen ES, Uusitupa MI, Nyyssonen K, Parviainen M, Pentitila I & Salonen J (1993) Effects of two low-fat diets, high and low in polyunsaturated fatty acids, on plasma lipid peroxides and serum vitamin E levels in free-living hypercholesterolaemic men. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 47, 623630.
Schalch W (1992) Carotenoids in the retina - a review of their possible role in preventing or limiting change caused by light and oxygen. In Free Radicals and Ageing, pp. 280289 [Emerit I and Chance B, editors]. Basel: Birkhauser Verlag.
Schmidt KH, Hagmaier V, Homig DH, Vuilleumier JP & Rutishauser G (1981) Urinary oxalate excretion after large intakes of ascorbic acid in man. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 34, 305311.
Schreck R & Baeuerle PA (1994) Assessing oxygen radicals as mediators in activation of inducible eukariotic transcription factor NF-κB. Methods in Enzymology 234, 151163.
Seddon JM, Ajani UA, Sperduto RD, Hiller R, Blair N, Burton TC, Farber MD, Gragoudas ES, Haller J, Miller DT, Yannuuzzi LA & Willett WC (1994 a) Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E, advanced age-related macular degeneration. Journal of the American Medical Association 272, 1413– 1420.
Seddon JM, Christen WG, Manson JE, LaMotte FS, Glynn RJ, Buring JE & Hennekens CH (1994 b) The use of vitamin supplements and the risk of cataract among US male physicians. American Journal Public Health 84, 788792.
Sen CK & Packer L (1996) Antioxidant and redox regulation of gene transcription. FEBS Letters 10, 709720.
Shamberger RJ, Corlett CL, Beaman KD & Kasten BL (1979) Antioxidants reduce the mutagenic effect of malonaldehyde and β-propiolactone. Part IX. Antioxidants and cancer. Mutation Research 66, 349355.
Sharoni Y & Levi J (1996) Anticarcinogenic properties of lycopene. In Natural Antioxidants and Food Quality in Athero– sclerosis and Cancer Prevention, pp. 378385 [ Kumpulainen JT and Salonen J, editors]. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.
Shigenaga MK, Aboujaoude EN, Chen Q & Ames BN (1994) Assays of oxidative DNA damage biomarkers. Methods in Enzymology 234, 1633.
Sian NK & Soleha I (1991) Carotenoid and anthocyanin contents of papaya and pineapple: influence of blanching and predrying treatments. Food Chemistry 39, 175– 185.
Sies H (1991) Oxidative stress: from basic research to clinical application. American Journal of Medicine 91, 31S39S.
Sies H (1993) Strategies of antioxidant defence. European Journal of Biochemistry 215, 213219.
Sies H (1997) Antioxidants in Disease Mechanisms and Therapy. London: Academic Press.
Sies H & Stahl W (1995) Vitamins E and C, β-carotene, and other carotenoids as antioxidants. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62, 1315S1321S.
Simonian NA & Coyle JT (1996) Oxidative stress in neurodegen– erative diseases. Annual Reviews of Pharmacology and Toxicol– ogy 36, 83106.
Singleton VL & Kratzer FH (1989) Toxicity and related physiological activity of phenolic substances of plant origin. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 17, 497512.
Sokol RJ (1996)Vitamin E. In Present Knowledge in Nutrition, pp. 130136 [Ziegler EE and Filer LJ, editors]. Washington, DC: ILSI Press.
Spanos GA & Wrolstad RE (1990) Influence of processing and storage on the phenolic compositions of Thompson seedless grape juice. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 38, 565571.
Spilker B (1996) Quality of Life and Phamacoeconomics in Clinical Trials, 2nd ed. London: Lippincott Raven.
Springfield JR & Levitt MD (1994) Pitfalls in the use of breath pentane measurements to assess lipid peroxidation. Journal of Lipid Research 35, 14971504.
Stahl W & Sies H (1992) Uptake of lycopene and its geometrical isomers is greater from heat processed than from unprocessed tomato juice in humans. Journal of Nutrition 122, 21612166.
Stahl W & Sies H (1993) Physical quenching of singlet-oxygen and cis-trans isomerization of carotenoids. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 691, 1019.
Stampfer MJ, Hennekens CH, Manson JE, Colditz GA, Rosner B & Willett WC (1993) Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary disease in women. New England Journal of Medicine 328, 14441449.
Stampfer MJ, Willett W, Castelli WP, Taylor JO, Fine J & Hennekens VCH (1983) Effect of vitamin E on lipids. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79, 714716.
Stavric B (1994) Quercetin in our diet: from potent mutagen to probable anticarcinogen. Clinical Biochemistry 27, 245248.
Stavric B, Mutula TI, Klassen R & Downie RH (1990) Inhibitory effect of flavonoids against mutagenic and carcinogenic xeno– biotics in foods. In Flavonoids in Biology and Medicine. III Current Issues in Flavonoid Research, pp. 515529 [ Das NP, editor]. Singapore: National University of Singapore.
Steinberg D (1993) Antioxidant vitamins and coronary heart disease (editorial; comment). New England Journal of Medicine 328, 14871489.
Steinmetz A & Potter JD (1991) Review: vegetables, fruit, and cancer. 1. Epidemiology. Cancer Causes and Control 2, 325357.
Stephens NG, Parsons A, Schofield PM, Kelly F, Cheeseman K & Mitchinson MJ (1996) Randomised controlled trial of vitamin E in patients with coronary disease: Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study (CHAOS). Lancet 347, 781786.
Stillwell WG, Xu HX, Adkins JA, Cramp FT & Jenski LJ (1989) Analysis of methylated and oxidised purines in urine by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Chemical Research in Toxicology 2, 9499.
Stocker R, Boewry V & Frei B (1991) Ubiquinol-10 protects human low density lipoprotein more efficiently against lipid peroxida– tion than does alpha tocopherol. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 88, 16461650.
Street DA, Comstock GW, Salkeld RM, Schuep W & Klag MJ (1994) Serum antioxidants and myocardial infarction. Are low levels of carotenoids and α-tocopherol risk factors for myocar– dial infarction? Circulation 90, 1154– 1161.
Sugimura T, Nagao M, Matshushima T, Yahagi T, Selno Y, Shiral A, Sawamura M, Natori S, Yoshihira K, Fukuoka M & Kuroyanagi M (1977) Mutagenicity of flavone derivatives. Pro– ceedings of the Japanese Academy of Science B 853, 194197.
Sweeney JP & Marsh AC (1974) Liver storage of vitamin A by rats fed carrots in various forms. Journal of Nutrition 104, 115120.
Takamatsu S, Takamatsu M, Satoh K, Imaizumi T, Yoshida H, Hiramoto M, Koyama M, Ohgushi Y & Mizuno S (1995) Effects on health of dietary supplementation with 100mg d-alpha- tocopheryl acetate daily for 6 years. Journal of International Medical Research 23, 342357.
Taylor A (1993) Cataract: relationship between nutrition and oxidation. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 12, 138146.
Taylor-Mayne S (1996) β-carotene, carotenoids, and disease prevention in humans. FASEB Journal 10, 690701.
Ternes W, Gronemeyer M & Schwartz K (1995) Determination of pcymene-2,3-diol, thymol, and carvacrol in different foodstuffs. Zeitschrift Lebensmittel Unterschri' Forschungen 201, 544547.
Thomas SM, Jessup W, Gebicki JM & Dean RT (1989) A continuous-flow automated assay of iodometric estimation of hydroperoxides. Analytical Biochemistry 176, 353359.
Timberlake CF (1988) The biological properties of anthocyanins. National Quarterly Information Bulletin, 415.
Traber MG & Sies H (1996) Vitamin E in humans: demand and delivery. Annual Reviews of Nutrition 16, 321347.
Trägardh G (1995) New developments in membrane processing. In Food Processing: Recent Developments, pp. 231237 [Gaonkar AG, editor]. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science BV.
Truscott TG (1990) The photophysics and photochemistry of the carotenoids. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology 6, 359371.
Tsai AC, Kelly JJ, Peng B & Cook N (1978) Study on the effect of megavitamin supplementation in man. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 31, 831838.
Tsuda T, Mizuno K & Ohshima K, Kawakishi S & Osawa T (1995) Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of antioxidative components from tamarind (Tamarindus indica L) seed coat. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 43, 28032806.
Turk PW & Weitzman SA (1995) Free radical DNA adduct, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine affects activity of HPAII and MSPI restriction endonucleases. Free Radical Research 23, 255258.
Uchida K & Kawakishi S (1993) 2-Oxo-histidine as a novel biological marker for oxidatively modified proteins. FEBS LRtters 332, 208210.
Uchida K & Kawakishi S (1994) Identification of oxidised histidine generated at the active site of Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase exposed to H2O2. Journal of Biological Chemistry 269, 24052410.
Unilever(1995) Diet and Health News, vol. 1. Vlardingen: Uni lever Research Laboratories.
van Poppel G & Goldbohm RA (1995) Epidemiologic evidence for β-carotene and cancer prevention. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62, Suppl., 1393S1402S.
van Poppel G, Kardinaal A, Princen H & Kok FJ (1994) Antioxidants and coronary heart disease. Annals of Medicine 26, 429434.
Velthuis-te Wierik EJ, Van den Berg H, Weststrate JA, Van het Hof KH & deGraaf C (1996) Consumption of reduced-fat products: effects on parameters of antioxidative capacity. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50, 214219.
Wandzilak TR, D'Andre SD, Davis PA & Williams HE (1994) Effect of high dose vitamin C on urinary oxalate levels. Journal of Urology 151, 834837.
Wang XD (1994) Review: absorption and metabolism of p-carotene. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 13, 314325.
Wang Z, Ciabattoni G & Creminon C (1995) Immunological characterization of urinary 8–epi-prostaglandin F2a excretion in man. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 275, 94100.
Weber P, Bendich A & Schalch W (1996) Vitamin C and human health - a review of recent data relevant to human requirements. International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research 66, 1930.
Weissberger LH & Harris PL (1943) Effect of tocopherols on phosphorus metabolism. Journal of Biological Chemistry 151, 543551.
Weldon GH, Bhatt A, Keller P & Hummler H (1983) dl-α-Tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E): a long-term toxicity and carcinogenicity study in rats. International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research 53, 287296.
Wells-Knecht MC, Huggins TG, Dyer DG, Thorpe SR & Baynes JW (1993) Oxidised amino acids in lens proteins with age. Measurement of o–tyrosine and dityrosine in the ageing human lens. Journal of Biological Chemistry 268, 12348– 12352.
Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Underwood BA, Taylor JO & Hennekens CH (1983) Vitamins A, E and carotene: effect of supplementation on their plasma levels. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 38, 559566.
Wiseman H & Halliwell B (1996) Damage to DNA by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species: role in inflammatory disease and progression to cancer. Biochemical Journal 313, 1729.
Wolff SP (1994) Ferrous ion oxidation in the presence of the ferricion indicator xylenol orange for measurement of hydroperoxides. Methods in Enzymology 233, 182189.
World Health Organization (1982) Anthocyanins. Toxicological Evaluation of Certain Food Additives. Technical Report Series no. 17, pp. 4249. Geneva: WHO.
Xu MJ, Plezia PM, Alberts DS, Emerson SS, Peng YM, Sayers SM, Liu Y, Ritenbaugh C & Gensler HL (1992) Reduction in plasma or skin α- tocopherol concentration with long-term oral administration of β-carotene in humans and mice. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 84, 15591565.
Yamamoto Y (1994) Chemiluminescence-based high performance liquid chromatography assay of lipid hydroperoxides. Methods in Enzymology 233, 319324.
Yamana T, Nakatani H, Kiknoka B, Matsumoto H, Iwata Y, Kitao Y, Oya K & Takahashi T (1996) Inhibitory effects and toxicity of green tea polyphenols for gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. Cancer 8, 16621667.
Yang NY & Desai ID (1977) Effect of high levels of dietary vitamin E on hematological indices and biochemical parameters in rats. Journal of Nutrition 107, 14101417.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 989 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1155 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.