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Functional food science and gastrointestinal physiology and function

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 March 2007

S. Salminen
Affiliation:
Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, University of Turku, SF-20500 Turku, Finland
C. Bouley
Affiliation:
Groupe Danone, 15, Av. Galilée, F-92350 Le Plessis-Robinson, France
M.-C. Boutron
Affiliation:
U290 INSERM, Hôspital St Lazare, 107, rue du Faubourg Saint-Denis, F-75010 Paris, France
J. H. Cummings
Affiliation:
Dunn Clinical Nutrition Centre, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2DH, UK
A. Franck
Affiliation:
Raffinerie Tirlernontoise - ORAFTI, Aandorenstraat I, B-3300 Tienen, Belgium
G. R. Gibson
Affiliation:
Institute of Food Research, Reading Laboratory, Earley Gate, Reading RG6 6BZ, UK
E. Isolauri
Affiliation:
University of Tampere Medical School, PO Box 607, SF-33101 Tampere, Finland
M.-C. Moreau
Affiliation:
INRA - Unité d'Ecologie et de Physiologie du Systèrne Digestif, Bâitirnent 440 R-2, Domaine de Vilvert, F- 78352 Jouy-en-Josas Cedex, France
M. Roberfroid
Affiliation:
UCL, Ecole de Pharmacie, Tour Van Helmont, Avenue E. Mounier, 73, B-1200 Brussels, Belgium
I. Rowland
Affiliation:
University of Ulster, Coleraine BT52 ISA, UK
Corresponding
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Abstract

The gut is an obvious target for the development of functional foods, acting as it does as the interface between diet and the metabolic events which sustain life. The key processes in digestive physiology which can be regulated by modifying diet are satiety, the rate and extent of macronutrient breakdown and absorption from the small bowel, sterol metabolism, the colonic microflora, fermentation, mucosal function and bowel habit, and the gut immune system. The intestinal microflora is the main focus of many current functional foods. Probiotics are foods which contain live bacteria which are beneficial to health whilst prebiotics, such as certain non-digestible oligosaccharides which selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria in the colon, are already on the market. Their claimed benefits are to alleviate lactose maldigestion, increase resistance to invasion by pathogenic species of bacteria in the gut, stimulate the immune system and possibly protect against cancer. There are very few reports of well-designed human intervention studies with prebiotics as yet. Certain probiotic species have been shown to shorten the duration of rotavirus diarrhoea in children but much more work is needed on the mechanism of immunomodulation and of competitive exclusion and microflora modification. The develop-ment of functional foods for the gut is in its infancy and will be successful only if more fundamental research is done on digestive physiology, the gut microflora, immune system and mucosal function.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Nutrition Society 1998

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