Skip to main content

Functional food science and gastrointestinal physiology and function

  • S. Salminen (a1), C. Bouley (a2), M.-C. Boutron (a3), J. H. Cummings (a4), A. Franck (a5), G. R. Gibson (a6), E. Isolauri (a7), M.-C. Moreau (a8), M. Roberfroid (a9) and I. Rowland (a10)...

The gut is an obvious target for the development of functional foods, acting as it does as the interface between diet and the metabolic events which sustain life. The key processes in digestive physiology which can be regulated by modifying diet are satiety, the rate and extent of macronutrient breakdown and absorption from the small bowel, sterol metabolism, the colonic microflora, fermentation, mucosal function and bowel habit, and the gut immune system. The intestinal microflora is the main focus of many current functional foods. Probiotics are foods which contain live bacteria which are beneficial to health whilst prebiotics, such as certain non-digestible oligosaccharides which selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria in the colon, are already on the market. Their claimed benefits are to alleviate lactose maldigestion, increase resistance to invasion by pathogenic species of bacteria in the gut, stimulate the immune system and possibly protect against cancer. There are very few reports of well-designed human intervention studies with prebiotics as yet. Certain probiotic species have been shown to shorten the duration of rotavirus diarrhoea in children but much more work is needed on the mechanism of immunomodulation and of competitive exclusion and microflora modification. The develop-ment of functional foods for the gut is in its infancy and will be successful only if more fundamental research is done on digestive physiology, the gut microflora, immune system and mucosal function.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Functional food science and gastrointestinal physiology and function
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Functional food science and gastrointestinal physiology and function
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Functional food science and gastrointestinal physiology and function
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr J. H. Cummings, fax +44 (0)1223 413763, email
Hide All
Adams MR & Marteau P (1995) On the safety of lactic acid bacteria from food. International Journal of Food Microbiology 27, 262264.
Aguirre M & Collins MD (1993) Lactic acid bacteria and human clinical infection. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 75, 95107.
Alander M, Korpela R, Saxelin M, Vilpponon-Salmila T, Mattila-Sandholm T & von Wright A (1996) Recovery of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG from human colonic biopsies. Letters in Applied Microbiology 24, 361364.
Ansari B, Coates PJ, Greenstein B & Hall PA (1993) In situ end labelling (ISEL) detects DNA strand breaks in apoptosis and in other physiological and pathological states. Journal of Pathology 170, 18.
Aso Y & Akazan H (1992) Prophylactic effect of Lactobacillus casei preparation on the recurrence of superficial bladder cancer. Urology International 49, 125129.
Aso Y, Akazan H, Kotake T, Tsukamoto T, Imai K & Naito S (1995) Preventive effect of a Lactobacillus casei preparation on the recurrence of superficial bladder cancer in a double blind trial. European Journal of Urology 27, 104109.
Awad A, Horvath PJ & Anderson MS (1991) Influence of butyrate on lipid metabolism, survival, and differentiation Of colon cancer cells. Nutrition and Cancer 16, 125133.
Ballongue J, Schumann C & Quignon P (1997) Effects of lactulose and lactitol on colonic microflora and enzymatic activity. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 32, Suppl. 222, 4144.
Bedenne L, Faivre J, Boutron MC, Piard F, Cauvin JM & Hillon P (1992) Adenoma-carcinoma sequence or 'de novo' carcinogenesis? A study of adenomatous remnants in a population-based series of large bowel cancers. Cancer 69, 883888.
Benlounes N, Dupont C, Candahl C, Blaton MA, Desjeux JF & Heyman M (1996) The threshold for immune cell reactivity to milk antigens decreases in cow's milk allergy with intestinal symptoms. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 98, 781789.
Benno Y, He F, Hosoda M, Hashimoto H, Kojima T, Yamazaki K, Iino H, Mykkänen H & Salminen S (1996) Effects of Lactobacillus GG yogurt on human intestinal microecology in Japanese subjects. Nutrition Today 31, 911.
Biewenga J, Rees EP & Sminia T (1993) Induction and regulation of IgA responses in the microenvironment of the gut. Short analytical review. Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology 67, 17.
Binder HJ, Cummings JH & Soergel KH (editors) (1994) Falk Symposium 73. Short Chain Fatty Acids. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.
Boffa LC, Lupton JR, Mariani MR, Ceppi M, Newmark HL, Scalmati A & Lipkin M (1992) Modulation of colonic epithelial cell proliferation, histone acetylation, and luminal short chain fatty acids by variation of dietary fiber (wheat bran) in rats. Cancer Research 52, 59065912.
Boland CR, Martin MA & Goldstein IJ (1992) Lectin reactivities as intermediate biomarkers in premalignant colorectal epithelium. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 16G, 103109.
Bostick RM, Potter JD, McKenzie DR, Sellers TA, Kushi LH, Steinmetz KA & Folsom AR (1993) Reduced risk of colon cancer with high intake of vitamin E: the Iowa women's health study. American Journal of Epidemiology 137, 13021317.
Boutron MC & Faivre J (1993) Diet and the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. European Journal of Cancer Prevention 2, 9598.
Boutron MC, Faivre J, Marteau P, Couillaut C, Senesse P & Quipourt V (1996) Calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D, products and colorectal carcinogenesis: a French case-control study. British Journal of Cancer 74, 145151.
Brandtzaeg P (1995) Molecular and cellular aspects of the secretory immunoglobulin system. Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica 103, 119.
Brandtzaeg P, Halstensen TS, Kett K, Krajci P, Kvale D, Rognum TO, Scott H & Sollid LM (1989) Immunobiology and immuno-pathology of human gut mucosa: humoral immunity and intraepithelial lymphocytes. Gastroenterology 97, 15621584.
Bry L, Falk PG, Midtvedt T & Gordon J (1996) A model for host-microbial interactions in an open mammalian ecosystem. Science 273, 13801383.
Bugaut M & Bentejac M (1993) Biological effects of short-chain fatty acids in nonruminant mammals. Annual Review of Nutrition 13, 217241.
Burkitt DP (1971) Epidemiology of cancer of the colon and rectum. Cancer 28, 313.
Cheng BQ, Trimble RP, Illman RJ, Stone BA & Topping DL (1987) Comparative effects of dietary wheat bran and its morphological components (aleurone and pericarp seed coat) on volatile fatty acid concentrations in the rat. British Journal of Nutrition 57, 6976.
Clinton SK (1992) Dietary protein and carcinogenesis. In Nutrition, Toxicity and Cancer, pp. 455479 [Rowland IR, editor]. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Collins MD & Gibson GR (1998) Nutritional modulation of microbial ecology. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (In the Press).
Coussement P (1996) Pre- and synbiotics with inulin and oligo-fructose. Food Technology in Europe, 12 1995/01 1996 issue, 102104.
Cummings JH (1993) The effect of dietary fiber on faecal weight and composition. In CRC Handbook of Dietary Fiber in Human Nutrition, pp. 263349 [Spiller GA, editor]. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Cummings JH (1994) Non-starch polysaccharides (dietary fibre) including bulk laxatives in constipation. In Constipation, pp. 307314 [Kamm MA and Lennard-Jones JE, editors]. Petersfield: Wrightson Biomedical Publishing Ltd.
Cummings IH (1995) Short chain fatty acids. In Human Colonic Bacteria: Role in Nutrition, Physiology and Pathology, pp. 101130 [Gibson GR and Macfarlane GT, editors]. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Cummings JH (1997) The Large Intestine in Nutrition and Disease. Danone Chair Monograph, pp. 1155. Brussels: Institut Danone.
Cummings JH, Bingham SA, Heaton KW & Eastwood MA (1992) Faecal weight, colon cancer risk and dietary intake of non-starch polysaccharides (dietary fiber). Gastroenterology 103, 17831789.
Cummings JH & Englyst HN (1987) Fermentation in the large intestine and the available substrates. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 45, 12431255.
Cummings JH, Gibson GR & Macfarlane GT (1989) Qualitative estimates of fermentation in the hind gut of man. Acta Veterinaria Scandanavica Suppl. 86, 7682.
Cummings JH, Pomare EW, Branch WJ, Naylor CPE & Macfarlane GT (1987) Short chain fatty acids in human large intestine, portal, hepatic and venous blood. Gut 28, 12211227.
Cummings JH, Roberfroid MB, Anderson H, Barth C, Ferro-Luzzi A, Ghoos Y, Gibney M, Hermonsen K, James WPT, Korver O, Lairon D, Pascal G & Voragen AGS (1997) A new look at dietary carbohydrate: chemistry, physiology and health. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51, 417423.
Cummings JH, Rombeau JL & Sakata T (editors) (1995) Physiological and Clinical Aspects of Short Chain Fatty Acids. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
De Simone C, Vesely R, Bianchi Salvadori B & Jirillo E (1993) The role of probiotics in modulation of the immune system in man and animals. International Journal of Immunotherapy 9, 2328.
Donohue DC & Salminen S (1996) Safety of probiotic bacteria. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 5, 2528.
Duchmann R, Kaiser I, Hermann E, Mayet W, Ewe K & Meyer zum Büschenfelde KH (1995) Tolerance exists towards resident intestinal flora but is broken in active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Clinical and Experimental Immunology 102, 448455.
Ducluzeau R (1993) Installation, équilibre et rôle de la flore microbienne du nouveau-né (Development, balance and role of the microbial flora of the newborn). Annales Pédiatriques (Paris) 40, 1322.
Faivre J, Boutron MC, Hillon P, Bedenne L & Klepping C (1985) Epidemiology of colorectal cancer. In Diet and Human Carcinogenesis, pp. 123135 [Joosens JV, Hill MJ and Geboers J, editors]. Amsterdam: Elsevier Scientific Publishers.
Fargeas MJ, Theodorou V, More J, Wal JM, Fioramonti J & Bueno L (1995) Boosted systemic immune and local responsiveness after intestinal inflammation in orally sensitized guinea pigs. Gastroenterology 109, 5362.
Frankel WL, Zhang W, Singh A, Klurfeld DM, Don S, Sakata T, Modlin I & Rombeau JL (1994) Mediation of the trophic effects of short-chain fatty acids on the rat jejunum and colon. Gastroenterology 106, 375380.
Fuller R (1991) Probiotics in human medicine. Gut 32, 439442.
Fuller R (editor) (1992) Probiotics. The Scientific Basis. London: Chapman and Hall.
Gaboriau-Routhiau V & Moreau MC (1996) Gut flora allows recovery of oral tolerance to ovalbumin in mice after transient breakdown mediated by cholera toxin or Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin. Pediatrics Research 39, 625629.
Gasser F (1994) Safety of lactic acid bacteria and their occurrence in human clinical infections. Bulletin Institut Pasteur 92,4567.
Gibson GR, Beatty ER, Wang X & Cummings JH (1995) Selective stimulation of bifidobacteria in the human colon by oligofructose and inulin. Gastroenterology 108, 975982.
Gibson GR & Macfarlane GT (editors) (1995) Human Colonic Bacteria: Role in Nutrition, Physiology and Pathology. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Gibson GR & Roberfroid MB (1995) Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics. Journal of Nutrition 125, 14011412.
Gibson PR, Moeller I, Kagelari O, Folino M & Young GP (1992) Contrasting effects of butyrate on the expression of phenotypic markers of differentiation in neoplastic and non-neoplastic colonic epithelial cells in vitro. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 7, 165172.
Goldin BR & Gorbach SL (1984) The effect of milk and lacto-bacillus feeding on human intestinal bacterial enzyme activity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 39, 756761.
Goldin BR, Gorbach SL, Saxelin M, Barakat S, Gualteri L & Salminen S (1992) Survival of Lactobacillus species (strain GG) in the human gastrointestinal tract. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 47, 573575.
Goodlad RA (1989) Gastrointestinal cell proliferation. Digestive Diseases 7, 169177.
Goodlad RA & Wright NA (1982) Quantitative studies on epithelial replacement in the gut. Techniques in the Life Sciences P212, 123.
Gracey M (1993) Transmission and epidemiology. Bailliere's Clinical Gastroenterology 7, 195214.
Greenberg ER, Baron JA, Tosteson TD, Freeman DH Jr, Beck GJ, Bond JH, Colacchio TA, Coller JA, Frankl HD & Haile RW (1994) A clinical trial of antioxidant vitamins to prevent colorectal adenoma. New England Journal of Medicine 331, 141147.
Guarino A, Canani RB, Spagnuolo MI, Albano F & Benedetto LD (1997) Oral bacterial therapy reduces the duration of symptoms and of viral excretion in children with mild diarrhoea. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (In the Press).
Hague A, Manning AM, Hanlon KA, Huschtscha LI, Hart D & Paraskeva C (1993) Sodium butyrate induces apoptosis in human colonic tumour cell lines in a p53-independent pathway: implications for the possible role of dietary fibre in the prevention of large-bowel cancer. International Journal of Cancer 55, 498505.
Hambly RJ, Rumney CJ, Fletcher JME, Rijken P & Rowland IR (1997) Effects of high and low risk diets on gut-microflora-associated biomarkers of colon cancer in human-flora-associated rats. Nutrition and Cancer 27, 250255.
Havenaar R & Huis in't Veld JHJ (1992) Probiotics; a general view. In The Lactic Acid Bacteria. Vol. 1. The Lactic Acid Bacteria in Health and Disease, pp. 151170 [Wood BJB, editor]. Barking: Elsevier Applied Science.
Heyman M & Desjeux JF (1992) Significance of intestinal food protein transport. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 15, 4857.
Heyman M, Ducroc R, Desjeux JF & Morgat JL (1982) Horseradish peroxidase transport across adult rabbit jejunum in vitro. American Journal of Physiology 242, G558–G564.
Heyman M, Gorthier G, Petit A, Mesh J-C, Moreau C & Desjeux J-F (1987) Intestinal absorption of macromolecules during viral enteritis: an experimental study on rotavirus-infected conventional and germ-free mice. Pediatrics Research 22, 7278.
Hosoda M, Ile F, Hirarnaru M, Hashirnoto H & Benno Y (1994) Effects of Lactobacillus GG intake on faecal microflora and defacation in healthy volunteers. Bifidus 8, 2128.
Howe G, Benito E, Casteleto R, Cornée J, Estéve J, Gallagher RP, Iscovich JM, Deng-ao J, Kaaks R, Kune GA, Kune S, L'AbbC KA, Lee HP, Miller AB, Peters RK, Potter JD, Riboli E, Slattery ML, Trichopoulos D, Tuyns A, Tzonou A, Whittemore AS, Wu-Williams AH & Zeng S (1992) Dietary intake of fiber and decreased risk of cancers of the colon and rectum: evidence from the combined analysis of 13 case–control studies. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 84, 18871896.
Isolauri E (1995) The treatment of cow's milk allergy. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49, 549555.
Isolauri E, Kaila M, Arvola T, Majamaa H, Rantala I, Virtanen E & Arvilommi H (1993 a) Diet during rotavirus enteritis affects jejunal permeability to macromolecules in suckling rats. Pediatrics Research 33, 548553.
Isolauri E, Majamaa H, Arvola T, Rantala I, Virtanen F & Arvilommi H (1993 b) Lactobacillus casei strain GG reverses increased intestinal permeability induced by cow milk in suckling rats. Gastroenterology 105, 16431650.
Ito M, Kimura M, Deguchi Y, Miyamori-Watabe A, Yajima T & Kan T (1993) Effects of transgalactosylated disaccharides on the human intestinal microflora and their metabolism. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 39, 279288.
Jalonen T, Isolauri E, Heyman M, Crain-Denoyelle A-M, Sillanaukee P & Koivula T (1991) Increased β-lactoglobulin absorption during rotavirus enteritis in infants: relationship to sugar permeability. Pediatrics Research 30, 290293.
Kaila M, Isolauri E, Soppi E, Virtanen V, Laine S & Arvilommi H (1992) Enhancement of the circulating antibody secreting cell response in human diarrhea by a human Lactobacillus strain. Pediatrics Research 32, 141144.
Kim YS, Gum JR, Ho SB & Deng G (1994) Colonocyte differentiation and proliferation: overview and the butyrate-induced transcriptional regulation of oncodevelopmental placental-like alkaline phosphatase gene in colon cancer cells. In Falk Symposium 73. Short Chain Fatty Acids, pp. 119134 [Binder HJ, Cummings JH and Soergel KH, editors]. Lancaster: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Kim YS, Tsao D, Siddiqui B, Whitehead JS, Arnstein P, Bennett J & Hicks J (1980) Effects of sodium butyrate and dimethylsulf-oxide on biochemical properties of human colon cancer cells. Cancer 45, 11851192.
Kok RG, De Waal A, Schut F, Welling GW, Weenk G & Hellingwerf KJ (1996) Specific detection and analysis of a probiotic Bifidobacterium strain in infant faeces. Applied Environmental Microbiology 62, 36683672.
Kolars JC, Levitt MD, Aouiji M & Savaiano DA (1984) Yogurt – an autodigesting source of lactose. New England Journal of Medicine 310, 13.
Langendijk PS, Schut F, Jansen GJ, Raangs GC, Kamphuis GR, Wilkinson MHF & Welling GW (1995) Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization of Bifidobacterium spp. with genus-specific 16s rRNA-targeted probes and its application in faecal samples. Applied Environmental Microbiology 61, 30693075.
Lee YK & Salminen S (1995) The coming of age of probiotics. Trends in Food Science Technology 6, 241245.
Lifschitz CH, Carrazza FR, Feste AS & Klein PD (1995) In vivo study of colonic fermentation of carbohydrate in infants. Journal of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 20, 5964.
Ling WH, Korpela R, Mykkänen H & Salminen S (1994) Lactobacillus strain GG and fiber supplementation decreases colonic hydrolytic and reductive enzyme activities in healthy female subjects. Journal of Nutrition 121, 1823.
Lipkin M (1988) Biornarkers of increased susceptibility to gastrointestinal cancer: new application to studies of cancer prevention in human subjects. Cancer Research 43, 18991904.
Livesey G (1990) Energy values of unavailable carbohydrates and diets: an inquiry and analysis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51, 617637.
McCartney AL, Wenzhi W & Tannock GT (1996) Molecular analysis of the composition of the bifidobacterial and lactobacillus microflora of humans. Applied Environmental Microbiology 62, 46084613.
MacDonald TT (1993) Aetiology of Crohn's disease. Archives of Disease in Childhood 68, 623625.
Macfarlane GT, Gibson GR, Drasar BS & Cummings JH (1995) Metabolic significance of the gut microflora. In Gastrointestinal and Oesophageal Pathology, 2nd ed., pp. 249274 [Whitehead R, editor]. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.
Macfarlane GT & Macfarlane S (1995) Proteolysis and amino acid fermentation. In Human Colonic Bacteria: Role in Nutrition, Physiology, and Pathology, pp. 75100 [Gibson GR and Macfarlane GT, editors]. London: CRC Press.
McIntyre A, Gibson PR & Young GP (1993) Butyrate production from dietary fibre and protection against large bowel cancer in a rat model. Gut 34, 386391.
McIntyre A, Young GP, Taranto T, Gibson PR & Ward PB (1991) Different fibres have different regional effects on luminal contents of rat colon. Gastroenterology 101, 12741281.
McKay DM & Perdue MH (1993) Intestinal epithelial function: the case for immunophysiological regulation. Cells and mediators (First of two parts). Digestive Diseases and Sciences 38, 13771387.
MacLennan R, Macrae F, Bain C, Battistutta D, Chapuis P, Gratten H, Lambert J, Newland RC, Ngu M & Russell A (1995) Randomized trial of intake of fat, fiber, and beta carotene to prevent colorectal adenomas. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 87, 17601766.
Marteau P, Flourié B, Pochart P, Chastang C, Desjeux JF & Rambaud JC (1990) Role of the microbial lactase (EC activity from yoghurt on the intestinal absorption of lactose: an in vivo study in lactase-deficient humans. British Journal of Nutrition 64, 7179.
Marteau P, Minekus M, Havenaar R & Huis in't Veld JHJ (1997 a) Survival of lactic acid bacteria in a dynamic model of the stomach and small intestine: validation and the effects of bile. Journal of Dairy Science 80, 10311037.
Marteau P & Rambaud JC (1993) Potential for using lactic acid bacteria for therapy and immunomodulation in man. FEMS Microbiology Review 12, 207220.
Marteau P, Vaerman JP, Dehennin JP, Bord S, Brassart D, Pochart P, Desjeux JF & Rambaud JC (1997 b) Effects of intrajejunal perfusion and chronic ingestion of Lactobacillus johnsonii strain La1 on serum concentrations and jejunal secretions of immunoglobulins and serum proteins in healthy humans. Gastroenterology and Clinical Biology 21, 293298.
Martin MS, Justrabo E, Jeannin JF, Leclerc A & Martin F (1981) Effect of dietary chenodeoxycholic acid on intestinal carcino-genesis induced by 1,2 dimethylhydrazine in mice and hamsters. British Journal of Cancer 43, 884886.
Maskens AP (1976) Histogenesis and growth pattern of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced rat colon adenocarcinoma. Cancer Research 36, 15851592.
Maskens AP & Dujardin Loits RM (1981) Experimental adenomas and carcinomas of the large intestine behave as distinct entities. Cancer 47, 8189.
Molis C, Flourit B, Ouarne F, Gailing MF, Lartigue S, Guibert A, Bornet F & Galmiche JP (1996) Digestion, excretion and energy value of fructo oligosaccharides in healthy humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 64, 324328.
Moreau MC, Bisetti N & Dubuquoy C (1998) Immunomodulating properties of a strain of Bifidobacterium used as probiotic on the faecal and cellular intestinal IgA anti-rotavirus responses in mice. In Functional Foods Proceedings. Royal Society of Chemistry.
Moreau MC & Coste M (1993) Immune responses to dietary protein antigens. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 74, 2257.
Moreau MC & Gaboriau-Routhiau V (1996) The absence of gut flora, the doses of antigen ingested and aging affect the long-term peripheral tolerance induced by ovalbumin feeding in mice. Research Immunology 147, 4959.
Moreau MC, Nuyts V & Raibaud P (1994) Effet de l'ingestion d'un lait fermenté avec Lactobacillus bulgaricus et Streptococcus thermophilus sur la stimulation de l'immunityé de l'hôte: étude chez la souris axénique (Effect of the ingestion of a fermented milk on the stimulation of immunity in germ-free mice). Cahiers Decarboxylation Nutrition et Diététique 29, 341347.
Morotomi M (1996) Properties of Lactobacillus casei Shirota strain as probiotics. Asia Pacijic Journal of Clinical Nutrition 5, 2930.
Mosmann T (1983) Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferative and cytotoxic assays. Journal of Immunology Methods 65, 5563.
Muyzer G, Waal EC & Uitterlinden AG (1993) Profiling complex microbial populations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified genes coding for 16s rRNA. Applied Environmental Microbiology 59, 695700.
Pace N (1996) New perspective on the natural microbial world: molecular microbial ecology. ASM News 62, 463470.
Pant AR, Graham SM, Allen SJ, Harikul S, Sabohaeron A, Cuevas L & Hart CA (1996) Lactobacillus GG and acute diarrhoea in young children in the tropics. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 42, 162165.
Perdigon G, Alvarez S, Rachid M, Agüero G & Gobatto N (1996) Probiotic bacteria for humans: clinical systems for evaluation of effectiveness. Journal of Dairy Science 78, 15971606.
Pitcher MCL & Cummings JH (1995) Colonic fermentation, sulphur metabolism and ulcerative colitis. In Falk Symposium 85. Inflammatory Bowel Disease, pp. 529543 [Tytgat GNJ, Bartelsman JFWM and van Deventer SHJ, editors]. London: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Pitcher MCL & Cummings JH (1996) Hydrogen sulphide: a bacterial toxin in ulcerative colitis? Gut 39, 14.
Podolsky DK (1991) Inflammatory bowel disease. (First of two parts.) New England Journal of Medicine 325, 928937.
Pomare EW, Branch WJ & Cummings JH (1985) Carbohydrate fermentation in the human colon and its relation to acetate concentration in venous blood. Journal of Clinical Investigation 75, 14481454.
Potter JD, Slattery ML, Bostock RM & Gapstur SM (1993) Colon cancer: a review of the epidemiology. Epidemiology Review 15, 499545.
Rafter JJ, Child P, Anderson AM, Alder R, Eng V & Bruce WR (1987) Cellular toxicity of faecal water depends on diet. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 45, 559563.
Raza S, Graham SM, Allen SJ, Sultana S, Cuevas L & Hart CA (1995) Lactobacillus GG promotes recovery from acute non-bloody diarrhoea in Pakistan. Pediatric Infection and Disease 14, 107111.
Risio M (1992) Cell proliferation in colorectal tumour progression: an immunohistochemical approach to intermediate biomarkers. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 16G, 7987.
Ritchie JK, Wadsworth J, Lennard-Jones JE & Rogers E (1987) Controlled multicentre therapeutic trial of an unrefined carbohydrate, fibre-rich diet in Crohn's disease. British Medical Journal 295, 517520.
Roberfroid MB (1996) Functional effects of food components and the gastrointestinal system: chicory fructooligosaccharides. Nutrition Reviews 54, S38–S42.
Roberfroid MB, Bornet F, Bouley C & Cummings JH (1995) Colonic microflora: nutrition and health. Nutrition Reviews 53, 127130.
Roberfroid M, Gibson GR & Delzenne N (1993) The biochemistry of oligofructose, a non-digestible fiber: an approach to calculate its caloric value. Nutrition Reviews 51, 137146.
Roberfroid MB, Van Loo JAE & Gibson GR (1997) The bifido-genic nature of chicory inulin and its hydrolysis products. Journal of Nutrition (In the Press).
Roediger WEW, Duncan A, Kapaniris O & Millard S (1993) Reducing sulfur compounds of the colon impair colonocyte nutrition: implications for ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 104, 802809.
Roland N, Nugon-Baudon L, Andrieux C & Szylit O (1995) Comparative study of the fermentative characteristics of inulin and different types of fibre in rats inoculated with a human whole faecal flora. British Journal of Nutrition 74, 239249.
Roncucci L (1992) Early events in human colorectal carcino-genesis. Aberrant crypts and microadenoma. Italian Journal of Gastroenterology 24, 498501.
Rowland I (1991) Nutrition and gut flora metabolism. In Nutrition, Toxicity and Cancer, pp. 113135 [Rowland IR, editor]. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Rowland IR (1995) Toxicology of the colon: role of the intestinal microflora. In Human Colonic Bacteria: Role in Nutrition, Physiology and Pathology, pp. 155174 [Gibson GR and Macfarlane GT, editors]. London: CRC Press.
Saavedra JM, Bauman NA, Oung I, Perman JA & Yolken RH (1994) Feeding of Bijidobacterium bijidum and Streptococcus thermophilus to infants in hospital for prevention of diarrhoea and shedding of rotavirus. Lancet 344, 10461049.
Sakamoto J, Shigeyuki N, Sugawara K, Iwane S & Munakata A (1996) Comparison of resistant starch with cellulose diet on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colonic carcinogenesis in rats. Gastroenterology 110, 116120.
Sakata T (1987) Stimulatory effect of short chain fatty acids on epithelial cell proliferation in the rat intestine: a possible explanation for trophic effects of fermentable fibre, gut microbes and luminal trophic factors. British Journal of Nutrition 58, 95103.
Salminen S, Isolauri E & Salminen E (1996 a) Clinical uses of probiotics for stabilizing the gut mucosal barrier: successful strains and future challenges. Anton. Leeuwenhoek 70, 347358.
Salminen S, Isolauri E & Salminen E (1996 b) Probiotics and stabilisation of the gut mucosal barrier. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 5, 5356.
Salminen S, Laine M, Wright A, Vuopio-Varkila J, Korhonen T & Mattila-Sandholm T (1996 c) Development of selection criteria for probiotic strains to assess their potential in functional foods: a Nordic and European approach. Bioscience Microflora 15, 6167.
Sanders ME (1993) Summary of the conclusions from a consensus panel of experts on health attributes on lactic cultures: significance to fluid milk products containing cultures. Journal of Dairy Science 76, 18191828.
Sanderson IR & Walker WA (1993) Uptake and transport of macromolecules by the intestine: possible role in clinical disorders (an update). Gastroenterology 104, 622639.
Savarino SJ & Bourgeois AL (1993) Diarrhoea1 disease: current concepts and future challenges. Epidemiology of diarrhoea1 diseases in developed countries. Transcript of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 87, 711.
Saxelin M, Chuang NH, Chassy B, Rautelin H, Mäkelä PH, Salminen S & Gorbach SL (1996 a) Lactobacilli and bacteremia in Southern Finland, (19891992). Clinical Infection and Disease 22, 564566.
Saxelin M, Rautelin H, Salminen S & Mäkelä P (1996 b) The safety of commercial products with viable Lactoba-cillus strains. Infection and Disease in Clinical Practice 5, 331335.
Schiffrin E, Rochat F, Link-Amster H, Aeschlimann J & Donnet-Hugues A (1995) Immunomodulation of blood cells following the ingestion of lactic acid bacteria. Journal of Dairy Science 78, 491497.
Shornikova AV, Casas I, Isolauri E, Mykkänen H & Vesikari T (1997) Lactobacillus reuteri as a therapeutic agent in acute diarrhea in young children. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 24, 399404.
Solis-Pereyra B & Lemonnier D (1996) Induction of human cytokines by bacteria used in dairy foods. Nutrition Research 13, 11271140.
Staatscourant (1996) Toelating nieuw voedingsmiddel. Galacto-oligosaccharides (Acceptance of New Nutrient. Galacto-oligosaccharides) no. 91, p. 7.
Stephen A (1994) Propionate – sources and effect on lipid metabolism. In Falk Symposium 73. Short Chain Fatty Acids, pp. 260271 [Binder HJ, Cummings JH and Soergel KH, editors]. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Sütas Y, Hurme M & Isolauri E (1996 a) Downregulation of antiCD3 antibody-induced IL-4 production by bovine caseins hydrolysed with Lactobacillus GG-derived enzymes. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 43, 687689.
Sütas Y, Soppi E, Korhonen H, Syväoja EL, Saxelin M, Rokka T & Isolauri E (1996 b) Suppression of lymphocyte proliferation in vitro by bovine caseins hydrolysed with Lactobacillus GG-derived enzymes. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 98, 216224.
Szarka CE, Pfeiffer GR & Hum ST (1995) Glutathione-S-transferase activity and glutathione S-transferase μ expression in subjects with risk for colorectal cancer. Cancer Research 55, 27892793.
Terada A, Hara H, Kataoka M & Mitsuoka T (1992) Effect of lactulose on the composition and metabolic activity of the human faecal flora. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 5, 4350.
Thompson WG & Gomborone JE (1993) Irritable bowel syndrome: pathogenesis and management. Lancet 341, 15691572.
Thompson WG & Heaton KW (1980) Functional bowel disorders in apparently healthy people. American Gastroenterology Association 79, 283288.
Todesco T, Rao VA, Bosello O & Jenkins DJA (1991) Propionate lowers blood glucose and alters lipid metabolism in healthy subjects. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54, 860865.
Trock B, Lanza E & Greenwald P (1990) Dietary fiber, vegetables, and colon cancer: critical review and meta-analyses of the epidemiologic evidence. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 82, 650661.
Tytgat GNJ, Bartelsman JFWM & van Deventer SJH (editors) (1995) Falk Symposium 85. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. London: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Umesaki Y (1989) Intestinal glycolipids and their role in intestinal colonization of mice. Bifidobacteria Microflora 8, 1322.
Umesaki Y, Okada Y, Imaoka A, Setoyama H & Matsumoto S (1997) Interactions between epithelial cells and bacteria, normal and pathogenic. Science 276, 964965.
Umesaki Y, Okada Y, Matsumoto S, Imaoka A & Setoyama H (1995) Segmented filamentous bacteria are indigenous intestinal bacteria that activate intraepithelial lymphocytes and induce MHC class I1 molecules and fucosyl asialoGMl glycolipids on the small intestinal epithelial cells in ex-gem-free mouse. Microbial Immunology 39, 555562.
Van Loo J, Coussement P, De Leenheer L, Hoebregs H & Smits G (1995) On the presence of inulin and oligofructose as natural ingredients in the Western diet. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 35, 525552.
van Munster IP, Tangerman A & Nagengast FM (1994) Effect of resistant starch on colonic fermentation, bile acid metabolism, and mucosal proliferation. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 39, 834842.
Venter CS, Vorster HH & Cummings JH (1989) Effects of dietary propionate on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in man. American Journal of Gastroenterology 85, 549553.
Venturi M, Hambly RJ, Glinghammar B, Rafter JJ & Rowland IR (1997) Genotoxic activity in human faecal water and the role of bile acids: a study using the Comet assay. Carcinogenesis (In the Press).
Wasan HS & Goodlad RA (1996) Fibre-supplemented foods may damage your health. Lancet 348, 319320.
Wattenberg LW (1983) Inhibition of neoplasia by minor dietary constituents. Cancer Research 43, Suppl., 2448s2453S.
Weiner HL, Friedman A, Miller A, Khoury SJ, Al-Sabbagh A, Santos L, Sayegh M, Nussenblatt RB, Trentham DE & Hafler DA (1994) Oral tolerance: immunologic mechanisms and treatment of animal and human organ-specific autoimmune diseases by oral administration of autoantigens. Annual Review of Immunology 12, 809837.
Weisburger J (1973) Chemical carcinogens and their mode of action in colonic neoplasia. Disease of the Colon and Rectum 289, 10991103.
Whitehead RH, Young GP & Bathal PS (1986) Effects of short chain fatty acids on a new human colon carcinoma cell line (LIM 1215). Gut 27, 14571463.
Wilson KH & Blitchington RB (1996) Human colonic biota studied by ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Applied Environmental Microbiology 62, 22732278.
Wright NA & Alison M (1984) The Biology of Epithelial Cell Populations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Young GP, McIntyre A, Albert V, Folino M, Muir JG & Gibson PR (1996) Wheat bran suppresses potato-starch potentiated colorectal tumorigenesis at the aberrant crypt stage in a rat model. Gastroenterology 110, 508514.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 2190 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 3798 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 24th February 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.