1. Lewington, S, Clarke, R, Qizilbash, N, et al. (2002) Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies. Lancet 360, 1903–1913.
2. He, FJ, Li, J & MacGregor, GA (2013) Effect of longer term modest salt reduction on blood pressure: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ 346, f1325.
3. He, FJ & MacGregor, GA (2004) Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, issue 3, CD004937.
4. Mozaffarian, D, Fahimi, S, Singh, GM, et al. (2014) Global sodium consumption and death from cardiovascular causes. N Engl J Med 371, 624–634.
5. World Health Organization (2012) Guideline: Sodium Intake for Adults and Children. Geneva: WHO.
6. Sørensen, LB, Møller, P, Flint, A, et al. (2003) Effect of sensory perception of foods on appetite and food intake: a review of studies on humans. Int J Obes 27, 1152–1166.
7. Reed, DR, Tanaka, T & McDaniel, AH (2006) Diverse tastes: genetics of sweet and bitter perception. Physiol Behav 88, 215–226.
8. Dias, AG, Rousseau, D, Duizer, L, et al. (2013) Genetic variation in putative salt taste receptors and salt taste perception in humans. Chem Senses 38, 137–145.
9. Okoro, EO, Uroghide, GE & Jolayemi, ET (1998) Salt taste sensitivity and blood pressure in adolescent school children in southern Nigeria. East Afr Med J 75, 199–203.
10. Isezuo, SA, Saidu, Y, Anas, S, et al. (2008) Salt taste perception and relationship with blood pressure in type 2 diabetics. J Hum Hypertens 22, 432–434.
11. Rabin, M, Poli de Figueiredo, CE, Wagner, MB, et al. (2009) Salt taste sensitivity threshold and exercise-induced hypertension. Appetite 52, 609–613.
12. Kirsten, VR & Wagner, MB (2014) Salt taste sensitivity thresholds in adolescents: are there any relationships with body composition and blood pressure levels? Appetite 81, 89–92.
13. Azinge, EC, Sofola, OA & Silva, BO (2011) Relationship between salt intake, salt-taste threshold and blood pressure in Nigerians. West Afr J Med 30, 373–376.
14. Piovesana, PM, Sampaio, KL & Gallani, MCBJ (2013) Association between taste sensitivity and self-reported and objective measures of salt intake among hypertensive and normotensive individuals. ISRN Nutr 2013, 301213.
15. Sullivan, JM (1991) Salt sensitivity. Definition, conception, methodology, and long-term issues. Hypertension 17, I61–I68.
16. Weinberger, MH (1996) Salt sensitivity of blood pressure in humans. Hypertension 27, 481–490.
17. Hunt, SC, Xin, Y, Wu, LL, et al. (2006) Sodium bicarbonate cotransporter polymorphisms are associated with baseline and 10-year follow-up blood pressures. Hypertension 47, 532–536.
18. Yang, X, He, J, Gu, D, et al. (2014) Associations of epithelial sodium channel genes with blood pressure changes and hypertension incidence: the GenSalt study. Am J Hypertens 27, 1370–1376.
19. Carey, RM, Schoeffel, CD, Gildea, JJ, et al. (2012) Salt sensitivity of blood pressure is associated with polymorphisms in the sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter. Hypertension 60, 1359–1366.
20. Wang, Y & Wang, DH (2006) A novel mechanism contributing to development of Dahl salt-sensitive hypertension: role of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1. Hypertension 47, 609–614.
21. Hao, X, Chen, J, Luo, Z, et al. (2011) TRPV1 activation prevents high-salt diet-induced nocturnal hypertension in mice. Pflüg Arch Eur J Physiol 461, 345–353.
22. Ng, PC & Henikoff, S (2006) Predicting the effects of amino acid substitutions on protein function. Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 7, 61–80.
23. Cantero-Recasens, G, Gonzalez, JR, Fandos, C, et al. (2010) Loss of function of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) genetic variant is associated with lower risk of active childhood asthma. J Biol Chem 285, 27532–27535.
24. Hannila-Handelberg, T, Kontula, K, Tikkanen, I, et al. (2005) Common variants of the beta and gamma subunits of the epithelial sodium channel and their relation to plasma renin and aldosterone levels in essential hypertension. BMC Med Genet 6, 4.
25. Jin, H-S, Hong, K-W, Lim, J-E, et al. (2010) Genetic variations in the sodium balance-regulating genes ENaC, NEDD4L, NDFIP2 and USP2 influence blood pressure and hypertension. Kidney Blood Press Res 33, 15–23.
26. Sakamoto, T, Fujii, A, Saito, N, et al. (2016) Alteration of amiloride-sensitive salt taste nerve responses in aldosterone/NaCl-induced hypertensive rats. Neurosci Res 108, 60–66.
27. Weinberger, MH, Miller, JZ, Luft, FC, et al. (1986) Definitions and characteristics of sodium sensitivity and blood pressure resistance. Hypertension 8, 127–134.
28. Weinberger, MH, Fineberg, NS, Fineberg, SE, et al. (2001) Salt sensitivity, pulse pressure, and death in normal and hypertensive humans. Hypertension 37, 429–432.
29. Iatrino, R, Manunta, P & Zagato, L (2016) Salt sensitivity: challenging and controversial phenotype of primary hypertension. Curr Hypertens Rep 18, 70.
31. British Standards Institution (2011) Sensory Analysis. Methodology. Method of Investigating Sensitivity of Taste. Geneva: ISO (BS ISO 3972:2011).
32. Mulligan, AA, Luben, RN, Bhaniani, A, et al. (2014) A new tool for converting food frequency questionnaire data into nutrient and food group values: FETA research methods and availability. BMJ Open 4, e004503.
33. Department of Health (1991) Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the United Kingdom: Report of the Panel on Dietary Reference Values of the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy. London: The Stationery Office.
34. O’Brien, E, Parati, G & Stergiou, G (2013) Ambulatory blood pressure measurement what is the international consensus? Hypertension 62, 988–994.
35. Kurtz, TW, DiCarlo, SE, Pravenec, M, et al. (2017) An appraisal of methods recently recommended for testing salt sensitivity of blood pressure. J Am Heart Assoc 6, e005653.
36. Murakami, K, Sasaki, S, Takahashi, Y, et al. (2008) Sensitivity and specificity of published strategies using urinary creatinine to identify incomplete 24-h urine collection. Nutrition 24, 16–22.
37. Land, MA, Webster, J, Christoforou, A, et al. (2014) Salt intake assessed by 24 h urinary sodium excretion in a random and opportunistic sample in Australia. BMJ Open 4, e003720.
39. de la Sierra, A, Giner, V, Bragulat, E, et al. (2002) Lack of correlation between two methods for the assessment of salt sensitivity in essential hypertension. J Hum Hypertens 16, 255–260.
40. Sharma, AM, Schorr, U, Cetto, C, et al. (1994) Dietary v. intravenous salt loading for the assessment of salt sensitivity in normotensive men. Am J Hypertens 7, 1070–1075.
41. Mancia, G (2012) Short- and long-term blood pressure variability. Hypertension 60, 512–517.
42. Scuteri, A, Stuehlinger, MC, Cooke, JP, et al. (2003) Nitric oxide inhibition as a mechanism for blood pressure increase during salt loading in normotensive postmenopausal women. J Hypertens 21, 1339–1346.
43. Luft, FC, Rankin, LI, Bloch, R, et al. (1979) Cardiovascular and humoral responses to extremes of sodium intake in normal black and white men. Circulation 60, 697–706.
44. Nichols, J, Elijovich, F & Laffer, CL (2012) Lack of validation of a same-day outpatient protocol for determination of salt sensitivity of blood pressure. Hypertension 59, 390–394.
45. Sassani, P, Pushkin, A, Gross, E, et al. (2002) Functional characterization of NBC4: a new electrogenic sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 282, 408–416.
47. Appel, LJ (2017) The effects of dietary factors on blood pressure. Cardiol Clin 35, 197–212.
48. Castiglioni, P, Parati, G, Brambilla, L, et al. (2011) Detecting sodium-sensitivity in hypertensive patients. Hypertension 57, 180–185.
49. Damasceno, A, Caupers, P, Santos, A, et al. (2000) Influence of salt intake on the daytime-nighttime blood pressure variation in normotensive and hypertensive black subjects. Rev Port Cardiol 19, 315–329.
50. Brian, MS, Dalpiaz, A, Matthews, EL, et al. (2017) Dietary sodium and nocturnal blood pressure dipping in normotensive men and women. J Hum Hypertens 31, 145–150.
51. Elijovich, F, Weinberger, MH, Anderson, CAM, et al. (2016) Salt sensitivity of blood pressure: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Hypertension 68, e7–e46.
52. Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (2003) Salt and Health. London: The Stationery Office.
53. Smith, JL, Estus, S, Lennie, TA, et al. (2016) Abstract 19630: TASR genotype is associated with adherence to dietary sodium recommendations in adults with cardiovascular disease risk factors. Circulation 134, 19630.
54. Kho, M, Song, YM, Lee, K, et al. (2012) Genetic variants explaining sodium intake in a population with higher sodium intake level: the healthy twin study, Korea. Presented at the 62nd Annual Meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics, November 2012, San Francisco, CA.
55. Vinnikova, AK, Alam, RI, Malik, SA, et al. (2004) Na+-H+ exchange activity in taste receptor cells. J Neurophysiol 91, 1297–1313.
56. Merigo, F, Benati, D, Cristofoletti, M, et al. (2011) Glucose transporters are expressed in taste receptor cells. J Anat 219, 243–252.
57. Felder, RA, Jose, PA, Xu, P, et al. (2016) The renal sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe2: is it a major contributor to sodium and pH homeostasis? Curr Hypertens Rep 18, 71.
58. Wise, PM, Hansen, JL, Reed, DR, et al. (2007) Twin study of the heritability of recognition thresholds for sour and salty taste. Chem Senses 32, 749–754.
59. Galindo-Cuspinera, V, Waeber, T, Antille, N, et al. (2009) Reliability of threshold and suprathreshold methods for taste phenotyping: characterization with PROP and sodium chloride. Chemosens Percept 2, 214–228.
60. Millar, JA & Lever, AF (2000) Implications of pulse pressure as a predictor of cardiac risk in patients with hypertension. Hypertension 36, 907–911.
61. Stütz, AM, Teran-Garcia, M, Rao, DC, et al. (2009) Functional identification of the promoter of SLC4A5, a gene associated with cardiovascular and metabolic phenotypes in the HERITAGE Family Study. Eur J Hum Genet 17, 1481–1489.
62. Elliott, P & Brown, I (2007) Sodium Intakes Around the World. Geneva: WHO.
63. Lee, H, Cho, HJ, Bae, E, et al. (2014) Not salt taste perception but self-reported salt eating habit predicts actual salt intake. J Korean Med Sci 29, Suppl. 2, S91–S96.
64. Sarmugam, R, Worsley, A & Wang, W (2013) An examination of the mediating role of salt knowledge and beliefs on the relationship between socio-demographic factors and discretionary salt use: a cross-sectional study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 19, 10–25.
65. Quader, ZS, Patel, S, Gillespie, C, et al. (2016) Trends and determinants of discretionary salt use: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2012. Public Health Nutr 19, 2195–2203.
66. Freedman, LS, Commins, JM, Moler, JE, et al. (2015) Pooled results from 5 validation studies of dietary self-report instruments using recovery biomarkers for potassium and sodium intake. Am J Epidemiol 181, 473–487.
67. Sasieni, P (1997) From genotypes to genes: doubling the sample size. Biometrics 53, 1253–1261.
68. Corcoran, C, Mehta, C & Senchaudhuri, P (2000) Power comparisons for tests of trend in dose–response studies. Stat Med 19, 3037–3050.
69. Clarke, GM, Anderson, CA, Pettersson, FH, et al. (2011) Basic statistical analysis in genetic case–control studies. Nat Protoc 6, 121–133.